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1 Introduction to:

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2 Full-wave modeling With Full-wave modeling you can model the gathers and time sections for explosive and surface sources with custom wavelet for: Rough topography Rough topography, various near-surface conditions, surface_waves, refractions, etc. Thin-layered models Thin-layered models that are build on the basis of well-log data. Complex anisotropy: Complex anisotropy: transversally isotropic media and fracturing systems. Porous fluid-saturated media Porous fluid-saturated media (Gasman approximation). Also, basing on Full-wave modeling may be done: AVO analysis AVO analysis for anisotropic, porous, fluid-saturated, viscoelastic, thin-layered media. Q-factor estimation Q-factor estimation for thin-layered media by VSP and well-log data. Processing Processing: post-stack, pre-stack depth and time migrations for surface and VSP data. Building Building velocity model by seismic data time field of incident waves AVO curve The package also allows producing and studying: Synthetic shotgather and wavefield snapshots Seismic images from synthetic and real data

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3 Model building Synthetic shotgathers shotgathersSynthetic WavefieldsnapshotsWavefieldsnapshots Arrival time & Energy fields Arrival time & Energy fields Resulting seismic images Resulting Velocity by seismic data Velocity by seismic data Interactions with the package

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4 Tracing waves: Salt dome cornice model

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Modelbuilder 5 Creation of thin-layered model by well-logs (LAS files Modelbuilding using raster image Modelbuilding using data in grid formats

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Modeling Engine & Vizualizer 6

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7 Approximation of user custom wavelet with Rikker wavelet Approximation of user custom wavelet with Puzirov wavelet What wavelets are used?

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Synthetic shotgather, which demonstrates duplex waves originated on vertical layer 80 m thickness (previous slide), at coordinate X=4000m. Legend: 1 – reflections from base boundary; 2 – compressional duplex wave, reflected from nearest to the source side of a vertical layer; 3 – compressional duplex wave, reflected from a far side of a vertical layer; 4 – converted duplex wave, reflected from nearest to the source side of a vertical layer; 5 – converted duplex wave, reflected from a far side of a vertical layer; 6 – converted duplex wave, transmitted through the vertical layer; 7 – compressional duplex wave, transmitted through the vertical layer; 8 and 9 - reflected duplex waves, originated from PS-wave, which changed mode on a base boundary; 10 – transmitted duplex wave, originated on top of a vertical layer as result of incidence on it of direct compressional wave. Modeling for development of advanced processing procedures G1G1 G XVXV X SKSK RKRK (P 1 S 1 ) RKRK (P 1 P 1 ) RKRK (P 1 P 2 ) RKRK (P 1 S 2 ) Zv Scheme of origin of reflected and transmitted waves on thin vertical layer

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9 Effect of LVZ surface waves and uneven surface on CDP data imaging Synthetic time cross-section. Synthetic time cross-section. The receiver grouping base 150 m With ellipse are shown zones of seismic image distortions caused by LVZ conditions, which erroneously could be interpreted on real data.

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10 Pre-stack Kirchhoff migration (depth scale) Pre-stack Kirchhoff migration (depth scale) CMP stack Initial model Seismic imaging for post-stack interpetation

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11 MARMOUSI SEGY-Model with ellipse is shown target gas deposit MARMOUSI SEGY-Model with ellipse is shown target gas deposit Modeling ofcomplexly built medium Modeling of complexly built medium Maximum Energy (E)

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12 Imaging without anisotropy Depth pre-stack migration (VWKM) taking anisotropy into account for the best possible case scenario – exact velocity model and data. Depth pre-stack migration (VWKM) taking anisotropy into account for the best possible case scenario – exact velocity model and data. Modeling of TTI-anisotropy and fracturing

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13 Legend: a -model; b, d – shotgather for Z- and X-component; c - AVO-dependency graph. Modeling of AVO-effect for the flat target reflecting boundary with homogeneous upper thickness. 1 - Vp=2177 m/s Vs=888 m/s ρ =2160 kg/m Vp=1967 m/s Vs=1312 m/s ρ =2050 kg/m Vp=2131 m/s Vs=869 m/s ρ =2100 kg/m Vp=2177 m/s Vs=888 m/s ρ =2160 kg/m X-comp. Z-comp. K=K(α) α°α° MODEL аb c d Receivers AVO-modeling in conditions of thin-layered, anisotropic, fractured, viscous-elastic media AVO-dependency Transmitted wave Reflected wave

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1 Product first successes 2 Product multiple successes 3- Product numerous failures 4- Product Oblivion 5 Reborn Product multiple successes & progress 6 Reborn Product stable applications 3+ Product stable progress 4+ Product stable applications Revenues Time 0 Product initial development Product/Site Typical Development & Revenues time curve + via modeling and testing; - via trial-and-error method Why you need Full-wave modeling in seismic …

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15 Tesseral-Pro : Modeling solutions for Tesseral-Pro : Modeling solutions for 2D & 3D seismic surveys Tesseral Pro provides improved thin-layer model building on the base of collected well log information, utilizes complex well information including well logs, their interpretation, strata boundaries, well coordinates and inclinometer data about the well geometry. Tesseral Pro can be used for graphical document design compound from sections, surfaces, 3D plots, seismograms and seismic sections, text fields, pictures, etc. Improved thin-layer 3D model building …

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16 3-D visualization of seismic files, wells and horizons. Time field based 2-D anisotropic ray tracing modeling in addition to the finite-difference modeling methods. One time reflected waves ray tracing supports both compressed and converted waves on the base of time fields. Ray-tracing as interpretational tool 2-D, 2.5-D and 3-D gathers, depth migrated cubes and sections, velocity cubes can be shown either by traces or more sophistically by their vertical sections, horizontal section and sections along a horizon map Tesseral-Pro : Modeling solutions for Tesseral-Pro : Modeling solutions for 2D & 3D seismic surveys

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17 improving the quality and reliability of the interpretation of seismic surveysFull-wave modeling is a tool for improving the quality and reliability of the interpretation of seismic surveys. It is particularly helpful for planning acquisition parameters, fine-tuning of the processing sequence... working with seismic record dynamicsFull-wave modeling may be especially helpful for interpreters working with seismic record dynamics, i.e. AVO analysis, multi-component acquisition (polarized seismic prospecting)... consistently analyze characteristics of seismic records for complexly structured geological mediaFull-wave modeling allows consistently analyze characteristics of seismic records for complexly structured geological media including: thin- and sub-vertical layering, abrupt velocity changes in all directions, anisotropy and fracturing systems… Tesserallearning tool testing seismic processing procedures and sequences present results in visual and consistent formTesseral is easy to use visual learning tool. It can help geoscientists in developing and testing seismic processing procedures and sequences, to better understand wave phenomena in geological media and the specifics of the seismic exploration methods, and to present results in visual and consistent form for decision-making…

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