Presentation on theme: "OPMA 5364 Project Management Part 4 Starting & Planning a Project."— Presentation transcript:
OPMA 5364 Project Management Part 4 Starting & Planning a Project
Part 4 - Project Planning2 Topic Outline: Starting & Planning a Project Project launch meeting Identifying necessary activities Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Estimating activity durations Identifying necessary resources Project budgeting Top-down vs. bottom-up approaches Project planning exercise Learning curves Project action plan Responsibility chart Interface map
Part 4 - Project Planning3 Project Launch Meeting PM should first meet with the senior manager who will be responsible for the project. Why? Next, a project launch meeting should be held. What is the purpose of this initial meeting? Who should be invited? What should be the results of this meeting?
Part 4 - Project Planning4 Project Planning Process 1.Clearly define project objective (scope) 2.Develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 3.Estimate time needed for each task 4.Determine resources needed for each task 5.Estimate cost needed for each task 6.Develop project schedule and budget (adjust as needed)
Part 4 - Project Planning5 Project Scope A clear project scope definition provides the guidelines that are used to develop your project plan. Project Scope Checklist: Project objectives (purpose, due date, budget) Deliverables (at each major phase of project) Milestones (significant events in the project) Technical requirements Limits and exclusions (who, what, how) Review with customer (agreement on expectations) Example of project scope statement
Part 4 - Project Planning6 Identifying Necessary Activities Start by identifying major-level activities or tasks Then each major task can be broken down into subtasks Project team members can be responsible for breaking down different major activities Then each subtask is broken down to lower- level tasks, and so on until you have basic work- unit levels (work packages) that will be assigned Result: Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Part 4 - Project Planning7 Mind Maps Mind maps are a tool to help identify all the necessary activities in a project Its a type of brainstorming tool The mind mapping process can bring out more ideas than simply making a list It engages the team and generates enthusiasm It brings out quieter team members Mind mapping can be fast, compared to an outlining or listing approach
Part 4 - Project Planning8 Mind Map for Project Planning 10K run to raise $50K for homeless shelter Transportation Promotion Prizes/recognition Facilities Safety Refreshments Clean-up Route Registration
Part 4 - Project Planning9 Mind Map for WBS Promotion Investigate past events Interview running club members Print Design To schools To sports retailers Prepare mailing Acquire address lists Mail promo Monitor airings Purchase air time Produce ads TV and radio ads Mailings Flyers Research Distribute
Part 4 - Project Planning10 Work Breakdown Structure Either shown graphically in a tree structure, or as index numbers listed beside activities Entire project is Level 0; the major-level activities are Level 1; and so on Index numbers identify level of the task in the tree structure WBS # 4.2.5 indicates that the task is at Level 3 (3 decimal places) and is the 5 th sub-subtask under the 2 nd subtask under the 4 th major activity
Part 4 - Project Planning11 WBS Tree Structure Carnival Beth Games Tom Promotion Beth Volunteers Joan Rides Kyle Entertain. Jill Food Bob Newspaper Beth Posters Bob Tickets Mark Grandstand Mark Performers Jill Sound Ben Stage Alan Seating Mark Level 0 1 2 3 3 5.1.2 2 1 45 6 2.1 2.2 2.3 5.1 5.2 188.8.131.52.1
Part 4 - Project Planning13 WBS for Promotion Example Level 1 TaskLevel 2 TasksLevel 3 Tasks 1. Promotion1.1 Research1.1.1 Investigate past events 1.1.2 Interview running club members 1.2 TV and radio ads1.2.1 Produce ads 1.2.2 Purchase air time 1.2.3 Monitor airings 1.3 Mailings1.3.1 Acquire mailing lists 1.3.2 Prepare mailings 1.3.3 Mail promotional materials 1.4 Flyers1.4.1 Design flyers 1.4.2 Print 1.4.3 Distribute to schools 1.4.4 Distribute to sports retailers
Part 4 - Project Planning14 Estimating Activity Durations Two Approaches 1. Bottom-up estimate: Ask the person responsible for each low-level task how long they think it will take. This assumes a given amount of resources. 2. Top-down estimate: Based on the project due date, tell the person responsible for each low- level task how much time they are allotted to do the task. They must then determine how much resources are needed to meet the deadline.
Part 4 - Project Planning15 Estimating Activity Durations For a given amount of resources, how can you estimate a task duration? use the experts best guess (person doing task) use past data, if task has been done before use engineering standards or work standards dissect task into different elements and estimate time needed for each element The task time estimate should reflect the most likely time needed to do the task.
Part 4 - Project Planning16 Identifying Necessary Resources To complete a task within a given amount of time, what resources will be required? How many and what types of employees What facilities What equipment What materials and supplies What services What information and technologies
Part 4 - Project Planning17 Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Budgets Top-Down Budgeting: Senior management decides how much they think the project should cost, and that becomes the total project budget. The budget is then divided among the activities. –Advantages and disadvantages? Bottom-Up Budgeting: Cost estimates for each task are solicited from those responsible for the tasks. These estimates are rolled up for all activities to get the total project budget. –Advantages and disadvantages?
Part 4 - Project Planning18 Estimating Activity Costs Estimates for both time and cost of activities should be done with same approach, either top- down or bottom-up (or somewhere in between) Two initial budget estimates may be developed for some projects, a top-down and a bottom-up. Which will most likely be higher? Why? The project manager must then negotiate with senior management to finalize the budget Tradeoffs may be necessary between the cost, due date, and the extent and quality of outputs
Part 4 - Project Planning19 Baseline Plan The finalized budget, time estimates, and resulting project schedule are the basis for the baseline plan. The baseline plan lays out the target levels of progress and performance at the outset of the project execution phase. It is the basis for assessing project performance throughout the project Project tracking utilizes the baseline plan to provide the project manager with a control tool
Part 4 - Project Planning20 Project Planning Exercise Coffee House Implementation Project Divide into small groups Your group has decided to form a partnership and open a new coffee house in an old restaurant building in downtown Fort Worth. The project starts now and ends in 12 weeks when the coffee house opens for business. Assignment:(40 minutes) –Develop a list of necessary activities (use mind map) –Estimate the duration of each activity –Decide what resources are needed for each activity –Estimate the budget to start the new coffee house
Part 4 - Project Planning21 Project Action Plan For each activity, action plan should at least show Activity name Time duration estimate Start date Immediate predecessor activity Resources needed Optionally, it might also show finish date, WBS index, cost, slack time, latest finish date, etc.
Part 4 - Project Planning22 Action Plan in Microsoft Project IDTask NameDurationStartFinishPredec.Resourc 1Proj. approval0 days3/1/04 2Script writing14 days3/1/043/19/041SW 3Sched. shoots17 days3/1/043/24/041C,P,S 4Script approval8 days3/19/043/31/042C,P 5Revise script5 days3/31/044/7/044P,SW 6Shooting10 days4/7/044/21/043,5P,S,SW 7Editing7 days4/21/044/30/046E,ER 8Final approval2 days4/30/045/4/047C,P,E 9Deliver to client0 days5/4/04 8 C=client, E=editor, ER=editing room, P=producer, S=secretary, SW=scriptwriter
Part 4 - Project Planning23 Learning Curves What is the learning phenomenon? Under what circumstances is worker learning important to consider and plan for? How does the learning curve phenomenon affect budgeting? How are task durations estimated when worker learning is relevant?
Part 4 - Project Planning24 Task Times With Learning Time to produce n th unit with 85% learning: Unit#Time 1 43 2 4 8 16
Part 4 - Project Planning25 Learning Curve Formula Time to produce the n th unit, learning rate LR: T n = T 1 (n) r where r = (log LR)/(log 2) or r = (ln LR)/(ln 2) So, the 8 th unit with 85% learning & T 1 =43: r = (ln 0.85)/(ln 2) = T 8 = T 1 (n) r = 43(8) -0.2345 =
Part 4 - Project Planning26 Learning Curve Tables Time to produce 8 th unit: T 8 = T 1 *(unit time factor from table) T 8 = Total time to produce first 8 units: T 1-8 = T 1 *(total time factor from table) T 1-8 =
Part 4 - Project Planning27 Example Situation A firm has a project to produce 21 units of a new part for a customer. The firms typical learning rate is 85%. The first unit of the part that was produced (the prototype) required 43 hours to make. Labor cost is $27 per hour. Pricing policy is 3 times the total labor cost. How much should customer be charged?
Part 4 - Project Planning28 Learning Curve Tables How much should firm charge for job? T 1-21 = What if customer wants 4 additional units?
Part 4 - Project Planning29 Learning Curve Tables T 1-25 = T 22-25 = T 1-25 – T 1-21 = price for #22-25 or Do learning curves help justify volume discounts?
Part 4 - Project Planning30 Project Charter (or Project Master Plan) Agreed-upon, legally binding project plan (the final plan) 1.Overview 2.Objectives 3.General approach 4.Contractual aspects 5.Schedules 6.Resources and budgets 7.Personnel 8.Evaluation methods 9.Potential problems
Part 4 - Project Planning31 Project Charter 1.Overview Intended for senior management Brief description of project & deliverables List of major milestones Likely profitability & competitive impacts 2.Objectives Purpose of project More detailed description of deliverables Could be in the form of a project mission statement
Part 4 - Project Planning32 Project Charter 3.General Approach Technical and managerial approaches Relationship with other projects 4.Contractual Aspects Description of all agreements (client, others) Reporting requirements, technical specs, delivery dates, penalties, process for changes
Part 4 - Project Planning33 Project Charter 5.Schedules Outline of all schedules and milestones Project action plan, WBS 6.Resource Requirements All capital and operating expenses Cost monitoring and control procedures
Part 4 - Project Planning34 Project Charter 7.Personnel What types of personnel are needed and when Skill requirements, necessary training, security clearances, nondisclosure agreements 8.Evaluation Methods Descriptions of all procedures and standards for evaluating projecthow information will be collected, stored, monitored
Part 4 - Project Planning35 Project Charter 9. Potential Problems List of potential risks to project progress Contingency planning may prevent or soften the impacts of some problems Small or routine projects may not need all 9 of these elements in the project charter, but larger projects should have them.
Part 4 - Project Planning36 Responsibility Chart Often called Linear Responsibility Chart or Responsibility Matrix Shows who has primary responsibility for each task Can also show who provides support, who must be notified upon completion, who must give final approval, who is the backup person, etc. It lets everyone see their roles throughout the project
Part 4 - Project Planning37 Responsibility Chart WBSActivityBethJoanBobMarkTomKyleJillAlanBen CarnivalPSSSSS 1VolunteersPS 2PromotionPSS 2.1PostersPS 2.2NewspaperPS 2.3TicketsSP 3GamesPS 4RidesSP 5EntertainmentSSP 5.1GrandstandPS 5.1.1StagePS 5.1.2SoundSP 5.1.3SeatingPSS 5.2PerformersSP 6FoodSP P = Primary responsibility; S = Support responsibility
Part 4 - Project Planning38 Interface Map Shows who each person or department must interface with and why Shows participants how they fit in with other parts of the project Facilitates coordination Allows for early identification of potentially troublesome interfaces (personality clashes) New interface maps can be developed for different phases of the project
Part 4 - Project Planning39 Interface Map Adapted from: Bailetti, Callahan, and Di- Pietro, Nov. 1994, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management