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1 Cognition for Clinicians Dr Steve Walsh 2 Specialising 8It takes about ten years of full-time experience to become a domain expert. 8Expert physicians.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Cognition for Clinicians Dr Steve Walsh 2 Specialising 8It takes about ten years of full-time experience to become a domain expert. 8Expert physicians."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Cognition for Clinicians Dr Steve Walsh

3 2 Specialising 8It takes about ten years of full-time experience to become a domain expert. 8Expert physicians have extensive general knowledge of medicine and deep, detailed knowledge of their relatively narrow areas of specialisation.

4 3 The Assumed Learning Curve 8Its often assumed that the novice becomes an expert by a steady, gradual accumulation of knowledge and fine-tuning of skills – i.e. as a person becomes more familiar with a domain, his or her level of performance (e.g., accuracy and quality) gradually increases.

5 4 The Actual Learning Curve 8Studies of experts, intermediates, and novices show that, sometimes those at intermediate levels of expertise may perform more poorly than those at lower levels of expertise, a phenomenon known as the "intermediate effect."

6 5 Performance

7 6 The Bad News 8Learning does not necessarily result in a gradual increase of knowledge and skills. 8Learning is the arduous process of continually learning, re-learning, and exercising new knowledge, punctuated by periods of apparent decrease in mastery and declines in performance.

8 7 The Good News 8We all experience the intermediate phenomenon, so much so that the dips in performance are most likely a necessary part of learning.

9 8 The Structure of Memory 8Short-term memory (working memory) 8Long-term memory 8Conceptual knowledge 8Procedural knowledge

10 9 Conceptual Knowledge 8Factual knowledge is merely knowing a fact (e.g., risk factors for heart disease) without any in-depth understanding. May become rapidly out of date. Unlikely to lead to change. 8Conceptual knowledge is acquired through mindful engagement with materials in a range of contexts. lead to behavioural change.

11 10 Procedural Knowledge 8Procedural knowledge is developed as a function of deliberate practice, which results in a learning process known as knowledge compilation.

12 11 Expert Knowledge 8As you become more familiar with some knowledge domain or task, you acquire a great deal of specific knowledge. 8You learn to use long-term memory to support working memory so you don't have to remember a large number of isolated pieces of information. 8Strong retrieval links develop between working and long- term memory. 8Experts use these retrieval structures to provide selective and rapid access to long-term memory to solve problems.

13 12 Information Overload 8The increase in information means that you would need to spend 8 hours per day for 13 years to read all the current published literature in a particular speciality. 8After doing this, you would be 13 years out of date!

14 13 Important Concepts 8Comprehension – not just facts. 8Organising knowledge better. 8Regular revision. 8Masses of information.

15 14 Storing Information 8PaperMaster2002 – 8PaperPort –

16 15 Organising Knowledge 8MindManager – 8VisiMap – 8Axon


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