Presentation on theme: "Designing and evaluating training programs. Chapter overview Planning a training program Adenosine triphosphatepage 125 Adenosine triphosphate What to."— Presentation transcript:
Designing and evaluating training programs
Chapter overview Planning a training program Adenosine triphosphatepage 125 Adenosine triphosphate What to consider page 223 What to consider Planning a training yearpage 226 Planning a training year Planning a training session page 234 Planning a training session Avoiding over-training page 236 Avoiding over-training Short-term training programs Designing a short-term training program page 239 Designing a short-term training program Program evaluation Monitoring training page 250 Monitoring training Analysing the findings page 255 Analysing the findings Planning for the future page 256 Planning for the future Now that youve finished … answers
Planning a training program Page 223
What to consider… 1. Performance and fitness needs 2. Training sessions 3. Competition schedule 4. Climate and season Integration Consider your current sport and your local climate. In what situations is it likely that you will need to devise an alternative plan to allow for bad weather?
Planning a training year Page 226
Phases of competition Training programs can be broken down into 3 distinct phases: 1. Post-season (transition) 2. Pre-season (preparatory) 3. In-season (competition) Training volume and intensity are adjusted at each stage to suit athletes needs
Post-season training Aims to: Prevent weight gain Maintain a base level of aerobic fitness Maintain strength Maintain reasonable skill levels Repair injuries Recuperate physically and mentally Low intensity work, but high volume
Pre-season training Usually 8–12 weeks before the start of the season or competition Energy systems used in sport are taxed to maximum capacity High intensity work, but low in volume
In-season training Maintain fitness, strength and skills developed Intensity and volume should allow for maintenance Often consists of intense skill practice and modified games ActivityPost-seasonPre-seasonIn season Weight training3 days per week2–3 days per week1 day per week RunningLow intensity: 1–2 days per week High intensity: 3 days per week High intensity: 1–2 days per week SkillsSkills practice Skills and drills practice OtherLimited sport- specific practice Learning strategiesGame-like activities; regular competition Source: Adapted from ML Foss and SJ Keteyian, Foxs Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport, 6th edn, WCB/McGraw-Hill, Boston, 1998 and SK Powers and ET Howley, Exercise Physiology Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, 3rd edn, Brown and Benchmark, Madison 1997 Suggested activities for the phases of a year-round training program
Macro- and microcycles Programs can be broken down into macro- and microcycles. These smaller blocks allow for the manipulation of training volumes, intensities and recovery. Macrocycles: Usually last 3–6 weeks Microcycles: 7–10 days
Each macrocycle can have a different focus
Annual training plan An annual training plan helps athletes and coaches to achieve their goals. (p. 231)
Peaking for performance A peak is an optimal state of athletic readiness aimed at the highest possible performance. Macrocycle and microcycles should gear athlete to peak by competition/finals etc. A performance peak is characterised by: Personal reflection Have you ever adjusted your training so that you are at your peak for an event? How did your training program change? - Good health - An ability to cope with training workloads and stress - Quick recovery - Extreme efficiency at producing energy for performance - Self-confidence - High motivation and aspirations
Tapering The act of reducing aspects of training in weeks leading up to competition Allows body and mind to have a break from vigorous physical exertion Provides opportunity to heal injuries and recharge energy reserves Tapering should begin approximately 1 microcycle (7–10 days) competition
Athletes may experience some of the following during the taper period: - VO 2 max increases - Muscular strength increases - Blood lactate levels decrease - Minor injuries are healed - Soreness disappears - Glycogen stores are replenished Personal reflection When do you think you will need to start tapering your training to peak for your event?
Planning a training session Page 234
Training sessions 1. Overview – state objective and general activities 2. Warm-ups and stretching – gentle and rhythmic use of large muscle groups and raise heart rate. Stretch after muscles are warm, either dynamic or static 3. Skill instruction and practice – set series of drills to follow. Should soon follow warm-up so that athlete doesnt cool down 4. Conditioning – 15–20min should occur after skill work so that it is not affected by fatigue
Training sessions 5. Games (optional) – motivate and reinforce execution of skills in a competitive setting 6. Cool-down – 5–10min plus stretching returns blood to the heart and waste product removal 7. Evaluation – reflection can occur during and after the cool- down. Journal entries taken over time can provide valuable feedback for future sessions.
Avoiding over-training Page 236
Over-training Negatively affects performance, leads to injury and burnout Occurs when workouts are: - Too long and too frequent - Too strenuous - Conducted with inadequate recovery times between workouts
Signs and symptoms of over-training Physical performanceBiological functionsPsychological signs Decline in physical performance Loss of muscle strength Loss of coordination Decrease in maximal aerobic capacity Injury Increase in resting and sub- maximal heart rates Elevation of heart rate in recovery after exercise Increase in oxygen uptake and blood lactate during sub- maximal exercise Increase in blood pressure Loss of weight (or no weight loss) Muscle tenderness Increased risk of infection Occasional nausea Chronic fatigue Early onset of fatigue when training or competing Decrease in VO 2 max Decrease in muscle glycogen Decrease in appetite and libido Staleness Sleep disturbances Increase in feelings of physical, mental and emotional exhaustion Decrease in self-esteem Difficulties in dealing with others Social withdrawal Feelings of overall chronic stress Emotional instability Decrease in motivation and commitment
Short-term training programs Page 239
Seven steps are involved in designing a short-term training program. 1 Analyse fitness and skills. 2 Decide on the duration of the program. 3 Divide the program into periods. 4 Decide on training days. 5 Create a program outline. 6 Plan training sessions. 7 Ensure that the training principles have been correctly applied.
Step 1: Analyse fitness & skill needs Once you know what your goal for the training program is, use the SMARTER model to determine your fitness and skill gap. SpecificI want to become a better goal keeper by increasing my goal saves percentage. MeasurableA goal is saved each time I successfully prevent the opposition from scoring. I can find this information. I would like to achieve a 75 per cent success rate. AttainableLast season, I averaged a 65 per cent success rate. I believe that 75 per cent will be challenging, but within my reach. RealisticI believe I am now at the associative level in my sport as I have started playing at club level. I have spoken with my coach and she feels that a 75 per cent goal save rate is a realistic goal. TimelyI want to achieve this average by the end of this season, which is five months away (1 December). ExcitingThis goal provides a challenge and will help to keep me motivated. ReviewedI will review this goal on the first day of December. Setting SMARTER goalsa water polo goalkeepers example Personal reflection What are your short-term training goals?
Fitness needs – athletes current fitness level = ______________ What energy system does the activity require? What fitness components does the activity require? How efficient is your anaerobic/aerobic capacity at the moment? Are the fitness components required by the physical activity your strength/s or weakness/es?
Skill needs of physical activity – athletes current skill level = ____________ What skills does the activity require? Do you already have these skills? If so, what level are you at (cognitive/associative/autonomous)? What skills require the most improvement?
Determining the gap Example Answer: The activity in question is swimming and I am required to compete in the 100m freestyle in 7 weeks time. This event relies heavily on the anaerobic energy system. This is not an area of strength for me as I am a long distance runner with a highly developed aerobic capacity. I must therefore place a great emphasis on developing speed and improving my anaerobic threshold. I am at the associative stage in freestyle and was coached for a few years when I was young. Therefore, my training program must emphasise the development of fitness, with a minor focus being technique. Personal reflection What portion of your training needs to be devoted to skill development? How does this compare with the amount that needs to be devoted to fitness?
Step 2: Decide on the duration of the program The duration of a program depends on the dominant energy system needed for the activity: Aerobic-based training programs need 12–15 weeks. Anaerobic-based training programs need 8–10 weeks. Some strength gains can be achieved in as little as 5 weeks In the Senior PE course, time constraints often place limitations on the length of training programs. Your teacher will guide you in this process.
Step 3: Divide the program into periods Allows for logical progression towards goals. Once training phase determined, program should be divided into macrocycles that last for three weeks each. In each cycle, the first week is of a medium difficulty, the second is more difficult and the third is for recovery. Figure 6.15 provides an estimate on how many hours should be spent training in each microcycle (week).
It is recommended that athletes focus on the medium weeks in their program first. A medium week should consist of sessions that are individually tiring but that do not make the athlete feel physically sore or drained at the end. Personal reflection What would a training session need to consist of to make you feel tired by the end but not feel sore the next day?
Step 4: Decide on training days Anaerobic power-based training – 3 times a week Aerobic training – up to 5 times per week. When deciding which days to train, follow two general rules: 1. Vary the overall strain of the training days, never placing two high-stress days in a row. 2. Follow every hard day with an easy day. Easy days can be a great opportunity to work on technical skills and tactics.
Step 5: Create a program outline EssentialOptional Day Date Location Warm-up Fitness and skill development): Type of activity or activities Frequency Intensity Time allocated Recovery type and time. Heart rates (taken at the conclusion of a set or activity) Perceived exertion levels (recorded at the conclusion of a set or activity) Fatigue rating (recorded at the end of the session) Cool-down Total calories expended Body weight Diet Sleep (night before) Feelings during and after session
Step 6: Plan training sessions Name Week number (and dates) Week difficulty (circle) mediumhardrecovery Warm-up and stretching Skill practice (if included in session) ConditioningCool-downEvaluation Monday Training day / Rest day Type: Frequency: Intensity: Time: Tuesday Training day / Rest day Type: Frequency: Intensity: Time: Wednesday Training day / Rest day Type: Frequency: Intensity: Time: Thursday Training day / Rest day Type: Frequency: Intensity: Time: Continued on the next slide
Name Week number (and dates) Week difficulty (circle) mediumhardrecovery Warm-up and stretching Skill practice (if included in session) ConditioningCool-downEvaluation Friday Training day / Rest day Type: Frequency: Intensity: Time: Saturday Training day / Rest day Type: Frequency: Intensity: Time: Sunday Training day / Rest day Type: Frequency: Intensity: Time:
Step 7: Ensure that training principles have been applied When the short-term training program, including a plan for individual sessions, has been written, athletes should be able to answer yes to the following questions: 1. Are your individual sessions specific to your event and your needs? 2. Are you training often enough each week? 3. Are you doing the correct number of repetitions and sets each session? 4. Are you working at the correct intensity? (Remember, the intensity will depend on the week of your program: medium, hard or recovery.)
5. Are your intervals, sets or drills running for the appropriate length of time? 6. Are you allowing your body enough rest between sets? 7. Are you appropriately increasing the stress on your body to see improvement? 8. Are you ensuring that you will not get bored? Have you made sure that you have a variety of relevant activities?
SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVariety Muscular strength Resistance training: Muscle contractions should involve both concentric and eccentric contractions. Where possible, actions should mimic those of the sport. Untrained athletes: 1–2 sessions per week, 2–3 sets per session Advanced athletes: 3–5 sessions per week, per muscle group, split sessions, 3– 6 sets per session Untrained athletes: 8–12 RM, slow– moderate speed Advanced athletes: 2–6 RM, slow– moderate speed The number of sets will guide the time for each session. However, the amount of rest is constant. Untrained athletes: 2–3 minutes between sets Advanced athletes: 3–5 minutes between sets Gradual decreases of 2–10% of RM; the lower the RM, the heavier the weight Machines, free weights, elastic bands, persons own body weight, pulleys and levers, and sport-specific machines (for example, swimming resistance bench) Continued on the next slide
SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVariety Muscular powerPower is the result of applying force (strength) quickly; it is necessary to have adequate strength before one can develop power. Therefore, it is recommended that a power program includes a maintenance strength program. Where possible, actions should mimic those of the sport. 1–2 sessions per week, 3–6 sets per session 6–12 RM for 2–10 repetitions, fast speed The number of sets will guide the time for each session. However, the amount of rest is constant: 3–5 minutes between sets. Gradual decreases of 2–10% of RM; the lower the RM, the heavier the weight Machines, free weights, elastic bands, persons own body weight, pulleys and levers, and sport-specific machines (for example, swimming resistance bench) Continued on the next slide
SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVariety Muscular endurance Any activity requiring the muscle to repeatedly contract against a resistance, such as plyometrics and weight training. 3 sessions per week, 3–6 sets per session 15+ RM for 15–30 repetitions, medium speed The number of sets will guide the time for each session. However, the amount of rest is constant: 1–3 minutes between sets. Gradual decreases of 2–10% of RM; the lower the RM, the heavier the weight. Machines, free weights, elastic bands, persons own body weight, pulleys and levers, and sport-specific machines (for example, swimming resistance bench) Continued on the next slide
SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVariety Cardio- respiratory (aerobic) capacity Continuous training, intermediate – long-interval training, fartlek training Cardio- respiratory gains can be achieved with as few as 2 sessions per week in beginner athletes; however, 3–5 sessions per week are recommended. Continuous training: 50–85% of maximum heart rate Interval training: moderate duration, high- intensity pace training: 85–90% of maximum heart rate Continuous training: 20–60 minutes (not including warm-up and cool-down); less time for beginners; more for advanced athletes Interval training: 30–60 minutes in total, bouts of 4–10 minutes with active rest Gradual increases in intensity (increasing lactate threshold) or distance Walking, jogging, running, swimming, cycling Continued on the next slide
SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVariety Speed (anaerobic) Short- interval training, intermediat e-interval training Alactacid: 10 sec5 sets per workout, 10 repetitions per set < 20 sec3 sets per workout, 8 repetitions per set Alactacid/lactic acid: 30–45 sec4 sets per workout, 4 repetitions per set 1:20–1:30 min2 sets per workout, 4 repetitions per set Anaerobic: 1:45–2:15 min1 set per workout, 5 repetitions per set 2:30–3 min2 sets per workout, 2 repetitions per set 85–100% of maximum heart rate Alactacid: 10 sec1:4 work– relief ratio, complete rest recovery < 20 sec1:3 work– relief ratio, complete rest recovery Alactacid/lactic acid: 30–45 sec1:3 work– relief ratio, work–relief 1:20–1:30 min1:2 work–relief ratio, work–relief Anaerobic: 1:45–2:15 min1:2 work–relief ratio, work–relief 2:30-3 min1:1 work or complete rest recovery Gradual increases in intensity or distance Track, sprinting, cycling, swimming, gym machines Continued on the next slide
SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVariety FlexibilityStatic stretching, PNF, dynamic stretching There is no maximum frequency. Stretch MUST occur every session after a suitable warm-up and at the very end of the session. Static and PNF: Low intensity, no bouncing Dynamic: gentle repetition of the types of movements associated with the sport Static: Held for 10–30 sec in a pain- free position PNF: Static stretch held for 10–20 sec, 6 sec of isometric contraction, 10–20 sec of further static, and so on Gradual increases in range of movement across joint. Be careful not to over- stretch using the PNF technique. Individual stretching, pair stretching, assisted (e.g. elastic band), during an aerobics class (dynamic) Continued on the next slide
SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVariety Agility, Coordination, Balance, Reaction Time These components will be developed in the skill training phase of a session. The skills and drills will depend on the physical activity. Cognitive and associative stage of learning: every session Autonomous stage of learning: most sessions (some may be conditioning only) Cognitive and associative stage of learning: Usually at the start of a session when the athlete is fresh. Autonomous stage of learning: Integrated with fitness conditioning and often when the athlete is tired (fatigue loading) Drills can become more challenging. Examples include: perform the drill for longer; perform the drill faster; or increase the success rate before completing drill Will depend on the physical activity in question.
Program evaluation Page 250
Monitoring training It is important to monitor a training program to ensure that athletes are given appropriate feedback and remain motivated. Common mistakes that are often identified when monitoring training programs include: over-training under-training inappropriate training methods inappropriate intensity training that is not specific to the athletes goals failing to taper.
Periodic fitness testing Keeps athlete motivated Highlights problematic areas Tests should be performed regularly to provide best feedback. At the least, tests should be performed before (pre-testing) and after (post-testing) all programs to provide a basic summary of achievements
Keeping a journal Journal entries should consist of two sections: a log of the fundamentals of the session, such as frequency, intensity, time and type of training a section for additional information and reflection. Personal reflection Have you ever kept a training journal? Was it beneficial and, if so, how?
Information to include in a training journal EssentialOptional Day:Total calories expended: Date:Body weight: Location:Diet: Warm-up:Sleep (night before): Fitness and skill development): Type of activity or activities Frequency Intensity Time allocated Recovery type and time. Heart rates (taken at the conclusion of a set or activity) Perceived exertion levels (recorded at the conclusion of a set or activity) Fatigue rating (recorded at the end of the session) Cool-down Feelings during and after session:
Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale Borg scale Borg scale descriptor Level of exertionTime that exertion can be comfortably maintained 6No exertion at all 7Extremely lightAll day 8Extremely light 9Very lightVery light, as for a healthy person taking a short walk at his or her own pace. All day with breaks 105–10 hours 11Light4–5 hours 122.5–4 hours 13Somewhat hardSomewhat hard. It still feels OK to continue.1.5–2.5 hours 1450–90 minutes 15Hard (heavy)It is hard and tiring, but continuing is not terribly difficult. 25–50 minutes 1615–25 minutes 17Very hardVery hard. It is very strenuous. You can still go on, but you really have to push yourself and you are very tired. 7–15 minutes 183–7 minutes 19Extremely hardAn extremely strenuous level. For most people this is the most strenuous exercise they have ever experienced. 30 seconds – 3 minutes 20Maximal exertion< 30 seconds
Fatigue test Aim To measure and monitor your levels of fatigue during training Equipment stopwatch Procedure Do the following after rising in the morning but before breakfast or stimulants (tea or coffee). 1Sit quietly for 3 to 5 minutes until your heart rate is stable. You can read the paper during this time. 2Take the resting heart rate at the wrist for 10 seconds. Then, multiply the number of beats by six to get the rate per minute. Continued on the next slide
3Start the stopwatch and begin stepping (up with one foot then the other, then down with the first foot and then the other). The entire sequence of stepping up and down should take 2 seconds and be repeated 30 times in 1 minute. 4After 1 minute of stepping, stop. While still standing, take the post-exercise heart rate and then sit down immediately. 5Sit quietly and relax. At 30 seconds after exercise, take your heart rate for 10 seconds. Then, multiply the number of beats by six to get the rate per minute. 6At 60 seconds after exercise, take the final heart rate. Record your results in a table like the one on the following slide. To calculate the fatigue index, add up all of the heart rate measurements.
Fatigue test recording form 10-second pulse× 6 =beats per minute 1 Resting____________× 6 = ____________ 2 Exercise____________× 6 = ____________ 3 30 seconds after exercise____________× 6 = ____________ 4 60 seconds after exercise____________× 6 = ____________ Fatigue index (sum of above)____________ beats
Criteria for evaluating the fatigue test Increase in fatigue index Risk of over-training 0 to 20 above resting Not generally a concern unless sustained 20 to 30 above restingSlightly increased 30 to 45 above restingIncreased risk More than 45 above resting High risk (suggest no training)
Monitoring goals Allows coaches and athletes to determine if something is wrong with the program Provides insight into an athletes attitude. There is no point monitoring athletes progress with periodic fitness testing if they have lost motivation and fail to see the point of their training.
Analysing the findings 1. Have any of my periodic fitness tests shown a plateau or decline in performance? If so, is there a plausible reason for this? If not, what modifications should I make to my training program? 2. Have any issues arisen repeatedly in my journal reflections, such as extreme fatigue? If so, do these justify modifications to my training program or is there another valid reason? 3. Have I been reaching my progress goals? If not, is it due to a lack of application on my part or are the training sessions insufficient to allow me to improve?
Planning for the future StrengthsWeaknesses What were the best aspects of the program and why? What was done well and why? What test results showed improvement and why? Are there gaps in the program? What did we not do very well and why? What test results showed a decline and why? OpportunitiesThreats How can the program be improved? What may prevent the achievement of short-term and long-term objectives? Personal reflection After a SWOT analysis, what modifications would you make to your recently completed program next time? A SWOT analysis of a training program
Now that youve finished… Answers
1a. Explain the difference between the post-season, pre-season and in-season training. b. Explain the types of activity recommended for each training phase. a. Post-season training is usually low intensity but high volume (a large number of long sessions). A post-season program might include competitions in the athletes sport (or a similar sport) and recreational and social activities for fun. Pre-season training shifts to high intensity (progressive overload) and low volume. Pre-season training usually occurs eight to twelve weeks before the start of the season or competition. The aim of in-season training is to maintain the fitness, strength and skills developed during the pre-season. Practice sessions should be at a volume and intensity that allows athletes to maintain their strength and endurance. b. Post-season: Skill development and limited sports-specific practice. Pre-season: Skill development and learning strategies. In season: Skill development and game-like activities, regular competition.
2a. Describe the components of an individual training session. Overview: brief introduction to session and state aims. Warm-ups and stretching involve a gentle and rhythmic use of the large muscle groups. This will raise the heart rate. It is essential that stretching occurs only when the muscles are warm and that each stretch is held (without bouncing) for 10–30 seconds. The specific warm-up stage involves practising activities and skills that are relevant to the sport. Skill instruction and practice: series of skill work in the form of planned drills. Conditioning: sport-specific fitness development. Fitness conditioning should last for about 15–20 minutes. Games: optional; can be incorporated into the warm-up or cool-down. Cool-down: light intensity work followed by a period of stretching. Evaluation: allocated time to talk about intensity and application in training, punctuality, the next training session, player availability and the coming game/event.
2b. Outline reasons for including each of these components. Overview: ensures athletes are able to perform tasks well Warm-ups and stretching: prepares athletes physically and mentally for the demands of the training session. By incorporating the skills of the sport in a specific warm-up, the necessary muscles and ligaments – and even motor neurons – required for the performance are activated. Skill instruction and practice: allows for the development of specific skills necessary Conditioning: develops the energy systems necessary for the physical activity. Games: motivates and reinforces execution of skills in a competitive setting. Cool-down: helps to remove waste products and gradually bring the body back to resting levels. It gives the body time to return blood to the heart, rather than letting the blood pool in the muscles. This allows the oxygenated blood to flush out the waste products that form during activity and begin to rebuild the energy stores required for the next performance. Evaluation: for reflecting on sessions training objectives and performances.
3. Outline the steps you, as a coach, would take to assist an athlete who is over-trained. ensure proper nutrition ensure adequate rest and recovery between workouts; reduce number of workouts monitor training loads vary exercise intensities monitor physiological changes (for example, increased heart rate, increased oxygen consumption and blood lactate levels) use sports psychology strategies (for example, mental rehearsal and relaxation) keep a training diary to monitor feelings.
4. Design a checklist to recognise the signs and symptoms of over- training in a 100-metre swimmer. Physical Decline in speed Loss of muscle strength Loss of technique in various phases of stroke and kicking Incorrect body position Injury Biological Increase in resting and submaximal heart rates Elevation of heart rate in recovery after exercise Increase in blood pressure Increase in oxygen uptake and blood lactate during sub-maximal exercise Loss of weight (or no weight loss) Muscle tenderness Occasional nausea Chronic fatigue Early onset of fatigue when training or competing Decrease in VO 2 max Psychological Staleness Sleep disturbances Increase in feelings of physical, mental and emotional exhaustion Decrease in self-esteem Difficulties in dealing with others Social withdrawal Feelings of overall chronic stress Emotional instability Decrease in motivation and commitment
5. Explain how breaking a long-term training program into smaller blocks of time (phases and macrocycles) can help athletes to improve their performance. Allows for logical progression towards goals. Allows for planning in greater detail. Allows for the systematic manipulation of training volumes, intensities and recovery.
6. Compare the focus of the preparation (pre-season) phase of an annual program with that of the in-season phase. During the in-season, the focus on training is maintenance; however, during pre-season training, the focus is on the development of skills and taxing of energy systems, a build-up towards peaking.
7. Imagine that you are about to design a short-term training program. Conduct your own individual fitness and skill analysis for your current physical activity. Required by assessment date My current levelGap Skill High shooting accuracy. Suggest 80% success from near and far range Fast and accurate passing Low shooting accuracy from far range Fast and accurate passing Must devote largest portion of skill work to mid/far range shots Fitness High level aerobic and anaerobic capacity Agility High anaerobic capacity, but low aerobic capacity Quite agile Must develop aerobic capacity Example: Netball (Goal Shooter)
8. How would a short-term training program for hurdlers at the cognitive (beginning) stage of learning differ from a program for hurdlers at the autonomous stage of learning? Compare and contrast the priority given to skill versus fitness development. Justify your response. Cognitive hurdler Mostly part practice. Fitness development separate to skill development Associative hurdlerMostly whole practice. Fitness development integrated with skill development (fine tuning technical issues)
9. Describe the methods used to monitor a training program. Athletes should conduct periodic fitness testing to determine where strengths/weaknesses lie in order for adjustments to be made. Journals that are recorded on a regular basis can provide useful feedback to both athletes and coaches.
10. Explain the purpose of a SWOT analysis. When applied to training programs, the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) test forces participants to reflect on the positive and negative aspects of the program, with the aim of drawing attention to its flaws.