Presentation on theme: "Presented By: Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
1Presented By: Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. OverviewFrequency Response Function (FRF) Stability MapPresented By:Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
2Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Purpose of SoftwareTo predict, measure, avoid and control machining Vibrations.Uses common vibration measuring techniques.Applies them specifically to the machining process.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
3Problems With Today’s Machining (Dynamics) All machines and tool stack-ups exhibit dynamic characteristics that will impact the cutting process.Machining by definition is a dynamic process.Dynamic Characteristics Limit Machining Performance (Ti vs AL).These characteristics can vary significantly and can be difficult to predict reliably. Measurement is required.Primary contributor for cutter failure, spindle failure, limits machining capabilities, etc.Theory and understanding well known by many MR&D Depts. and Universities but only recentlygaining awareness andacceptance on shop floors.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
4What Is High-Performance (HP) Machining? There are many definitions:Cutting speeds(m/min)=pd(m/rot)n(rot/min)Spindle speed or DNDN = bearing bore diameter x spindle speedTorque and PowerothersAll of the definitions of high-performance machining are correct in some context.High-Power is a natural artifact of high-speed.Power = Torque x speedMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
5Added considerations for High-Performance (HP) Machining We have the additional influence of machining feed rates.What is the “average” feed rate.Chip-thinningSurface areaMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
6What Limits HP-HS Machining Productivity? Different types of machining operations have different limitations.HP-HS machining may be limited by:The onset of chatterTool-work piece materialsAvailable powerTool geometryWork piece geometryController or servo performance (acc-dec)Inadequate knowledge about machine capabilitiesMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
7Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Chatter LimitationsParticularly in high speed operations where the objective is to have the metal removal rate as high as possible, the onset of chatter will be a limiting factor.Chatter arises due to insufficient dynamic stiffnessLong slender toolsSmall diameter spindles (DN limitation)Flexible work pieces (although the selection of a tool path can avoid this in most cases)MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
8Tool-Work piece Material Limitations With work piece materials such as aluminum, the availability of a tool material is not a limitation. Tools are available which can tolerate the melting temperature of aluminum.With hard steels, and even more so with titanium, maintaining acceptable tool life is a major problem. There has been some success with light cuts.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
9Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Power LimitationsIn some cases where the machine-tool-work piece combination is dynamically stiff enough, the cutting operation may be limited by the available power.Even for the stiffest machines, there are usually some tools which are not power limited.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
10Tool Geometry Limitations In cases where the dynamic stiffness and power are sufficient, the cutting operation may be limited by the tool configuration (the length of the cutting edge or tool diameter, for example).Cutting edge geometry may be dictated by material property characteristics, thermal behavior, shearing, etc.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
11Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Work piece GeometryIn some instances (many die and mold applications), the geometry of the cut is dictated by the desired work piece geometry. For example, the step-over dimension may be limited. In such cases, most of the machining can happen well below the available power.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
12Controller or Servo Performance Limitations Especially for complex geometries, the block throughput rate of the controller can be a limiting factor.Some easy tests existAs the speed of the axis motions increase, the dynamic performance of the servos become more significantHigh accelerations/decelerations (acc/dec)Lightweight yet stiff moving elementsLook-ahead or feed forward controlMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
13Knowledge Limitations A lack of understanding of high speed machine capabilities frequently leads to under-utilization of such machines.A large, traditional experience base does not exist for high speed machine tool use.Many high speed phenomena are counter-intuitive for users accustomed to conventional speed machines.An acceptable part program is usually not the optimal part program.The programmer needs the machine performance information at the time that the program is written.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
143 Knowledge Possibilities Exist You understand the performance capabilities of your machine very well and write part programs respecting the limitations.OrYou fight chatter problems every day.You are under-utilizing your machine.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
15Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Which Qualities Of High-Performance High-Speed Machines Are Most Important?Spindle Speed alone is not enough.High power alone is not enough.Fast motions or tool changes alone are not enough.High performance controllers alone are not enough.Advanced tool materials alone are not enough.Certainly, these things are important, but…..MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
16Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. For reasons which will become apparent, the definition we will use is:“High-speed (HS-HP) machining occurs when the tooth passing frequency approaches the dominant natural frequency of the system”.-Scott Smith, UNCCMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
17What Is Different About HP-HS Machining? HP-HS machining is different from conventional machining, particularly in the strong influence of the dynamic characteristics of the machine-tool-work piece system on cutting performance.In HP-HS machining, the metal removal rate (MRR) is usually limited by the onset of “chatter”.Success in HP-HS machining depends heavily on the ability to recognize and deal with dynamic problems.Selection of an appropriate spindle speed and depth-of-cut is extremely important and not obvious.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
18What Kinds of Parts Can Benefit From High Speed Machining? Parts which have a large volume of material to be removed.Aluminum and cast iron parts especially, but also hard materials such as dies and molds.Parts with thin structures.Parts which conventionally spend a long time on the machine either due to large metal removal or large surface areas to be machined.Short runs, or frequently changed designs.Many others.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
19Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Pocketed and Thin Section PartsMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
20Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Monolithic Structures (formerly stack-ups)MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
21Shop Floor Friendly Approach Supply a complete solution to theproblems with dynamics andmachining.Model and predict dynamic behaviorand its affect on the cutting process.Effectively measure and adjust tounexpected changes.Maximize Cutting performance (MMR)Simplify analysis of machine tools and cutters.Distill technology down to its most essential parts (measurement and prediction).Machine a part right the first time!MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
22Exactly what are we talking about? Methods for obtaining information about the cutting process dynamics and quickly utilizing this information to maximize cutting performance.Currently available by various means.Applied in a way for maximum usability.Our goal is to maximize metal removal rate and reduce or eliminate detrimental vibrations.We want to utilize basic frequency analysis at the machine or on the shop floor (machinists, NC programmers, process planners, manufacturing engineers) to improve process setup, correct problems when they occur, and objectively evaluate performance.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
23Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. What are we evaluating?Design Parameters Frequency (fn), Stiffness (k) and damping (damping ratio ). They do not change over time or with load.Dynamic stiffness (~2k) at Frequency (fn).Sometimes we are concerned with the magnitude response, for cutting performance the negative real part of the FRFFrequency =fnStatic ComplianceDynamic flexibility=~1/2kNegative Real Peak(chatter)Magnitude Response Real part of FRFMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
24Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Why bother?In a dynamic system component behaviors are highly interelated (e.g. everything affects everything).Change one parameter and it is likely that the dynamic response will change, sometimes substantially.Counter-intuitive behavior is inevitable.Dynamic parameters, particularly damping can change.All this will affect how much can be cut and how much the operation will vibrate (normally, resonate or chatter).MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
25Fundamental Tool: Frequency Response Function (FRF) (20 mm 3-fluted Tool in 30 kW 24 krpm Spindle)FlexibilityMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
26Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Basis for Analysis: The Stability Lobe DiagramProcess DampingMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
27Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. 5 areas of machiningConventional RegionHigh-Performance RegionPoorMan RegionBlim1Blim2 – High-Speed MachiningMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
28Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. 5 Regions of MachiningConventionalTypically Slow RPM with high Feed and DOCBlim1Light DOC where all RPM are chatter-free, but not necessarily most robustBlim2 – High-Speed Region“industry accepted” low DOC high feed rate finishingAll RPM are chatter –free, but not necessarily most robustPoorMan RegionMinimal or NO Sweet Spots, almost all RPM chatterHigh-Performance RegionLargest Metal Removal RatesMust select matching RPM and DOCMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
29Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Desired BenefitsPromote UnderstandingExplain Non-intuitive behavior, e.g. lobing diagram and the dynamics that produce it.Guide user to Optimal SolutionNot necessarily looking for “precise” predictions but good guidance.Fast Improvements90% results with 10% of the effort.Clearly identify limitations, eliminate………..“finger pointing”MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
30Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. What’s Needed?Not as much as you may think.Frequency Analyzer.Widely available SensorsBasic Cutting TheoryCommercial applications are becoming widely available that do not require the expertise of a “vibration expert”.MLI’s MetalMAX™ kit with computer.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
31Packages for Dynamic/Chatter Prediction and Control Measurement and AnalysisComputation and PredictionFinite ElementSpindle Analysis and Cutting Performance AnalyzerCutting Performance Analyzer for Machine ToolsSPATMTXF™Data Acquisition and Machining AnalysisPCScopeMilSimTMMillingsimulationVerification and TrackingTrack Data withparticular setup,tool, machine, etc.Audio Monitoringof Cutting ProcessHarmonizer®CHiPSTMMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.Page 5
32How is it typically applied Front Line Solutions“TXF”Chatter free speeds and power or depth of cut levels.“Harmonizer®”Audio monitoring and chatter detection and correctionExisting NC Program correction.PCScopeGeneric data collectionTrack balance levels and spindle vibrations, temperatures.Off-Line SolutionsMilSim and SPAOff-line in-depth analysis.Good NC-Programmer toolCHiPSOrganize and track data.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
33Two Basic Approaches: “Trial and Error” and Predictive Similar to how we do it now in that we take test parts or run test work pieces and change things based on experience.Additionally, we can integrate cutting theory and signal analysis to direct the changes more efficiently.PredictiveMeasure dynamics of tooling before cutting then compute behavior.Simulate cutting and establish maximum parameters.Verify results when implemented and have the ability to correct for subtle changes that may occur.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
34Predictive Approach. How do we do this? Easiest way is called “impact” testing or modal analysis.Use a hammer to excite the tool over a wide frequency range and and an accelerometer to measure the response and create an FRF (Frequency Response Function).With proper software and setup measurement takes less than 5-minutes per tool.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
35Advantages and Disadvantages of Predictive Approach Fast with minimal machine downtime.No requirement to run machine.Flexibility to determineperformance for all operation conditions.Quick check for changes after “events”.Disadvantages:Limited accuracy depending on inputs.Some technique and equipment neededMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
36Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. What is our concern.Obviously the tool-work piece interface.The flexibility and frequency behavior on the tool and on the part at the location of the cutting interface.The entire machine and all its components contribute to this behavior but we are only concerned with how it is affecting just “ONE” location: Where cutting occurs (the cut interface).We are only concerned with displacement for a given force, or the flexibility.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
37FRF Measurement with MetalMAX™ Equipment 4321EXCITATION(HAMMER)RESPONSE(ACCEL)Sensor Interface ModulePCAccelerometerSTRIKEHammerPower CableSensor CableSchematic of Measurement Setupfor TXF “Tap” or “Ping” test.Actual MetalMAX™ EquipmentMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
38Frequency Response Function to Cutting Performance (Analytical Solution, TXF) Chatter in red areasMRR AxisChatter freqs. (in red) and resonant speedsLobing DiagramsProvide MRR (Depth of Cut) andSpindle Speed valuesMeasured Frequency Response Function (FRF)MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
39Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. General FRF ProcedureA FRF quantifies a tool’s “flexibility” frequency by frequency.Excite systemMeasure forceMeasure responseTransform into frequency domain (Fourier Transform)divide frequency by frequencySee video demonstration.(PLUCKING A TUNING FORK)MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
40Cutting Performance (TXF) Max TorqueMax PowerStability LobesPower LobesMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
41Advantages and Disadvantages of Trial and Error Approach Most AccurateEasyLow skill level requiredSoftware/hardware aids arecommercially available, vibration meters,audio detectors, etc.Disadvantages:Time consumingConsumes work piece material and tools and machine time.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
42Maximizing MRR with Width of Cut Increases Harmonized> 475% increase in Power and MRRSpindle Speed: 16,580 RPMAxial Depth of Cut 25 mmRadial width of cut 1.8 mmCut Power 1.75 kWGREAT SURFACE!!!Spindle Speed: 20,000 RPMAxial Depth of Cut 25 mmRadial width of cut 0.25 mmCut Power 0.3 kWBAD SURFACEMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
43Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Knowledge of the spindle speed is essential.Spindle speed components generally dominate the audio spectrum unless chatter is very severe.Other audio sources are related to spindle speed, bearing passing frequencies, air-oil hiss, etc.Correct setting of threshold maximizes sensitivity.UnfilteredFilteredMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
44Trial and Error Example 10,000 RPM8393 RPMCorner Cut, 10 mm deep, 12 mm wideMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
45Trial and Error Example 10,000 RPMFrequency Content with no filters.8393 RPMFrequency content no filters.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
46Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Milling SimulationSimulation package needs measured dynamics as input.Rapid more accurate solutions to speeds, depths of cut, feeds, cutting forces, tool deflection and surface error.Include tooth run-out, imbalance, non-uniform pitch.Excellent front-line, solution for process engineers and NC programmers.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
47Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Most Important: Cutting Tool Tracking and Control The CHiPS(TM) DatabaseTo get the maximum payback each cutting tool assembly must be uniquely identified.Machine, spindle, holder, cutter, manufacturer’s, stick out length’s, etc. must be tracked by either the customer tool management system or our customized Microsoft Access database for tool setup tracking with dynamics (CHiPS).Record optimum speeds, feeds and depths of cut.Based on measurement and calculation (TXF, MilSim™, etc.) and verified by cutting tests (Harmonizer).Emphasize slotting information (the least stable case).Data will not change unless a different tool, machine tool, or spindle is used. In fact results for identical model machines and spindles can be used on all machines of that model and spindle type.Control of tool set up is required to insure database speeds, feeds, and DOC’s are valid (Dynamic repeatability and consistency).MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
48CHiPS: Tracking all Tooling information MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
49Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Is this Technology new?No!, only in the way it is being applied.Vibration measurement is very well developed.Basic machining dynamic theory well-known for decades by academics and large corporate MR&D departments.The process or practice is the focus rather than its affects.Detect what is happening in the cut, not at the bearings, the motor, under the work piece, etc.“Modal” Analysis or Frequency Analysis has been utilized extensively with the advent of the digital computer and algorithms.Mostly in the design and product test areas.To determine and measure resonance's (aircraft, autos, disk drives, etc.).Even in the design of machine tools and components.Spindle Rotor AnalysisDamping of fixturesMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
50Is this all worth it? The Good News: YES! PREDICTABLE and CONSISTENT: Well controlled setups will behave consistently.Identical model machines even of different age will show minimal variation in frequency.Stiffness will not change significantly over time.Damping may change somewhat but its affects can be avoided.PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS: Stable cutting horsepower can generally be increased % or more compared to practically applied techniques.COST AVOIDANCE: Tool life, time between spindle rebuilds, longevity of the machine, rotary table life, any machine component wear can generally see substantial (> 50%) improvements.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
51Other Benefits of Easy Dynamic Measurement Rapid dynamic measurement can quickly identify many conditions.Non-intuitive behavior.Most flexible mode may not be the most likely to chatter.Quickly identify which component is producing the most flexible mode.Identify when stiffness or damping is loss.Quickly detect changes or compare performance.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
52Automotive Part Example: Mild Steel Tubing 1. Starting Point: Company, Tooling Company, and Machine Tool company spent 15 months designing process – POOR TOOL LIFE212. Ending Point: DATA driven Stability Diagram provided MAP to change RPMMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
53Automotive Part Example: Mild Steel Tubing Shop chose:24,000 rpm3mm ADOC10,000 mm/min0.208 mm/toothTool Life 20 pcsEndmill Cost: $20045 second cycle timeChanged Parameters15,500rpm6,000 mm/min0.193 mm/toothTool Life 80 pcsEndmill Cost: $6553 second cycle timeNot constraint machineImproved Cost: ($10/part – $0.81/part) = $9.19/partYearly Savings: $9.19/part * 700 parts/day * 250 days/year = $1.6 millionMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
54Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Story 2: Outsourcing8000 rpm0.375” ADOCSame Tool, Same Toolholder, Same StickoutDifferent machines have Different Stability Diagram1MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
55Die Shop Example: Cast Iron 1. Starting Point: Machinist chose DOC based on CAM software and past practice – HEAVY CHATTER122. Ending Point: DATA driven Stability Diagram provided MAP to change RPMMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
57Cutting Parameter Selection Comparison of how are speeds, feeds and depths of cut chosen?The Conventional ApproachEmpirical/Experimental GuidelinesHighly Experienced Planner.Technological database from cutting tool supplier.Operational limits from machine tool supplier.Turn Key applications.Note: The guidelines are subjectively applied depending on the situation.Program and Make PartsDetermine AcceptabilityAccept or ModifyA Process Based Approach(Strategy 2)Measure the dynamics.Define Dynamic Condition at cutting interface.Compute optimum cutting parameters and compare to other operational guidelines.Program and make part.Monitor results.Poor material removal rates (speed, feed, DOCScrapped PartsExcessive “benching”Power tool life and tool failuresAccelerated spindle wearPoor process reliabilityUnpredictabilityInferior qualityAll of this results in wasted time and moneyMonitorResultsMakePartMeasureSetupsComputeparametersOperationalGuidelinesProgramwith empiricalguidelinesMake PartDetermineacceptabilityModifyYesNoMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
58Resource Investment: Conventional vs Process based (MetalMAX) Resources Expended:ConventionalMetalMAXMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
59Implementation Strategy #1: Eliminating Chatter TXFOFF-LINE (new cutter or new program): Use hammer kit and TXF software to develop “Stability Charts” for problematic cutters.In-Process (current chatter condition with pre-existing NC program). Use microphone and Harmonizer software to monitor chatter signal and suggest new speeds and feeds.Record results in tooling database or CHiPS database program for future reference.Periodically monitor high volume jobs using Harmonizer to insure chatter is not present.Torque LimitUnstableStableSpeedsHarmonizerChatterallMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
60Implementation Strategy 2: Maximizing Machine and Cutter Performance Identify 20% of tooling that performs 80% of metal removal or consumes 80% of machining time.Use MetalMAX hammer kit and TXF program to create stability charts (maps) for each cutter.Perform cutting tests on a few selected cutters using microphone and Harmonizer to validate predictions and to calibrate results on all cutters.Record data in CHIPS database.Make information accessible to NC programmers.Have machinists monitor and provide feedback periodically regarding performance. Use Harmonizer for periodic monitoring, fine tune when necessary, update database and re-measure as needed (generally not required).Highest Power Stable Region with little chance to chatter.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
61Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Implementation Strategy 3: Matching tooling to machine (and tool tuning).Identify possibly redundant tooling systems, e.g. multiple length cutter configurations, multiple flute, cutters used across machine platforms, etc.Measure redundant tooling systems across machine tools using TXF.Review “stability chart” results.Identify those cutters with superior cutting performance in a given machine and machines-cutting tool combinations with superior cutting performance.Will result in dramatic reduction in required setups and provide preferred machine-tooling configurations (e.g. better identify roughers, finishers, face millers, end millers, 2 flute machines, 3 flute machines, etc.)Alternatively, multiple length cutters of a given size can be measured to identify which length provides the optimal cutting performance (e.g. shorter not always better, see right)ShorterCutterLongerCutterLarger deeperStable pocket,(shorter cutternot needed).MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
62Implementation Strategy 4: New Equipment Qualification Similar to matching machine to tooling strategy except current measurements will afford the analyst benchmark results for popular shop setups to be compared against “test” cutters or alternative OEM designs without having to run cutting tests.These setups can be quickly compared with any new setups considered for the shop through a quick TXF hammer test.Additionally, the shop’s current stackups may be taken and measured on potential new machines to see what stability performance improvement may be expected on the new machines.Benchmarked cutterTest CutterPerformance atLeast 2XMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
63Implementation Strategy 5: Part-Try-Out (PTO) Optimization Tooling should already have been qualified and measured with prior strategies.Work piece and fixturing can now be added at selected machining states with TXF.Milling Simulation MILSIM package can be used concurrently with programming to optimize feed rates based on bending moment limits, cutting force and dynamic cutting accuracy.Harmonizer should be used to provide feed back for nextMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
64Implementation Strategy 6: Predictive and Preventive Maintenance. Establish a measurement artifact for each spindle interface in the shop (e.g. HSK, ISO, etc.).Dimensions of artifact should be approximately a 1 L/D with a diameter approximately equal to the gage length.With machine in known “good” condition make TXF measurement, store, and during routine maintenance checks re-measure artifact and compare (reduction of damping or loss of stiffness will precede typical spindle wear or de-commissioning signals by at least 3 months).After spindle or machine crashes or extraordinary events spindle dynamic condition can be check.Dynamic performance and hence proper refurbishing or replacement of machine components, particularly spindle can be verified.Dynamic consistency of machine can be established.SpindleInGoodConditionSpindleInBadConditionMetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
65Summary of Implementation Issues Exploiting Dynamic ConsistencyBy controlling our tool setups and measuring the dynamics the optimal operating conditions can be repeatably targeted with corresponding benefits.High production rates can be reached as well as high machine utilization.Improve control of cutting processesApparent random vibration behavior can be controlled by implementing a means to define a previously unknown critical characteristic of the machine setup.Better more consistent part quality is achieved.Maintenance improvedThe control of vibrations dramatically reduces machine and tool wear thereby reducing maintenance and repair costs.Quality control is improved as machines that are near design life of more easily identified.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
66Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. SummaryDynamic analysis can be applied easily and in a “Shop Floor Friendly Fashion”.Both for trial and error approaches and predictive analytical approaches.Cost and down time is minimal.It can provide objective and clear understanding as to the dynamic affects driving cutting performance.Benefits include both performance enhancement and “cost-avoidance”.It is an excellent compliment to other machining systems for tool wear, cutting accuracy (machine metrology), etc.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
67Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Downstream BenefitsProper implementation of HP-HS techniques will lead to:Elimination of adverse vibrationsReduction of catastrophic wear on machine and tools thereby lowering maintenance costs and consumablesExpanded flexibility in types of parts and manufacturing processes.Improved quality and more predictable processes leading to better cost estimation.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
68Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Overall BenefitsDeal with chatter problems effectively and quickly.Minimal or elimination of down time due to chatter problems.Minimize part damage and scrap/rework.Extend machine and tooling capabilities.Fewer tools needed to machine same features.Reduce tool fatigue failures and extend tool life.Add flexibility to part programming strategies.Objectively deal with the natural limitations imposed due to machine and tool dynamics.Eliminate “Finger-Pointing”Accurately compare machines or tool stack-ups.Select the best machine and/or tool setup for a particular application.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.
69Limitations of Approach Critically dependent on cutting stiffness and process damping wavelength.Once established for a particular grind of tool and material then will produce accurate predictability.Will change after tool wears (usually increase stable limits).FRF measurement of 1/4” diameter tool is practical lower limit of effective measurement.Improvements currently being developedIn worse case an indirect measurement approach can be applied.Measurement of dynamics performed under static conditions.Measurements can be made at speed with non-contact sensor.A few advance and current spindle designs have poor dyna repeatability and consistency.MetalMAX TrainingManufacturing Laboratories, Inc.