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Impact Research 1 The Business Case in Virtualization
Impact Research 2 Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary………………………………………………… Detailed Fit Indicators……………………………………………… Benefit Drivers………………………………………….……… Common Pitfalls…………………………………………………… Making the Virtualization Business Case……………………… Cost Avoidance………………………………………………………23 7. Cost Savings………………………………………………...…...… Necessary Expenditures…………………………………………… Creating the Plan…………………………………………………….30
Impact Research 3 Executive Summary
Impact Research 4 Enterprise size affects the role of IT, the materiality of expenditure and savings, and comfort with new technologies. Very large companies may experience more difficulty in implementation due to established bureaucracies. Very small companies have trouble justifying the investment. Thirty servers or more leads to the greatest and most demonstrable cost savings and benefits when taking implementation costs into consideration Mid-market enterprises are in the sweet spot to achieve cost savings from virtualization Despite being a very powerful technology, virtualization benefits are more readily realized in certain types of enterprises. Two key factors are leading indicators of greatest success: If there is organizational fit, virtualization does provide most vendor-stated benefits. Executive Summary Size of Enterprise (# of employees) Sweet Spot: ~100 to ~5,000 Sweet Spot: 15+ Number of Servers (# of Supported Physical Servers)
Impact Research 5 2. Reduction in hardware-related maintenance costs The virtualization business case will be rooted in hardware savings Implementation of Virtualization does not affect the number of applications, but rather the number of physical boxes in use. Thus, the majority of pure cost savings are linked to reduction in physical boxes. Cost avoidance and incremental business benefits exist in areas of Disaster Recovery (DR)/Business Continuity (BC) and efficiency, but are not always as tangible. Executive Summary 1. Reduction in one-time and ongoing hardware acquisition costs 4. DR/BC enabled by removing need for homogeneous hardware 3. Efficiency benefits from increased manageability Business Case Value 40%-75% Acquisition Cost Savings 25%-50% Monthly Recurring Savings
Impact Research 6 Evaluating Your Companys Fit
Impact Research 7 Detailed Fit Indicators In the context of virtualization, success means achieving all three set benefits SUCCESS INTANGIBLE BENEFITS: Recognized feature benefits inherent in virtualization and exhibited improved efficiency. TANGIBLE BENEFITS: Achieved the stated business case financial objectives, including one-time and ongoing cost savings and on-time implementation completion. STRATEGIC BENEFITS: Recognized value of virtualization and have plans in place to leverage technology for future growth.
Impact Research 8 Its necessary to look both within and outside of IT to accurately assess fit Despite being a cool technology, perform adequate due diligence in assessing fit. Detailed Fit Indicators Virtualization can be implemented in any enterprise; however, success (as defined on the previous page) of that implementation depends on a number of factors, broken down into three categories: Company Characteristics IT Department Characteristics Server Infrastructure
Impact Research 9 Small and mid-sized companies make the most use of virtualization technology Virtualization is really an infrastructure initiative that can bring some level of benefit to any size of company. Although adoption penetration of virtualization is greater in larger companies, the proportion of their environment that is virtualized is much less significant. The greatest benefit can be seen in small and mid-sized organizations. Company Characteristics Detailed Fit Indicators Planned/POC Using Not Using % of Servers Virtualized
Impact Research 10 Smaller companies have seen greater benefits in the implementation of virtualization Being a more innovative IT solution, small to mid- sized companies have significantly better success in implementation for the following reasons in order of impact (shown as Harvey Ball on right): Company Characteristics Greater Executive Comfort with Virtualization: Comfort tends to be significantly higher in smaller organizations, in a large part due to the less complex political climate and ease of buy-in into the potential savings from a virtualization implementation. Further, smaller organizations tend to be less risk averse to new technologies than larger organizations. No Need for a Formal Approval Process: Flexibility of a smaller company, in most cases, eliminates the need for a formal approval process, which can introduce risk by necessitating education of a broader audience on the workings of virtualization. Reduced Political Complexity: Across organizations interviewed, the IT departments of smaller companies had more latitude to make decisions regarding virtualization and related infrastructure topics. IT Department Autonomy: Incremental savings resulting from benefits, such as maintenance efficiencies and power savings, have proportionally more impact on a small company (who feels the impact immediately) than a large enterprise. Although never absent, fewer established (and isolated silos) and a flatter organization cause more pragmatic decision-making. The IT strategic vision can be politically diluted in larger companies. Company Size (# Employees) Virtualization works, but is less compelling. Sweet spot. Virtualization works, but is more difficult to implement and usually of reduced scope. Detailed Fit Indicators Greater Executive Comfort with Virtualization Reduced Political Complexity Appetite for Incremental Cost Savings Relaxed Formal Approval Process IT Department Autonomy 12323
Impact Research 11 ITs commitment to virtualization is key to reaping maximum benefits IT departments current infrastructure and commitment to virtualization play a key role in determining success of an implementation. Three characteristics are indicative of success: IT Department Characteristics IT Comfort with Virtualization: Much like executive comfort with the technology, the technical team must be willing to move away from physical servers. Material Value of Power Savings: Facility space and power savings are two great benefits of implementing virtualization. If the IT organization views these as material, given their current environment and costs, then it indicates a good fit for the technology. Proportion of Servers to be Virtualized: Value in Virtualization is achieved when more, rather than less, of the server infrastructure is migrated. Migrating 50% or more of the environment is a good indicator of success. Detailed Fit Indicators IT Comfort with Virtualization Material Value of Power Savings High Proportion of Server Virtualization 123
Impact Research 12 If you have 15 or more servers and plan to buy new virtual host machines, youre in business! The physical servers that exist in an enterprise are an important component of determining the fit of virtualization within the environment. Server Infrastructure 15 or more Physical Servers: The break-even point for virtualization of a small number of servers (considering hardware and software only) is roughly three servers. The value increases as the number of servers grow. Once all other costs are incorporated, 15 servers is the threshold to achieving greatest value. In short, the more, the better. Acquisition of New Physical Servers: Quick wins can be achieved by virtualizing low- utilization and low-complexity server applications like DNS and Web-servers. Critical applications are certainly candidates as well, but require more time to test thoroughly and may extend the payback timeframe. Detailed Fit Indicators Number of Low-Utilization Applications: Reuse of physical servers to act as host machines is a great way to increase the utilization of those machines; however, for most implementations, purchasing new hardware will extend the life of host machines and could provide additional scalability. 15 or More Physical Servers Number of Low-Utilization Application Servers Please see Page 23 for more details… Acquisition of New Physical Servers 123
Impact Research 13 Benefit Drivers
Impact Research 14 There are real savings resulting from virtualization implementation Virtualization implementations bring benefits that span both tangible and intangible benefit areas: Cost Savings (spending less) Cost Avoidance (not spending more) Intangible Benefits (not quantifiable) Many clients interviewed realized ongoing savings of 30-50% SHRINK YOUR FOOTPRINT by decreasing rack space and cutting back on cooling/electrical costs ENABLE AUTOMATIC FAILOVER to improve/enable DR and BC operations HELP BUSINESS GROW FASTER WHILE KEEPING STAFF CONSTANT by making staff more efficient and repurposing/reallocating freed resources DECREASE HARDWARE ACQUISITION COSTS by buying and setting up fewer servers Cost Savings Cost Avoidance Benefit Drivers Please see Page 23 for more details… Please see Page 25 for more details… Please see Page 26 for more details… Please see Page 27 for more details…
Impact Research 15 Intangible benefits can deliver as much value as hard cost savings Virtual servers can be monitored and managed from one console and allow for capabilities such as failover and snapshot image backups. Features like these improve the efficiency of system administrators while maintaining, or improving, stability. Products like VMware allow for resource pool management, which dynamically load balances virtual servers across physical hosts. The result is more consistent performance and less manual intervention. Management of virtual servers should be accompanied by a cultural change that reduces or eliminates the purchasing of physical servers outside of the IT department. The IT department will provision virtual instances as required and hold the power to make decisions over incremental purchases. Benefit Drivers Improved Manageability & Flexibility Improved Performance Controlling Server Sprawl Development projects are often slowed by the availability of development and testing environments. With template-like functionality, virtual servers can be brought up and refreshed from a single console within minutes to meet project requests. Many companies are now virtualizing desktops to manage security (by allowing remote access to desktop images) and image integrity (through the ability to refresh a desktop image when necessary). An interesting benefit to organizations running large, demanding applications on servers that require frequent hardware upgrades is that no re-installation or re-configuration is required upon hardware changes. Perhaps not as salient, reducing cabling by five- or eight-fold does significantly reduce the possibility of human error in unplugging the wrong cable. Shortened Timelines for Development Projects Enabling Virtualization of Desktops Separate Hardware from Software when Upgrading Reduce the Mess Intangible Benefits
Impact Research 16 Common Pitfalls
Impact Research 17 Heed the warnings of your peers (continued) Business case pitfalls Be wary of including FTE headcount reduction Companies we spoke to had found improved efficiency in their maintenance staff, but this is rarely sufficient to remove resources altogether since, in most cases, the system administrators perform other roles in the IT department. Quell your expectation of huge consolidation. Consolidation ratios mentioned by the vendors differ from actual client experiences. Common Pitfalls Be Wary of Including FTE Headcount Reduction Quell Your Expectation of HUGE Consolidation Per Processor Per Core What vendors report… What to expect… Number of Virtual Machines
Impact Research 18 Heed the warnings of your peers (continued) Common Pitfalls Implementation warnings Executives and Staff Need to have Faith Dont underestimate the culture shift required to remove physical servers and replace them with virtual ones. Server Huggers (found in IT and in the business) need time to come on board and support the initiative. You will most likely hit an IO Bottleneck Memory and CPU can be managed and allocated to keep up with most virtual server demands. NICs can be scaled and added as necessary. I/O, however, will most likely be a bottleneck and the limiting factor as to the number of virtual machines a host can manage. For example, this is particularly true in Exchange environments with consolidated storage and a high number of BlackBerry users. From a capacity planning standpoint, one BlackBerry Exchange user translates into four standard Exchange users on an I/O basis. Vendor Support may be an issue Although they are coming on quickly, not all vendors (especially smaller ones) are supporting their applications in a virtual environment. That being said, many enterprises we spoke to became reference clients for their software vendors once the virtual server implementation was complete. VMware currently has a number of initiatives underway to help gain software vendor support, one of which includes a group who works directly with ISVs. Of the top 70 ISVs, 75% now support VMware as a platform. Over time, vendor support will becomes less of an issue, as the vendors are recognizing virtualizations prevalence in the market. Build in time to manage these issues with your vendor(s). Executives and Staff Need to Have Faith You Will Most Likely Hit an I/O Bottleneck Vendor Support May Be an Issue Please see Page 36 for more details…
Impact Research 19 Heed the warnings of your peers (continued) Common Pitfalls Implementation warnings continued VM Image Backups can be very large Although a terrific feature, managing point-in-time snapshots of virtual machine images may not be worth the size requirement to make it beneficial. Beware of Licensing Costs Some vendors may still be inclined to charge based upon the total available power of the host system, as opposed to the apportioned pool of resources allotted to each virtual machine. Investigate licensing in a virtual environment when assessing applications for migration. Maintenance Contracts could be in jeopardy Much like vendor support, hardware hosting outsourcers may not support environments running virtual servers. Build in time to renegotiate contracts or find new service providers. Beware of Vendor Licensing Arrangements Virtual Machine Image Backups Can Be Very Large Maintenance Contracts Could Be in Jeopardy
Impact Research 20 Post-implementation considerations Increased pay for staff due to skill sets Once staff is trained in the implementation and maintenance of a virtual server environment, think about financial incentives since they will now possess a hot skill set. This could be akin to what happened with ERP skills in their prime, although not of the same magnitude. While this shouldnt be a grave concern, include it in the business case as necessary. Appropriate Security Considerations Server management is made much easier through the implementation of a virtual server farm. However, this ease of management also requires appropriate controls and access permissions given the larger number of servers and scope of features that are being managed from one pane. Give few people access, and restrict features where feasible. Heed the warnings of your peers (continued) Common Pitfalls The IT administrators at one client location would failover instances between physical hosts many times a day because they could. Implement Appropriate Access Controls to Server Management Console Increased Pay/Incentives for IT Staffs New Skill Set
Impact Research 21 Making the Virtualization Business Case
Impact Research 22 The business case should be based primarily on hard cost savings Virtualization has the benefit of having real cost savings; use these instead of quantifying other intangible benefits or cost avoidance items that may obfuscate the real cost-saving benefits which exist. The preliminary business case can have a tolerance of +/- 25%, but be sure that all areas are addressed, as per the table below: Business Case Areas Ongoing Cost Savings Costs Hardware Acquisition Facilities: Cooling, Power and Rack Space Incremental Hardware Acquisition Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Labor and Maintenance Savings Host Machine Hardware Virtualization Software Purchase of the SAN (if required) Staff Training and Consultancy Costs Virtualization Software Maintenance Staff Training (Turnover) Salary Increases (In-demand Skills) One-time Cost Avoidance
Impact Research 23 Depending on the approach taken, host machines for virtualization will either be purchased new, or existing high-end servers can be reused: New server acquisition: the break-even point is collapsing three servers onto one virtual machine host assuming a two-way server configuration. Reusing a server: The server can be reused in an other part of the business OR a host purchase is not required, saving an additional $3,000-$6,000 and reducing break-even to a two-server consolidation. This does NOT include the purchase of a SAN if one is not available in your environment. Including testing, labor costs, training and other implementation costs, the break-even point is at 15 physical servers or more. Blade servers are complementary to virtualization as they provide a hardware-based redundancy. The Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of an eight-server blade environment is now 21% less than its equivalent rack-mount server installation. Blades Are Viable Options As Well Hardware acquisition savings are the main force driving the virtualization business case Cost of New Server $3-6K 0 $3000 -$6000 $6000 -$12000 $9000 -$18000 Acquiring New Servers Virtualizing Cost of New Server $3-6K Cost of New Server $3-6K Cost of Virtual Host Hardware $6-12K Cost of Virtual Software $3-6K Hardware Acquisition Cost Savings Please see Page 41 for more details… Break-even Is 3 Virtual Servers per Host Machine General Rule Virtual Server Break-Even 15 Servers Needed to Cover Implementation Costs
Impact Research 24 0% 25% 40% 50% 57% 63% 67% 70% 0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80% 3:1 4:1 5:1 6:1 7:1 8:1 9:1 10:1 Average % Hardware Cost Savings Consolidation Ratio The more servers that can be consolidated onto the hosts, the better the savings (one-time and ongoing) z A professional services client consolidated seven servers on each host machine, realizing hardware savings of over 60%
Impact Research 25 If deemed material, facilities savings and cost avoidance are a key driving factor Facilities savings come from two key areas: Power: server power and cooling Savings in power consumption come from a reduction in the number of physical servers and reduction in the air conditioning needs. Rack space Whether through simple virtualization or a combination of blade servers and virtualization, large amounts of rack space or raised-floor space are freed with server consolidation. More than half of the clients interviewed state that shrinking the footprint was a driving force behind virtualization adoption. However, this driver is less applicable to enterprises with unlimited space and large amounts of power in production, such as manufacturing companies. Virtualization can help to cut power consumption in half, while freeing up considerable rack space in the server room. Graycon, a mid-sized professional services firm, emptied 40% of its rack space, and plans to have 60% emptied once implementation is complete. Facilities Cost Savings Power Savings Rack Space Availability Bennett Jones, a large Canadian law firm, avoided the cost of building a new facility through virtualization.
Impact Research 26 Enable high availability and DR Heterogeneous Hardware: No need for homogenous servers to achieve high availability/failover. Redundancy can be had without the need for two of everything. Hardware Sharing: Whereas applications, in the past, may not have coexisted within an environment, hardware can now be shared amongst competing applications as each will have its own dedicated environment. This enables failover to any available physical server. Failover without user Impact: Products like VMwares VMotion allow for uninterrupted user experiences while moving instances between physical servers. Backup/Restore: Snapshot Capability: Point-in-time snapshots can be taken of an entire virtual machine image, minimizing the amount of time necessary to return an application to a particular state. Note here that applications that rely upon data on a SAN would only have the local storage contents restored. Implementation of virtualization automatically enables some level of high availability and business continuity. Cost avoidance areas include: Cost Avoidance in Disaster Recovery / Business Continuity Coorstek, a large manufacturing company, was able to cut its annual DR costs by over 35% because of virtualization. Heterogeneous Hardware Hardware Sharing Failover without User Impact Backup and Restore – Snapshot Capability Virtualization is software – hardware redundancy is still required.
Impact Research 27 Introduce efficient processes for server management More Efficient Processes Eliminates delay related to new server delivery, set up, and takedown. Reduces development time by enabling the creation or refresh of development and testing environments in minutes. Reduces time required to manage server farm by leveraging virtual machine management tools that allow for single-pane control of multiple servers. Efficiency leads to the ability to repurpose IT staff and get other initiatives underway which otherwise would have been postponed or incurred costs of contractor resources. Many companies interviewed report a drop in new hires despite growth of the business and IT environment. Reduce cost of hardware maintenance Fewer physical machines can mean a tangible reduction in hardware maintenance contracts with server, or third-party, vendors Better staff utilization through virtualization allows more efficient management of the IT department, repurposing of employees, and meeting of business growth demands. Labour and Maintenance Savings Clients stated that they are able to keep IT staff constant, despite growth in their business of up to 50%. More Efficient Processes Repurpose Employees Reduce Cost of Hardware Maintenance
Impact Research 28 Dont look here for savings… License costs The only benefit noticed was with clients who used the OS-hosted Microsoft solution, which allows for four Microsoft servers to be run in virtual instances under one license. Otherwise the number of OS licenses remains constant. Insurance costs reduction No noticeable benefits realized yet, but this may be something to watch for in the future. FTE reductions In most cases virtualization is not significant enough to justify head-count reduction Low Benefit Areas FTE Reductions Insurance Cost Reduction License Costs
Impact Research 29 Ensure the following key costs are included in the project budget The cost side of the business case should contain the following items: Hardware Acquisition of new servers to host virtual machines. Multi processor servers or blade servers. The purchase of a SAN. Software Virtualization software server license. Resources Training. Consultancy costs. Additional remuneration for virtualization-trained IT staff. To achieve maximum benefit from the implementation, it is highly recommended that a SAN be included in the project budget. Necessary Expenditures Many companies interviewed stated that they were able to use existing hardware as host machines, or repurpose existing hardware in other departments Hardware Software Resources Please see Page 41 for more details… Please see Page 42 for more details… Please see Page 43 for more details…
Impact Research 30 Creating the Plan
Impact Research 31 Twelve critical planning steps for virtualization implementation Step 1: Determining the Approach Step 2: Developin g the Business Case Step 3: Gaining Buy-In Step 4: Capacity Planning & Benchmar king Step 5: Hardware Selection Step 6: Software Selection Step 8: Applicatio n Sequencin g Step 9: Testing Step 10: Centralize/ Consolidat e Step 11: Migrate Step 12: Monitoring & Expansion Step 7: Resourcin g Based on successful cross-industry implementations, below is a compiled leading-practices guide to moving forward with virtualization.
Impact Research 32 Organization and project characteristics will determine the implementation approach Step 1: Determining the Implementation Approach IT Autonomy HIGH LOW High autonomy is characterized by: Executive trust in IT decision-making, resulting in a less formal approval process Relatively high risk tolerance within the IT group Consolidated IT budget versus departmental IT budgets Low autonomy is characterized by: Need for a formal business case and approval process Focus on hard cost savings and benefits as a result of C-level understanding of IT Non-IT executive involvement and responsibility for IT projects Scope of Implementation LOWHIGH Scope covers most systems Project goals are to maximize cost savings Minimizing overall upfront costs and risks Mostly development and testing systems are tackled Scope covers many critical systems Many lines of business affected IT-specific systems being affected (e.g. internal help desk, DNS servers, Web servers, etc.) Be transparent in your plans. Gain executive approval and support. Run as an internal IT project, and keep business and executives informed. Involve the business, and understand the full implications and Return on Investment (ROI). Consider consultants. Start small as an internal IT project. Learn from mistakes, and become more formalized with time. HIGHLOW
Impact Research 33 Type of implementation is influenced by company size Small and mid-sized companies are more likely to virtualize a higher percentage of their servers and execute their projects as an IT-only Initiative. Large Companies Low High Low Scope of Implementation IT Autonomy Mid-Sized Companies Small Companies Enterprise Companies Step 1: Determining the Implementation Approach
Impact Research 34 Key components of the business case 1. Assess Fit: Assess whether the enterprise is an ideal candidate for virtualization based on fit indicators and benefit drivers described in this document and accompanying evaluation tool. 2. Determine Scope: Determine what servers and applications are candidates for migration. 3. Evaluate Alternatives: Make sure key categories, listed in the slides to follow, are covered: software and hardware selection (including the consideration of blades), the number of servers to consolidate initially, the implementation of a SAN, and training/external assistance. 4. Estimate Expenditures: Create a project budget by first identifying the necessary expenditures involved with the implementation. 5. Estimate One-Time and Ongoing Savings: Quantify the cost savings and consider the savings in cost avoidance that would be realized if they are tangible and recognized for the enterprise. 6. Estimate ROI: Determine the estimated ROI based on the above factors to be used for executive approval. Business cases typically have a +/- of 25, so make sure to caveat the estimates. 7. Develop Implementation Plan: Develop a timeline with key milestones for testing, training, implementation, and the date which the enterprise plans to revisit and expand the deployment. While the depth of the business case will vary, it is important to consider all of the mentioned components prior to implementation. Step 2: Developing the Business Case
Impact Research 35 General Rule Duration of Virtualization Implementation Considerations that drive duration of implementation Step 2: Developing the Business Case DriversImpacts Number of Servers Being Migrated As a General Rule, based on our analysis of various companies who have implemented from 15 to 200+ servers, a predictable correlation exists between the number of servers and duration. Staffing and resourcing implications are discussed in Step 7. Size of Organization Generally, larger organizations have more formalized processes in place, which means acceptance testing and sign-offs will extend duration. Criticality of Applications Being Migrated The more critical the application, the more time should be set aside for testing. Consider regression, user acceptance, and performance testing scenarios. Please see Page 43 for more details… Total Duration = 2 Months + 1 Day per Migrated Server
Impact Research 36 Considerations that drive duration of implementation (continued) Almost all of interviewees stated that the project was met on time and was of anticipated complexity. Step 2: Developing the Business Case DriversImpacts Application Vendor Support If the application vendor wont support a virtual implementation, dont think all is lost. In most cases we found the vendors came around with some proof-of-concept work and, in the end, used the account as a reference. Build in time for this negotiation.
Impact Research 37 Three key points to help gaining organization buy-in APPOINT A TEAM LEAD A formal team lead acts as the key contact for issues, questions, and communication distribution. Having a point-person helps to alleviate user concerns by matching a face to the project. CONVINCE THE SERVER HUGGERS Overcome initial misconceptions about the technology through education. A proof-of-concept in a very effective way of getting quick on-the-job training for the IT staff and addressing some users concerns. For executives, a well-positioned business case (with adequate contingency) is the best way to present the message as it is a compelling technology in that respect. ROLL IT INTO AN APPLICATION RELEASE As an alternative to a pure infrastructure project, a number of companies interviewed were successful in launching virtualization as part of a broader application release initiative (i.e. incremental servers). Step 3: Gaining Organizational Buy-In Depending on the approach that is most suited for the enterprise, deep buy-in may not be required, especially if the implementation is being run as in internal IT project. A few successful clients have had great success in putting together a formal presentation, in laymens terms, that describes the technology and benefits. Appoint a Team Lead Bring the Server Huggers on Board Roll It into an Application Release
Impact Research 38 Four-step process to determining capacity Identify application servers that are candidates for migration: Determine the average utilization rate, and make note of peak utilization rates. Ideally, a months worth of data would represent an adequate sample. Choose the type of server that will host the virtual machines: For most implementations, a two-way server is the minimum that should be considered given Hypervisor or OS overhead. For higher ratio consolidation effort machines, four-ways deliver the best value. Refer to the chart on the next page for virtual machine-to-processor ratios of successful implementations. Step 4: Capacity Planning and Benchmarking 1 One-way Two-wayFour-way Eight-way Typically Underpowered Price Prohibitive Best Value for High Consolidation Ratios Best Value for High Consolidation Ratios Ideal for Low- Utilization Application Servers 2 A large biotech firm hired consultants for the explicit purpose of creating a capacity plan to feed into the business case and implementation plan.
Impact Research Number of Virtual Machines per Processor Low High Median 0 A good guideline is to consider three to four virtual machines per processor Most companies have found a good mix of performance and consolidation value around three to four virtual machines per processor. To be more accurate in planning, you can consider the number of virtual machines per processor core. Step 4: Capacity Planning and Benchmarking
Impact Research 40 Four-step process for determining capacity (continued) Set the target utilization rate for the host server considering failover capacity Target utilization on host machines should be no more than 60% if the plan is to fail instances to it. About 80% should be the maximum utilization on a host server in order to allow for adequate resource balancing for spikes in processing need. Step 4: Capacity Planning and Benchmarking 3 4 Performance test to account for memory, NIC, and I/O constraints. Be wary of any hard-stated recommendations of consolidation ratios or host server capacities. Basin Power Electric Company went from having an average server utilization rate of 3% prior to virtualization, to host machine utilization of 50% with a 17:1 consolidation ratio.
Impact Research 41 Blade servers are complementary to virtualization software and a viable choice PROS Can host large numbers of virtual machines in four- way and eight-way configurations Existing servers can be upgraded to act as host machines CONS Can be costly to outfit with internal hardware redundancy Multi-processor Server Considerations PROS Have very small footprint and provide good scalability (limited by chassis) Provide some level of hardware redundancy between blades CONS Run very hot for their size (dependent on number of blades of course) Blade Server Considerations Step 5: Hardware Selection While virtualization software provides redundancy at the OS level, blade servers can perform a similar function at a hardware level. Consider the merits of both when making a decision. Although not mandatory, a SAN will enable many of the benefits of a virtualization implementation. Make sure to include this expense in your calculations.
Impact Research 42 VMware is the current preferred product and market leader Our interviews showed that the majority of companies are using VMware products, with a few running Microsoft Virtual Server. Step 6: Software Selection Vendors Price Unsupported version is free Supported Enterprise version 2-Socket license is $750 Free Hosted solution is free Hypervisor 2-Socket license ranges from $1,000 to $5,750 Need for Host OS? No – includes Hypervisor Yes – Windows Free version requires Windows or Linux Licensed version includes Hypervisor Supported Guest OSs Linux, BSD in free version Windows, Linux, BSD, and Solaris in Enterprise version Windows, most Linux Windows, MS-DOS, Linux, Novell, FBSD, Sun Solaris Benefits Open-Source product offers very reasonably prices tool- set Install up to four copies of a server OS on one license Mature tools for resource management and business continuity
Impact Research 43 Determine resource and staffing needs as this has potential impact on three types of costs: Training costs Costs of backfilling seconded staff Consultant costs Estimate Staff Determine how many staff should be involved to execute the implementation within the duration desired. A general rule for calculating staff requirements based on work effort appears on the right. Ensure that project complexity and organizational risks are taken into consideration. Determine Internal Availability and Capabilities Next, decide if the skills sets required are available and the resources with those skills have capacity to take on additional tasks, or be seconded to the project full-time. Start by estimating the total number of resources required Step 7: Resourcing General Rule Work Effort Required for Implementation Total Work Effort (in Person Weeks) = (2.9 x # of Servers) -31 Staff Requirements = Total Work Effort (in Person Weeks) # of Weeks of Desired Duration Number of Servers Duration in Weeks Staff (FTE) Estimate Staffing Needs Determine Availability and Capabilities of Staff
Impact Research 44 Once staffing needs, resource availability, and capabilities have been identified, consider the mix of training and external consultants that you will leverage. Our interviews led us to the conclusion that staffing mix and training are strongly correlated to the size of company, not necessarily the size of the implementation: Small Companies Given a smaller staff with varied duties, small companies tended to allow their staff to learn on the job while executing the project. Medium-sized Companies These companies would send one or two resources to training to become the trainers for the rest of the staff. Large Companies In most cases, given the transparent nature of the project, and the various parties involved, consultants were brought in to provide guidance and ensure an expedient implementation. Company size is a good indicator of what type of training or external assistance you should investigate On-the- job training Low High SmallMedium Large External training On-the- job training Consul- tants External training Size of Company Cost of Resourcing Step 7: Resourcing Small Companies Medium-Sized Companies Large Companies
Impact Research 45 Key considerations when evaluating training and external consultant alternatives The larger your implementation, the proportionally less relevant the training and consultancy costs. Staff Training Costing Questionnaire If not, consider consultants and/or new hires. 1 Do my staff have the understanding to build these new skills? 3 4 Consulting Costing Questionnaire Do I need to backfill staff on training? Do I have high turnover? Should I include a salary premium? Do I need consultants for point expertise to complement your team? Do I need consultants to run the project? Do I need the consultants to augment my team under the assumption I cant meet my deadlines with current staff? If so, what is the cost? If so, consider the recurrence of training costs. If training, consider that these staff are now more valuable in the market 10-20% of total project time is probably adequate. No more than 80%. Ensure a project manager comes with the consultant staff. Maximum 80% staffing of consultants is recommended. internal staff should be involved to some extent. Recommended to keep the mix around 50%. Step 7: Resourcing
Impact Research 46 Investigate vendor licensing in a virtual environment first – some vendors may still be inclined to charge based upon the total available power of the host system, as opposed to the apportioned pool of resources allotted to each virtual machine. Step 8: Application Sequencing Migrate critical applications first when: A business case has been created and formal approval process completed. In this scenario, business representatives are involved at the appropriate levels to gain buy-in for a critical application. Improving DR capabilities is top concern. Consultants have been brought on board to guide or execute the implementation. Their experience should be leveraged towards critical application migration. CRITICAL APPLICATIONS LOW-UTILIZATION INTERNAL IT APPLICATIONS Note: Not every service can be virtualized and some services require special attention in order for virtualization to work. Migrate low-utilization internal IT apps first when: The project is being run as an under-the-radar internal IT project with goals to minimize risk. Cost savings is the main concern. Gaining buy-in and building faith in the technology are key goals, with plans to move to more critical systems later. Virtualize low-utilization applications if the project is an internal IT initiative
Impact Research 47 Given the nature of this technology, adequate stability and performance testing is a must Info-Tech recommends purchasing a SAN when implementing virtualization. Step 9: Testing Step 10: Centralize and Consolidate Two types of testing are critical to the success of a virtualization implementation: Regression/ Stability Testing The testing of an applications behavior in a virtual environment cannot be predicted and must be tested thoroughly before production launch Performance Testing Even with a detailed capacity plan, some performance testing and tuning must occur in the testing environment. Resource allocation and load balancing features must be configured and tested to handle peaks. Virtualization is a consolidation exercise and, as such, centralization of servers is key to achieving favorable consolidation ratios. The majority of our interviewed companies were already centralized, or centralized a portion of their infrastructure prior to virtualization. We did find, however, that mini-business cases can be created at a branch level given a critical mass of servers at each location, and a justification (either bandwidth or staff location) for not moving servers away. Regression/Stability Testing Performance Testing / Tuning Centralize First Unless you have a Business Case Not to
Impact Research 48 Expanded Services Partnerships Acquisitions Status Quo Exit / Sell Organizational Buy-in Business Case Development Implementation Approach Capacity Planning Hardware/Software Selection Pre-ImplementationResultsImplementation Steps Average Implemen- tation Takes Seven Months Staff Training Testing Centralize and Consolidate Migrate Time to Implement 5% 15% 40% Step 11: Migrate Percentages listed below are rough guides for time allocation across the steps. Pre-implementation activities will take longer in larger organizations than smaller ones. The key to success is getting into the implementation steps quickly and working out the issues in a testing cycle. Once testing is complete, the migration may take the same or less time to complete. Roughly 85% of your time should be spent on implementation steps
Impact Research 49 Virtualization implementation is an ongoing process Once the initial implementation is complete, key processes and plans need to be put into place: Roadmap of Applications to Migrate To continue the benefits stream, a roadmap of future application servers to migrate should be created (assuming the initial implementation migrated a subset of servers). Process for Server Requests Virtual server sprawl is as much a problem as physical server sprawl. A request process should be put into place to manage server instances. On-Going Capacity Planning As additional instances are migrated and as application dynamics change, constant monitoring of resource pools is required to ensure performance targets are being met. This is especially important as physical hosts are targets for DR of failover instances. Cross-Training System administrators will now have control over a larger pool of server instances. To ensure succession planning in the event of turnover or absence, a knowledge transfer and cross-training plan should be put into place post-implementation. Collect Business Case Metrics To maintain faith in ITs abilities to deliver value, close the loop and collect post-implementation metrics to validate the original business case. Step 12: Monitoring and Expansion Create a Roadmap of Application Servers to Migrate Establish Process for Server Instance Requests Begin Cross-training Immediately Continue Ongoing Capacity Monitoring and Planning Collect Original Business Case Metrics
Impact Research 50 Implementing virtualization can be an entry into utility computing Despite virtualization being an infrastructure initiative, there are process and strategy ramifications on how IT can/should operate with the new flexibility of virtualization. Chargebacks and Transition to Utility Computing Virtualization inherently lends itself to utility computing, where each virtual instance, the memory, CPU, and disk it uses are procured as required and charged for. Chargeback models, if a cultural fit for your enterprise, are complementary to virtualization in that measurement of chargeback metrics is made easier as is the provisioning of capacity to meet various Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Step 12: Monitoring and Expansion Transition to Utility Computing and Chargebacks