2GCSE CATERING The subject covers four areas: The Catering Industry Nutrition & Menu PlanningFood ProductionTechnological Advancements
31. The Catering Industry Types of outlets: Commercial Catering: Hotels, restaurants, clubs, wine bars and pubs.Run to make a profit.Types of outlets:Public Sector Catering or Welfare Catering:Hospitals, prisons, schools and Armed Forces.Do not make a profit.Transport Catering:Railways, cruise liners.Run to make a profit.Outside/ Franchise Catering:A catering company who goes out to events and does the catering for them.Run to make a profit.Industrial Catering:Run by industries to feed workers, assuming better fed workers produce better work.Run to make a small profit, meals subsidised for staff
41. The Catering Industry Catering Manager/Head Chef: Hiring, firing, ordering food, menu planning, kitchen brigade organisation (organising the chefs), communication with restaurant staff, checking orders for quantity & quality, health, safety & hygiene, training of staff.Restaurant Manager/Head Waiter:Hiring, firing, ordering equipment, napkins etc, restaurant brigade organisation (organising the waiting staff), communication with kitchen staff, checking orders for quantity & quality, health, safety & hygiene, training of staff, hosting, seating & greeting and customer service, dealing with complaints.
51. The Catering Industry Safety At Work Health & Safety at Work Act 1974The law means that employers must ensure the health, safety and welfare of staff. It also states that staff (employees) must:Take care of their own health, safety and welfare and other persons that they work with.Co-operate with the employer to comply with all health & safety matters.Not interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety and welfare.Employers must ensure they provide safe premises, equipment, provide supervision and training, have a written safety policy and consult with unions and have a safety committee.
61. The Catering IndustryThe major causes of accidents in the catering industry are due to:Slips, trips, lifting heavy or sharp objects, exposure to hazardous substances, hot surfaces & steam. Struck by moving articles including hand tools, walking into objects, machinery (slicers, mixers etc), falls, fire & explosion, electric shock and fork lift trucks.Accident Prevention:It is essential that people are capable and trained in using tools and are aware of the possible accidents. That people are not rushed or distracted. Everyone is responsible to observe safety rules, accidents should be recorded in a book or on a form.
71. The Catering Industry Knife Safety: Use the correct knife for the jobKnives must always be sharp and cleanHandles must be free from greasePoints must be held downwardsKnives should be placed on a flat surface so that the blade is not exposed upwardsKnives should be wiped clean with the edge away from the handsDo not put knives into a washing ups sink
81. The Catering Industry First Aid: Since 1982 it has been a legal requirement that adequate first aid equipment and personnel are provided at work. If an injury is serious they should be treated by a doctor or nurse or an ambulance called.First Aid boxes must be easily identified and accessible and checked regularly.Cuts: covered immediately with a waterproof blue dressing. Direct pressure may be applied to stop heavy bleeding.Burns (dry heat) & Scalds (wet): Place under slowly running or in a bowl of cold water until the pain ceases. If serious the burn should be covered with a sterile dressing and the person sent to hospital. Do not apply any creams, do not cover with a plaster.
91. The Catering Industry Fire Safety: Fires need 3 things to burn so if you take one of these away the fire does not happen or is put out:Fuel – something to burnAir – oxygen to keep the fire goingHeat – gas, electricity etcMethods of extinguishing fires:Starving – removing the fuelSmothering – removing the oxygenCooling – removing the heat.
10Indicator colour and Type 1. The Catering IndustryIndicator colour and TypeBest ForDangersRed WaterSolids - Wood, Cloth, Paper, Plastics, etc.Do not use on burning fat or oilDo not use on electrical appliancesBlue Dry Powder Multi-PurposeLiquids - grease, fats, oil, paint, petrol, etc.Electrical equipmentDo not use on chip or fat pan fires.Does not easily penetrate equipment - fire may re-ignite.Does not cool fire well - fire may re-ignite.Smouldering material - fire may re-ignite.Blue Dry Powder StandardCream AFFF Multi-Purpose (Aqueous film-forming foam)Cream Foam StandardLimited number of liquid fires.Not normally used at the University.Black Carbon Dioxide CO2Fumes from CO2 extinguishers can be harmful if used in confined spaces.Red Fire BlanketEspecially for clothing and chip and fat pan firesIf blanket does not completely cover the fire, it will not extinguish the fire.
111. The Catering Industry HACCP: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point This is a process which assess each stage of food manufacture and identifies where a risk or hazard might occur. It is usually drawn onto a flow chart, then these risks can be checked to avoid problems.Examples of CCP’s (Critical Control Points) are:Inspection of goods on deliveryStorage & handling of ingredients & finished productTemperature of fridges, freezers & ovensCleaning procedures for equipmentCross-contaminationPersonal hygiene & health standardsProficiency of use and cleaning of equipment
121. The Catering Industry Food Safety Act: E.H.O. Keep yourself clean.Keep the workplace clean.Wear suitable clothing.Protect food from contamination.Store, prepare & serve food at the correct temperature.Inform a manager if you are ill.Do not work with food if you have symptoms of food poisoning.1. The Catering IndustryE.H.O.The Environmental Health Officer enforces hygiene, health & safety legislation. The E.H.O. has the authority to:Issue a Prohibition Notice which means that thecatering establishment has to close until any problems have been rectified.Issue an Improvement Notice which must be acted upon within a certain time limit.Prosecute any person who does not comply with the Health & Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Food Safety Act 1995
13Food Poisoning Bacteria 1. The Catering IndustryFood Poisoning:Food Poisoning BacteriaSymptomsSourcesSalmonellaDiarrhoea, abdominal pain, usually fever.Meat, poultry, eggs, unpasteurised milk, meat pie and leftovers.Clostridium PerfringensDiarrhoea, abdominal pain, no fever.Meat, poultry, meat dishes, particularly reheated dishes. Spices often contaminated.Staphylococcus AureusVomiting, stomach cramps.Food handled in preparation, cold sweets, cream fillings, custards, sandwiches, unpasteurised milk or creamCampolybacterE-coliListeria Monocytogenes
141. The Catering Industry Preventing Food Poisoning: Personal Hygiene - Hand washing, preventing cross-contamination (where bacteria is passed from one thing or person to the food), care when using chemicals and waste materials, wearing the correct protective clothing, not working when sick etc.Correct food storageFridge temperature (1°- 4°C), freezer temperature (-18° to -22°C). Bacteria breed fastest at body temperature (36/37°C), are killed over 70°C and become dormant (sleep) below freezing.High Risk Foods – high protein foods, animal products e.g. eggs and meat.Low Risk Foods - low protein foods e.g. fruit and vegetables.Meat & poultry should always be defrosted thoroughly.
152. Nutrition & Menu Planning A balanced diet contains a wide variety of foodsFood contains a mixture of different nutrients which have different functions in the body.A healthy diet will provide adequate amounts of all nutrients needed by the body for good health.
162. Nutrition & Menu Planning Foods containing…proteincarbohydratefat…provide the body with energy.Food also provides…fibre;water;vitamins and minerals.These substances do not provide the body with energy, but are all needed to fulfil some important ‘support’ functions for the body.
172. Nutrition & Menu Planning The Balance of Good Health is based on five food groups which are:Fruit and vegetablesBread, other cereals and potatoesMeat, fish and alternativesMilk and dairy foodsFoods containing fatFoods containing sugar
182. Nutrition & Menu Planning Fruit and VegetablesAim for at least 5 portions a day.Fresh, dried, frozen, canned and juiced - they all count.Main nutrients: carotene, vitamin C, folates and fibre. Vit C needed for immune system and to prevent scurvey, fibre to prevent constipation and bowel cancer.
192. Nutrition & Menu Planning Bread, other cereals and potatoesEat plenty of foods rich in starch and fibre.Fill-up on wholemeal bread, potatoes, rice, pasta and yams.Main nutrients: carbohydrate (starch), some calcium and iron, vitamin B, and fibre. Carbohydrate and starch needed for slow release energy. Fibre (NSP) needed to aid digestion to prevent bowel cancer.
202. Nutrition & Menu Planning Meat, fish and alternativesHelp the body to grow and stay healthy.Eat a range of meat, fish eggs, nuts, seeds, tofu, beans, and pulses.Main nutrients: iron, protein, B vitamins (B12), zinc, magnesium
212. Nutrition & Menu Planning Milk and dairy foodsHelp bones and teeth to grow strong and stay healthy.Try lower-fat options.Main nutrients: calcium, protein, vitamin B12, vitamins A & DNeeded for growth and repair, strong bones, Vit A&D needed for skin and eyes
222. Nutrition & Menu Planning Foods containing fat /Foods containing sugarDon’t eat too many foods that contain a lot of fat. Leads to obesity.Don’t have sugary foods and drinks too often.Leads to tooth decay.
232. Nutrition & Menu Planning Government Guidelines: eat less fat, less sugar, salt, alcohol and eat more fibre should be considered in menu planning to provide a balance of dishes.Menus should be a balance of different starters, mains, desserts – not repetitive in terms of types of dishes e.g. fish, meat, poultry (chicken, turkey, duck), vegetarian, dishes suitable for those dieting, people who can’t eat milk products (lactose intolerance) or wheat, consider religious and cultural implications.Colour, texture and value for money must also be considered when presenting a menu. It must be presented correctly and in a attractive and appealing manner to the consumer.
242. Nutrition & Menu Planning Commodities:Considerations when selecting & storing:Vegetables & FruitChoose fruits & vegetables in season for the best quality. Check for bruising and signs of mould. Check fruit is ripe or a little under ripe, not over ripe so it is wasted. Should be stored in a dry cool area, carefully so that it does not become damaged. Not near smelly food so it becomes tainted.Meat & PoultryMeat should be kept in the fridge, raw meat should be kept away from cooked meat. It should be used by the specified date and be in good condition, not bruised.FishOily fish – salmon, trout, tuna should beWhite flat – Lemon sole, halibut bright eyes,Round – Bass, cod, hake not slimy or smelly.
252. Nutrition & Menu Planning Commodities:Considerations when selecting & storing:EggsCome in 4 sizes depending on size & graded A to C for quality. Eggs have to have use by dates and quality control to prevent salmonella. Should be stored in a cool dry place or fridge, away from raw meat, hands should be washed before & after handling, don’t use cracked eggs.DairyDairy products have to be kept in the fridge and must be used within use by dates. Milk & cream should always be kept in the container in which it was delivered. Cheese is best served after it has been taken out of the fridge and allowed to reach room temperature.Dry goods Should be kept in a cool, dry place off the ground.Cook-chill foods Kept in the fridge & reheated thoroughly. Before use by date.Canned foods must be kept in a cool place, used on rotation before use by date.Convenience (partly prepared foods) can be use along side fresh foods to make for more efficient and more quickly prepared dishes.
262. Nutrition & Menu Planning Costing:It is vital to cost dishes accurately to make a reasonable profit. Portion control (keeping the size of a portion the same every time by using the same size container or serving spoon).The total cost of a food item depends upon 3 things:Food or materials cost the cost of the raw materials or ingredients.Labour costs - Direct labour cost e.g. the wages of the chefs, Indirect Labour costs - other people who work in the restaurant.Overheads - the cost of rent, rates, heating, lighting, electricity, gas.Sales - Food Cost = Gross ProfitSales - total cost = Net ProfitFood cost + Gross Profit = SalesGross Profit is usually around 40%Net Profit (after Labour & overheads have been taken out) is around 20%Weights & Measure Act 1985 Weights and measurements of products must be accurate.
273. Food ProductionMost of this sections is covered by the practical work that you have carried out. Think carefully about the different types of foods that you have prepared e.g. Stocks, sauces, soups, starters, rice, pasta dishes, meat & poultry, fish desserts. Ensure that are familiar with basic recipes for and examples for each and how they can be decorated and garnished.Catering Terminology: Check you know the meaning of these terms:Al dente Egg wash PâtisserieÀ la carte En croûte PuréeAu gratin Entrée Reduce/ReductionBain-marie Flambé RouxBrûlée Garnish SautéBouquet garni Gâteau Table d’hôteCanapé Hors d’oeuvre Vol-au-ventCoulis La brochetteCrêpes MarinadeCroûtons MenuCroquettes Mise-en-place
283. Food Production Food Presentation: Meals must be presented with the consideration of:The importance of colour, texture, flavour, shape, temperature and time.The customers needs/situation/occasion/types of menu.An appropriate eating environment.A wide range of culinary skills.Customer complaints must be dealt with immediately:Apologise and remove the offending item.Offer a replacement or substitute.Inform the kitchen of the problem.Provide the replacement or substitute ASAP.Offer a free dessert or tea or coffee.Do not charge for the item that had to be replaced.Inform management.Food & Beverage ServiceDescribe silver service, plated or plate service, buffet, waiter service vending machines, cafeteria, self service. When is each service style appropriate?
294. Technological Advancements Kitchen Design:Industrial kitchen should be designed in relation to:Safety aspectsEase of cleaningErgonomics – that all tasks can be carried out as efficiently as possible.Equipment:Identify pieces of large and small equipment. Equipment is used so that food can be produced in large amounts in a efficient, effective, hygienic and safe manner. Staff must always be trained on the safe use of equipment. It is beneficial to use energy saving devices as this has an impact on energy conservation and the environment.Food Processing:See Over:
314. Technological Advancements What are smart foods? Smart foods are those that have been developed through the invention of new or improved processes, for example, as a result of man-made materials/ingredients or human intervention; in other words, not naturally occurring changes.Smart foods may:have a function, other than that of providing energy and nutrients;perform a particular function never achieved by conventional foods;have been developed for specialised applications, but some eventually become available for general use.
324. Technological Advancements Smart foods include:1. Modified starches.2. Functional foods, e.g. cholesterol lowering spreads, probiotic yogurts, fortified eggs.3. Meat analogues, e.g. textured vegetable protein (TVP), myco-protein and tofu.4. Encapsulation technology, e.g. encapsulated flavours in confectionery5. Modern biotechnology, e.g. soy bean, tomato plant, modified enzymes, e.g. chymosin.
33Meat AnaloguesIngredients that mimic the organoleptic properties of meat.Myco-protein is used in fillets to provide a ‘chicken like’ texture.Tofu absorbs flavours, so is used as a meat alternative in stir-fries.TVP is used in vegetarian shepherd’s pie to provide the main source of protein.
34Genetically Modified Foods Specific changes to a plant or animal at a genetic level.Potatoes can be altered to reduce the absorption of fat during frying.Maize is modified to control pests, minimising crop damage.Chymosin, a modified enzyme, is used to produce ‘vegetarian’ cheese.
35Encapsulation Technology The coating of a particle with an outer shell.Jellybeans use encapsulated flavours for enhanced sensory appeal.Some breads use encapsulated leavening agents to prevent premature release and reaction.Specially formulated ‘sports’ bars are fortified with encapsulated nutrients.
36Functional FoodsFoods that contain an ingredient that gives health promoting properties.Some eggs contain Omega-3 fatty acids, known to benefit heart health.Specially formulated spreads help to lower cholesterol levels in the body.Probiotic drinks are designed to improve the health of the large bowel.
37Modified StarchStarches that have been altered to perform additional functions..Modified starch is used in ‘cup-a-soups’ to improve mouth-feel, thicken the drink/sauce with the addition of boiled water, and blend uniformly with no lumps.The noodles in ‘pot snacks’ are pre-gelatinised, so boiled water will re-heat and 'cook' them.
38Modified StarchStarches that have been altered to perform additional functions..Modified starch is used as a fat replacer in low-fat meals.Pre-gelatinised starch is used to thicken instant desserts without heat.To prevent ‘drip’ after a pie is defrosted, modified starch is used in the sauce.
39Influences on food labelling Legislation (UK & EU)EnforcersConsumersManufacturers & retailersVoluntary recommendations & bodiesMediaNational structures & guidancemain piece of legislation in the UK is the FLR 1996enforcers - LACORS (local co-ordinators of regulatory services)consumers important - information on allergens, suitability for special diets etccertain retailers may require certain information/formatvoluntary recommendations/bodies e.g. DH eat 5 a day label; National Osteoporosis Society; trade associations etcmediae.g. FSA,Our food supply has become increasingly complexCertain consumers want certain sets of information
40Legislation Food Labelling Regulations 1996 Other legislation The Food Safety Act 1990Trade Description Act 1968Weights & Measures Act 1985Specific legislation covering some foodse.g. bread, jam, chocolate, milkFood Safety Actoffence to sell food that is not of the ‘nature or substance or quality’ demanded by the purchaserTrade Description Actoffence to make false or misleading statements about goodsWeights & Measures Act 1985 makes short weight an offenceother regulations also relevant e.g regs on quantity marking & abbreviations of unit; 2001 regs on metrication
41What must be on a label? name of food list of ingredients (in descending order)QUID information (if needed)net quantity of food present (unless under 5g)date mark (use by and best before)any special conditions or conditions of usename & address of manufacturer, packager or sellerplace of origin (if leaving out would mislead)any necessary instructions for useMandatory informationingredients - appear in descending order of weight as used during preparation of food (25% rule - removing for some foods)QUID - e.g. pork sausages or fruit piefor some foods there are standard amounts e.g. bread 400g or 800g. ‘e’ for nominal weight/volume (+ drained weight for solid food sold in liquid media)Best before date - date up to & including which the food will retain its optimum condition (e.g. it will not be sale)Use by date - for foods that are highly perishable e.g. dairy products. Date is up to & including if it has been stored correctly (e.g midnight)place of origin if leaving this out would mislead (e.g. French stick)Andalcoholic strength by volume for beverages containing more than 1.2% by volumeOptional information may inc
42Other informationinformation on additives & other ingredients not legally required to be labellednutrients present in foodnutrition &/or health claimsinformation on allergens present in foodprocessing or production methods (e.g. organic)logos & endorsementsguideline daily amountsOptional information may include..Processing aids & any solvent/carrier used only for technical reasonsGM - Only approved GM foods may be sold and if a food contains any GM ingredients, this must be shown on the labellabelling regulations require any food containing novel GM material (the DNA that has been altered or the proteins that the DNA produces) to be labelledhighly processed food ingredients (such as refined vegetable oils) that are produced from a genetically modified source but that no longer contain any GM DNA or protein, currently do not have to be labelled because they are indistinguishable from those produced from non- GM sources.small amounts (below 1%) of GM material that are accidentally present in non GM ingredients do not have to be labelled
43Labelling jargon RDA - Recommended Daily Amount part of EU directive on Nutrition Labellingestimates of the amount of vitamins & minerals needed to meet or more than meet the needs of a group of adultsGDAs - Guideline Daily AmountsRDAonly 1 figure for each nutrient, derived from figures for adultsno variation with age, sex etc like UK reference nutrient intakesGDAdeveloped by Institute of Grocery Distributionderived from estimated average energy requirements foe energy for men and women of normal weight and fitnessas on nutrition label plus GDA for salt - 5g for women and 7g for men based on the COMA recommendations (1994) of 6g salt per day
44Nutrition Labelling not mandatory unless a nutrition claim is made must be in 1 of 2 formatsGroup 1 declarationenergy, protein, carbohydrate & fatGroup 2 declarationas above plus sugars, saturates, fibre and sodiumEU Council Directive on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs (90/496/EEC)Group 1 also known as Big 4Group 2 also known as Big 8
45Nutrition LabellingIn addition, these nutrients can be included in a nutrient declaration on a voluntary basis:starchmonounsaturates, polyunsaturates or cholesterolspecified vitamins and nutrients present in significant amountsIf a claim is made about these nutrients they MUST be labelledsaturates must also be declared if other fats are labelled15% of the RDAOther nutrients can only be declared if a claim has been made about it & if it is a component of a nutrient defined in the regulations e.g. fructose
464. Technological Advancements Marketing Techniques:Restaurants use many different types of marketing to encourage consumers to choose their product:PromotionsAdvertisingDirect MailMerchandising – displaying products appealinglyPackaging Materials:Different materials are used for different purposes:Biodegradable Aluminium FoilRecycled Cardboard & oven proofVacuum packed (the air removed) paperboard.Cling film Plastics
47GOOD LUCK in your exam! 4. Technological Advancements Computer Applications:The most valuable thing for any business is up to date information. Therefore computers are vital. They can be used for:Computer Operations software packages used for Point of Sales (tills), and management systems. Used for stock control, pricings, ordering, accounts can be kept more accurately etc.Menu Design and Nutritional AnalysisInternet to keep up to date and monitor competitors, marketing of the restaurant on a website.Keeping customer detailsKeeps information securely and reduces the amount of paperGOOD LUCKin your exam!