2 Chapter overview Planning a training program Adenosine triphosphate page 125What to consider page 223Planning a training year page 226Planning a training session page 234Avoiding over-training page 236Short-term training programsDesigning a short-term training program page 239Program evaluationMonitoring training page 250Analysing the findings page 255Planning for the future page 256Now that you’ve finished … answers
3 Planning a training program Back tochapter overviewPlanning a training programPage 223
4 What to consider… Performance and fitness needs Training sessions Competition scheduleClimate and seasonIntegrationConsider your current sport and your local climate. In what situations is it likely that you will need to devise an alternative plan to allow for bad weather?
5 Planning a training year Back tochapter overviewPlanning a training yearPage 226
6 Phases of competitionTraining programs can be broken down into 3 distinct phases:Post-season (transition)Pre-season (preparatory)In-season (competition)Training volume and intensity are adjusted at each stage to suit athletes’ needs
7 Post-season training Aims to: Prevent weight gain Maintain a base level of aerobic fitnessMaintain strengthMaintain reasonable skill levelsRepair injuriesRecuperate physically and mentallyLow intensity work, but high volume
8 Pre-season trainingUsually 8–12 weeks before the start of the season or competitionEnergy systems used in sport are taxed to maximum capacityHigh intensity work, but low in volume
9 In-season training Maintain fitness, strength and skills developed Intensity and volume should allow for maintenanceOften consists of intense skill practice and modified gamesSuggested activities for the phases of a year-round training programActivityPost-seasonPre-seasonIn seasonWeight training3 days per week2–3 days per week1 day per weekRunningLow intensity: 1–2 days per weekHigh intensity: 3 days per weekHigh intensity: 1–2 days per weekSkillsSkills practiceSkills and drills practiceOtherLimited sport-specific practiceLearning strategiesGame-like activities; regular competitionSource: Adapted from ML Foss and SJ Keteyian, Fox’s Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport, 6th edn, WCB/McGraw-Hill, Boston, 1998 and SK Powers and ET Howley, Exercise Physiology Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, 3rd edn, Brown and Benchmark, Madison 1997
10 Macro- and microcycles Programs can be broken down into macro- and microcycles. These smaller blocks allow for the manipulation of training volumes, intensities and recovery. Macrocycles: Usually last 3–6 weeks Microcycles: 7–10 days
12 Annual training planAn annual training plan helps athletes and coaches to achieve their goals. (p. 231)
13 Peaking for performance A peak is an optimal state of athletic readiness aimed at the highest possible performance. Macrocycle and microcycles should gear athlete to peak by competition/finals etc. A performance peak is characterised by:Good healthAn ability to cope with training workloads and stressQuick recoveryExtreme efficiency at producing energy for performanceSelf-confidenceHigh motivation and aspirationsPersonal reflectionHave you ever adjusted your training so that you are at your peak for an event? How did your training program change?
14 TaperingThe act of reducing aspects of training in weeks leading up to competitionAllows body and mind to have a break from vigorous physical exertionProvides opportunity to heal injuries and recharge energy reservesTapering should begin approximately 1 microcycle (7–10 days) competition
15 Athletes may experience some of the following during the taper period: VO2 max increasesMuscular strength increasesBlood lactate levels decreaseMinor injuries are healedSoreness disappearsGlycogen stores are replenishedPersonal reflectionWhen do you think you will need to start tapering your training to peak for your event?
16 Planning a training session Back tochapter overviewPlanning a training sessionPage 234
17 Training sessions Overview – state objective and general activities Warm-ups and stretching – gentle and rhythmic use of large muscle groups and raise heart rate. Stretch after muscles are warm, either dynamic or staticSkill instruction and practice – set series of drills to follow. Should soon follow warm-up so that athlete doesn’t cool downConditioning – 15–20min should occur after skill work so that it is not affected by fatigue
18 Training sessionsGames (optional) – motivate and reinforce execution of skills in a competitive settingCool-down – 5–10min plus stretching returns blood to the heart and waste product removalEvaluation – reflection can occur during and after the cool-down. Journal entries taken over time can provide valuable feedback for future sessions.
19 Avoiding over-training Back tochapter overviewAvoiding over-trainingPage 236
20 Over-trainingNegatively affects performance, leads to injury and burnoutOccurs when workouts are:Too long and too frequentToo strenuousConducted with inadequate recovery times between workouts
21 Signs and symptoms of over-training Physical performanceBiological functionsPsychological signsDecline in physical performanceLoss of muscle strengthLoss of coordinationDecrease in maximal aerobic capacityInjuryIncrease in resting and sub-maximal heart ratesElevation of heart rate in recovery after exerciseIncrease in oxygen uptake and blood lactate during sub-maximal exerciseIncrease in blood pressureLoss of weight (or no weight loss)Muscle tendernessIncreased risk of infectionOccasional nauseaChronic fatigueEarly onset of fatigue when training or competingDecrease in VO2 maxDecrease in muscle glycogenDecrease in appetite and libido‘Staleness’Sleep disturbancesIncrease in feelings of physical, mental and emotional exhaustionDecrease in self-esteemDifficulties in dealing with othersSocial withdrawalFeelings of overall chronic stressEmotional instabilityDecrease in motivation and commitment
22 Short-term training programs Back tochapter overviewShort-term training programsPage 239
23 Seven steps are involved in designing a short-term training program Seven steps are involved in designing a short-term training program. 1 Analyse fitness and skills. 2 Decide on the duration of the program. 3 Divide the program into periods. 4 Decide on training days. 5 Create a program outline. 6 Plan training sessions. 7 Ensure that the training principles have been correctly applied.
24 Step 1: Analyse fitness & skill needs Once you know what your goal for the training program is, use the SMARTER model to determine your fitness and skill gap.SpecificI want to become a better goal keeper by increasing my goal saves percentage.MeasurableA goal is saved each time I successfully prevent the opposition from scoring. I can find this information. I would like to achieve a 75 per cent success rate.AttainableLast season, I averaged a 65 per cent success rate. I believe that 75 per cent will be challenging, but within my reach.RealisticI believe I am now at the associative level in my sport as I have started playing at club level. I have spoken with my coach and she feels that a 75 per cent goal save rate is a realistic goal.TimelyI want to achieve this average by the end of this season, which is five months away (1 December).ExcitingThis goal provides a challenge and will help to keep me motivated.ReviewedI will review this goal on the first day of December.Setting SMARTER goals—a water polo goalkeeper’s examplePersonal reflectionWhat are your short-term training goals?
25 Fitness needs – athlete’s current fitness level = ______________ What energy system does the activity require?What fitness components does the activity require?How efficient is your anaerobic/aerobic capacity at the moment?Are the fitness components required by the physical activity your strength/s or weakness/es?
26 Skill needs of physical activity – athlete’s current skill level = ____________ What skills does the activity require?Do you already have these skills?If so, what level are you at (cognitive/associative/autonomous)?What skills require the most improvement?
27 Determining the gapExample Answer: The activity in question is swimming and I am required to compete in the 100m freestyle in 7 weeks time. This event relies heavily on the anaerobic energy system. This is not an area of strength for me as I am a long distance runner with a highly developed aerobic capacity. I must therefore place a great emphasis on developing speed and improving my anaerobicthreshold. I am at theassociative stage in freestyle and was coached for a few years when I was young. Therefore, my training program must emphasise the development of fitness, with a minor focus being technique.Personal reflectionWhat portion of your training needs to be devoted to skill development? How does this compare with the amount that needs to be devoted to fitness?
28 Step 2: Decide on the duration of the program The duration of a program depends on the dominant energy system needed for the activity:Aerobic-based training programs need 12–15 weeks.Anaerobic-based training programs need 8–10 weeks.Some strength gains can be achieved in as little as 5 weeksIn the Senior PE course, time constraints often place limitations on the length of training programs. Your teacher will guide you in this process.
29 Step 3: Divide the program into periods Allows for logical progression towards goals.Once training phase determined, program should be divided intomacrocycles that last for three weeks each.In each cycle, the first week is of a medium difficulty, the secondis more difficult and the third is for recovery.Figure 6.15 provides an estimate on how many hours should be spent training in each microcycle (week).
30 It is recommended that athletes focus on the ‘medium’ weeks in their program first. A medium week should consist of sessions that are individually tiring but that do not make the athlete feel physically sore or drained at the end.Personal reflectionWhat would a training session need to consist of to make you feel tired by the end but not feel sore the next day?
31 Step 4: Decide on training days Anaerobic power-based training – 3 times a weekAerobic training – up to 5 times per week.When deciding which days to train, follow two general rules:1. Vary the overall strain of the training days, never placing two high-stress days in a row.2. Follow every hard day with an easy day. Easy days can be a great opportunity to work on technical skills and tactics.
32 Step 5: Create a program outline EssentialOptionalDayDateLocationWarm-upFitness and skill development):• Type of activity or activities• Frequency• Intensity• Time allocated• Recovery type and time.• Heart rates (taken at the conclusion of a set or activity)• Perceived exertion levels (recorded at the conclusion of a set or activity)• Fatigue rating (recorded at the end of the session)Cool-downTotal calories expendedBody weightDietSleep (night before)Feelings during and after session
33 Step 6: Plan training sessions NameWeek number (and dates)Week difficulty (circle)medium hard recoveryWarm-up and stretchingSkill practice (if included in session)ConditioningCool-downEvaluationMondayTraining day / Rest dayType:Frequency:Intensity:Time:TuesdayWednesdayThursdayContinued on the next slide
34 NameWeek number (and dates)Week difficulty (circle)medium hard recoveryWarm-up and stretchingSkill practice (if included in session)ConditioningCool-downEvaluationFridayTraining day / Rest dayType:Frequency:Intensity:Time:SaturdaySunday
35 Step 7: Ensure that training principles have been applied When the short-term training program, including a plan for individual sessions, has been written, athletes should be able to answer yes to the following questions:Are your individual sessions specific to your event and your needs?Are you training often enough each week?Are you doing the correct number of repetitions and sets each session?Are you working at the correct intensity? (Remember, the intensity will depend on the week of your program: medium, hard or recovery.)
36 Are your intervals, sets or drills running for the appropriate length of time? Are you allowing your body enough rest between sets?Are you appropriately increasing the stress on your body to see improvement?Are you ensuring that you will not get bored? Have you made sure that you have a variety of relevant activities?
37 Where possible, actions should mimic those of the sport. SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVarietyMuscular strengthResistance training: Muscle contractions should involve both concentric and eccentric contractions.Where possible, actions should mimic those of the sport.Untrained athletes: 1–2 sessions per week, 2–3 sets per sessionAdvanced athletes: 3–5 sessions per week, per muscle group, split sessions, 3–6 sets per sessionUntrained athletes: 8–12 RM, slow–moderate speedAdvanced athletes: 2–6 RM, slow–moderate speedThe number of sets will guide the time for each session. However, the amount of rest is constant.Untrained athletes: 2–3 minutes between setsAdvanced athletes: 3–5 minutes between setsGradual decreases of 2–10% of RM; the lower the RM, the heavier the weightMachines, free weights, elastic bands, person’s own body weight, pulleys and levers, and sport-specific machines (for example, swimming resistance bench)Continued on the next slide
38 Where possible, actions should mimic those of the sport. SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVarietyMuscular powerPower is the result of applying force (strength) quickly; it is necessary to have adequate strength before one can develop power. Therefore, it is recommended that a power program includes a maintenance strength program.Where possible, actions should mimic those of the sport.1–2 sessions per week, 3–6 sets per session6–12 RM for 2–10 repetitions, fast speedThe number of sets will guide the time for each session. However, the amount of rest is constant: 3–5 minutes between sets.Gradual decreases of 2–10% of RM; the lower the RM, the heavier the weightMachines, free weights, elastic bands, person’s own body weight, pulleys and levers, and sport-specific machines (for example, swimming resistance bench)Continued on the next slide
39 3 sessions per week, 3–6 sets per session SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVarietyMuscular enduranceAny activity requiring the muscle to repeatedly contract against a resistance, such as plyometrics and weight training.3 sessions per week, 3–6 sets per session15+ RM for 15–30 repetitions, medium speedThe number of sets will guide the time for each session. However, the amount of rest is constant: 1–3 minutes between sets.Gradual decreases of 2–10% of RM; the lower the RM, the heavier the weight.Machines, free weights, elastic bands, person’s own body weight, pulleys and levers, and sport-specific machines (for example, swimming resistance bench)Continued on the next slide
40 Cardio-respiratory (aerobic) capacity SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVarietyCardio-respiratory (aerobic) capacityContinuous training, intermediate – long-interval training, fartlek trainingCardio-respiratory gains can be achieved with as few as 2 sessions per week in beginner athletes; however, 3–5 sessions per week are recommended.Continuous training: 50–85% of maximum heart rateInterval training: moderate duration, high-intensity pace training: 85–90% of maximum heart rateContinuous training: 20–60 minutes (not including warm-up and cool-down); less time for beginners; more for advanced athletesInterval training: 30–60 minutes in total, bouts of 4–10 minutes with active restGradual increases in intensity (increasing lactate threshold) or distanceWalking, jogging, running, swimming, cyclingContinued on the next slide
41 Short-interval training, intermediate-interval training SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVarietySpeed (anaerobic)Short-interval training, intermediate-interval trainingAlactacid: 10 sec—5 sets per workout, 10 repetitions per set < 20 sec—3 sets per workout, 8 repetitions per setAlactacid/lactic acid: 30–45 sec—4 sets per workout, 4 repetitions per set 1:20–1:30 min—2 sets per workout, 4 repetitions per setAnaerobic: 1:45–2:15 min—1 set per workout, 5 repetitions per set2:30–3 min—2 sets per workout, 2 repetitions per set85–100% of maximum heart rateAlactacid: 10 sec—1:4 work–relief ratio, complete rest recovery < 20 sec—1:3 work–relief ratio, complete rest recoveryAlactacid/lactic acid: 30–45 sec—1:3 work–relief ratio, work–relief 1:20–1:30 min—1:2 work–relief ratio, work–reliefAnaerobic: 1:45–2:15 min—1:2 work–relief ratio, work–relief 2:30-3 min—1:1 work or complete rest recoveryGradual increases in intensity or distanceTrack, sprinting, cycling, swimming, gym machinesContinued on the next slide
42 Static stretching, PNF, dynamic stretching SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVarietyFlexibilityStatic stretching, PNF, dynamic stretchingThere is no maximum frequency. Stretch MUST occur every session after a suitable warm-up and at the very end of the session.Static and PNF: Low intensity, no bouncingDynamic: gentle repetition of the types of movements associated with the sportStatic: Held for 10–30 sec in a pain-free positionPNF: Static stretch held for 10–20 sec, 6 sec of isometric contraction, 10–20 sec of further static, and so onGradual increases in range of movement across joint. Be careful not to over-stretch using the PNF technique.Individual stretching, pair stretching, assisted (e.g. elastic band), during an aerobics class (dynamic)Continued on the next slide
43 SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVarietyAgility, Coordination, Balance, Reaction TimeThese components will be developed in the skill training phase of a session. The skills and drills will depend on the physical activity.Cognitive and associative stage of learning: every sessionAutonomous stage of learning: most sessions (some may be conditioning only)Cognitive and associative stage of learning: Usually at the start of a session when the athlete is fresh.Autonomous stage of learning: Integrated with fitness conditioning and often when the athlete is tired (fatigue loading)Drills can become more challenging. Examples include:perform the drill for longer; perform the drill faster; or increase the success rate before completing drillWill depend on the physical activity in question.
44 Back tochapter overviewProgram evaluationPage 250
45 Monitoring trainingIt is important to monitor a training program to ensure that athletes are given appropriate feedback and remain motivated.Common mistakes that are often identified when monitoring training programs include:• over-training• under-training• inappropriate training methods• inappropriate intensity• training that is not specific to the athlete’s goals• failing to taper.
46 Periodic fitness testing Keeps athlete motivatedHighlights problematic areasTests should be performed regularly to provide best feedback.At the least, tests should be performed before (pre-testing) and after (post-testing) all programs to provide a basic summary of achievements
47 Keeping a journalJournal entries should consist of two sections: • a log of the fundamentals of the session, such as frequency, intensity, time and type of training • a section for additional information and reflection.Personal reflectionHave you ever kept a training journal?Was it beneficial and, if so, how?
48 Information to include in a training journal EssentialOptionalDay:Total calories expended:Date:Body weight:Location:Diet:Warm-up:Sleep (night before):Fitness and skill development):• Type of activity or activities• Frequency• Intensity• Time allocated• Recovery type and time.• Heart rates (taken at the conclusion of a set or activity)• Perceived exertion levels (recorded at the conclusion of a set or activity)• Fatigue rating (recorded at the end of the session)Cool-downFeelings during and after session:
49 Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale Borg scaleBorg scale descriptorLevel of exertionTime that exertion can be comfortably maintained6No exertion at all7Extremely lightAll day89Very lightVery light, as for a healthy person taking a short walk at his or her own pace.All day with breaks105–10 hours11Light4–5 hours122.5–4 hours13Somewhat hardSomewhat hard. It still feels OK to continue.1.5–2.5 hours1450–90 minutes15Hard (heavy)It is hard and tiring, but continuing is not terribly difficult.25–50 minutes1615–25 minutes17Very hardVery hard. It is very strenuous. You can still go on, but you really have to push yourself and you are very tired.7–15 minutes183–7 minutes19Extremely hardAn extremely strenuous level. For most people this is the most strenuous exercise they have ever experienced.30 seconds – 3 minutes20Maximal exertion< 30 seconds
50 Fatigue testAimTo measure and monitor your levels of fatigue during trainingEquipmentstopwatchProcedureDo the following after rising in the morning but before breakfast or stimulants (tea or coffee).1 Sit quietly for 3 to 5 minutes until your heart rate is stable. You can read the paper during this time.2 Take the resting heart rate at the wrist for 10 seconds. Then, multiply the number of beats by six to get the rate per minute.Continued on the next slide
51 3 Start the stopwatch and begin stepping (up with one foot then the other, then down with the first foot and then the other). The entire sequence of stepping up and down should take 2 seconds and be repeated 30 times in 1 minute.4 After 1 minute of stepping, stop. While still standing, take the post-exercise heart rate and then sit down immediately.5 Sit quietly and relax. At 30 seconds after exercise, take your heart rate for 10 seconds. Then, multiply the number of beats by six to get the rate per minute.6 At 60 seconds after exercise, take the final heart rate.Record your results in a table like the one on the following slide. To calculate the fatigue index, add up all of the heart rate measurements.
52 Fatigue test recording form 10-second pulse× 6 =beats per minute1 Resting____________2 Exercise3 30 seconds after exercise4 60 seconds after exercise Fatigue index (sum of above)____________ beats
53 Criteria for evaluating the fatigue test Increase in fatigue indexRisk of over-training0 to 20 above restingNot generally a concern unless sustained20 to 30 above restingSlightly increased30 to 45 above restingIncreased riskMore than 45 above restingHigh risk (suggest no training)
54 Monitoring goalsAllows coaches and athletes to determine if something is wrong with the programProvides insight into an athlete’s attitude. There is no point monitoring athletes’ progress with periodic fitness testing if they have lost motivation and fail to see the point of their training.
55 Analysing the findings 1. Have any of my periodic fitness tests shown a plateau or decline in performance? If so, is there a plausible reason for this? If not, what modifications should I make to my training program? 2. Have any issues arisen repeatedly in my journal reflections, such as extreme fatigue? If so, do these justify modifications to my training program or is there another valid reason? 3. Have I been reaching my progress goals? If not, is it due to a lack of application on my part or are the training sessions insufficient to allow me to improve?
56 Planning for the future A SWOT analysis of a training programStrengthsWeaknessesWhat were the best aspects of the program and why?What was done well and why?What test results showed improvement and why?Are there gaps in the program?What did we not do very well and why?What test results showed a decline and why?OpportunitiesThreatsHow can the program be improved?What may prevent the achievement of short-term and long-term objectives?Personal reflectionAfter a SWOT analysis, what modifications would you make to your recently completed program next time?
57 Now that you’ve finished… Back tochapter overviewNow that you’ve finished…Answers
58 1 a. Explain the difference between the post-season, pre-season and in-season training. b. Explain the types of activity recommended for each training phase.Post-season training is usually low intensity but high volume (a large number of long sessions). A post-season program might include competitions in the athlete’s sport (or a similar sport) and recreational and social activities for fun. Pre-season training shifts to high intensity (progressive overload) and low volume. Pre-season training usually occurs eight to twelve weeks before the start of the season or competition. The aim of in-season training is to maintain the fitness, strength and skills developed during the pre-season. Practice sessions should be at a volume and intensity that allows athletes to maintain their strength and endurance.Post-season: Skill development and limited sports-specific practice. Pre-season: Skill development and learning strategies. In season: Skill development and game-like activities, regular competition.
59 2 a. Describe the components of an individual training session. Overview: brief introduction to session and state aims.Warm-ups and stretching involve a gentle and rhythmic use of the large muscle groups. This will raise the heart rate. It is essential that stretching occurs only when the muscles are warm and that each stretch is held (without bouncing) for 10–30 seconds. The specific warm-up stage involves practising activities and skills that are relevant to the sport.Skill instruction and practice: series of skill work in the form of planned drills.Conditioning: sport-specific fitness development. Fitness conditioning should last for about 15–20 minutes.Games: optional; can be incorporated into the warm-up or cool-down.Cool-down: light intensity work followed by a period of stretching.Evaluation: allocated time to talk about intensity and application in training, punctuality, the next training session, player availability and the coming game/event.
60 2 b. Outline reasons for including each of these components. Overview: ensures athletes are able to perform tasks wellWarm-ups and stretching: prepares athletes physically and mentally for the demands of the training session. By incorporating the skills of the sport in a specific warm-up, the necessary muscles and ligaments – and even motor neurons – required for the performance are activated.Skill instruction and practice: allows for the development of specific skills necessaryConditioning: develops the energy systems necessary for the physical activity.Games: motivates and reinforces execution of skills in a competitive setting.Cool-down: helps to remove waste products and gradually bring the body back to resting levels. It gives the body time to return blood to the heart, rather than letting the blood pool in the muscles. This allows the oxygenated blood to flush out the waste products that form during activity and begin to rebuild the energy stores required for the next performance.Evaluation: for reflecting on session’s training objectives and performances.
61 ensure proper nutrition 3. Outline the steps you, as a coach, would take to assist an athlete who is over-trained.ensure proper nutritionensure adequate rest and recovery between workouts; reduce number of workoutsmonitor training loadsvary exercise intensitiesmonitor physiological changes (for example, increased heart rate, increased oxygen consumption and blood lactate levels)use sports psychology strategies (for example, mental rehearsal and relaxation)keep a training diary to monitor feelings.
62 4. Design a checklist to recognise the signs and symptoms of over-training in a 100-metre swimmer. PhysicalDecline in speedLoss of muscle strengthLoss of technique in various phases of stroke and kickingIncorrect body positionInjuryBiologicalIncrease in resting and submaximal heart ratesElevation of heart rate in recovery after exerciseIncrease in blood pressureIncrease in oxygen uptake and blood lactate during sub-maximal exerciseLoss of weight (or no weight loss)Muscle tendernessOccasional nauseaChronic fatigueEarly onset of fatigue when training or competingDecrease in VO2 maxPsychological ‘Staleness’Sleep disturbancesIncrease in feelings of physical, mental and emotional exhaustionDecrease in self-esteemDifficulties in dealing with othersSocial withdrawalFeelings of overall chronic stressEmotional instabilityDecrease in motivation and commitment
63 Allows for logical progression towards goals. 5. Explain how breaking a long-term training program into smaller blocks of time (phases and macrocycles) can help athletes to improve their performance.Allows for logical progression towards goals.Allows for planning in greater detail.Allows for the systematic manipulation of training volumes, intensities and recovery.
64 6. Compare the focus of the preparation (pre-season) phase of an annual program with that of the in-season phase.During the in-season, the focus on training is maintenance; however, during pre-season training, the focus is on the development of skills and taxing of energy systems, a build-up towards peaking.
65 Required by assessment date 7. Imagine that you are about to design a short-term training program. Conduct your own individual fitness and skill analysis for your current physical activity.Example: Netball (Goal Shooter)Required by assessment dateMy current levelGapSkillHigh shooting accuracy. Suggest 80% success from near and far rangeFast and accurate passingLow shooting accuracy from far rangeMust devote largest portion of skill work to mid/far range shotsFitnessHigh level aerobic and anaerobic capacityAgilityHigh anaerobic capacity, but low aerobic capacityQuite agileMust develop aerobic capacity
66 8. How would a short-term training program for hurdlers at the cognitive (beginning) stage of learning differ from a program for hurdlers at the autonomous stage of learning? Compare and contrast the priority given to skill versus fitness development. Justify your response.Cognitive hurdlerMostly part practice. Fitness development separate to skill developmentAssociative hurdlerMostly whole practice. Fitness development integrated with skill development (fine tuning technical issues)
67 9. Describe the methods used to monitor a training program. Athletes should conduct periodic fitness testing to determine where strengths/weaknesses lie in order for adjustments to be made. Journals that are recorded on a regular basis can provide useful feedback to both athletes and coaches.
68 10. Explain the purpose of a SWOT analysis. When applied to training programs, the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) test forces participants to reflect on the positive and negative aspects of the program, with the aim of drawing attention to its flaws.