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Experiences in the Development of Shale Gas. Presentation Outline General background: Unconventional gas plays in the US SLBs general evaluation workflow.

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Presentation on theme: "Experiences in the Development of Shale Gas. Presentation Outline General background: Unconventional gas plays in the US SLBs general evaluation workflow."— Presentation transcript:

1 Experiences in the Development of Shale Gas

2 Presentation Outline General background: Unconventional gas plays in the US SLBs general evaluation workflow Data Audits and Initial Design Pilot Well Strategy Confirmation and Development Options Optimization and Maintenance Exploitation Conclusions

3 Experiences in the Development of Shale Gas Presentation Outline General background: Unconventional gas plays in the US SLBs general evaluation workflow Data Audits and Initial Design Pilot Well Strategy Confirmation and Development Options Optimization and Maintenance Exploitation Conclusions

4 Unconventional Gas Conference & Exhibition Stephen A. Holditch September 30, 2008 Influence of Prices and Technology

5 Unconventional Gas Conference & Exhibition Stephen A. Holditch September 30, 2008 Influence of Prices and Technology

6 Unconventional Gas Conference & Exhibition Stephen A. Holditch September 30, 2008 Influence of Prices and Technology

7 Barnett Shale Production (BCFD) & Well Count Yearly well count Number of wells Barnett Shale Gas Production Growth

8 SEECOS Fayetteville Shale Gas Production Growth

9 Fayetteville Shale Gas Production Growth

10 Experiences in the Development of Shale Gas Presentation Outline General background: Unconventional gas plays in the US SLBs general evaluation workflow Data Audits and Initial Design Pilot Well Strategy Confirmation and Development Options Optimization and Maintenance Exploitation Conclusions

11 Tight Shale Work-Flow Data Audit/M&A Support Review Reservoir Model Migrated into Petrel First Pilot Well to Evaluate Shale and Geol Confirmation Second well- offset to prove commerciality and development strategy Update model and tune Cluster systems from old wells Optimization of well placement and completionsExploitation External data collected and considered for analysis. Must have core or cuttings for TRA and basic Cluster normalization. Identify play as viable Identify critical data gaps to be filled in initial well(s). Bring all data into Petrel and begin reservoir model 1 st new well is a data rich well designed around filling gaps in data audit and employing the key technologies to prove commercial viability and completion design Prove repeatability and completion concept and performance OR React and re- design and treat as 1 st well. Build up Petrel model and design seismic survey for Ant Tracking correlation for field development strategy. Develop initial stress model and resulting model post 1 st stage development for optimum infill drilling and re- frac stage Spot check with side wall cores Test tandem well stimulation approach Monitor with microseismics Spot check resulting stress and anisotropy changes from development and plan re-frac sequence..

12 We love models… Models allow us to take a solution and apply it everywhere. Or do they? The art of models is in the application. Barnett

13 Early Phase – Data Audit+ Reservoir Model Migrated into Petrel Data Audit/M&A Support Review External data collected and considered for analysis. Must have core or cuttings for TRA and basic Cluster normalization. Identify play as viable Identify critical data gaps to be filled in initial well(s). Bring all data into Petrel and begin reservoir model Gather the available data and conduct actual lab measurements when needed to compliment the petrophysics. Where Core is not available cutting may be of sufficient quality. Reservoir Quality Core to Log Integration Shale Classification and Cluster Analysis Identify missing data and Pilot Strategy

14 TRA Analysis Initial analysis from precise sampling of core with TRA conducted to describe the heterogeneity and precise attributes. Two Goals: 1. Reservoir quality in the various units 2. Completion quality for each productive interval Rock Rock Rock

15 Barnett calcareous mudstone: 3% gas-filled porosity; 150 nd perm Haynesville calcareous mudstone: 6% gas-filled porosity; 406 nd perm Texture and mineralogy Haynesville calcareous mudstone: 6% gas-filled porosity; 406 nd perm

16 Three Layered Core-Based Shale Classification Layer 1: Grains >4 μm TIGHT GAS SANDS AND CONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS Layer 2: Matrix Composition increasing silt & sand Layer 3: Organics SHALE RESERVOIRS argillaceous siliceous calcareous

17 Reservoirs: Thin Section Examples Marcellus, PennsylvaniaMontney, Alberta Canada Mancos Shale, Uinta Basin Sandstone, offshore South Africa Penn Shales, West Texas Bakken Shale, North Dakota

18 Cluster analysis coupled with materials profiling allows us to evaluate log-scale heterogeneity for reservoir quality and completion optimization. You need both Aerial View Applications: Multiwell analysis for coring and sampling

19 Argillaceous (NR) The biggest issue in tight gas reservoirs is not low permeability….Its heterogeneity. Nodules Siliceous (R) Mix. Siliceous Argillaceous (R) Siliceous/Arg -illaceous (R) Calcareous (NR) Problem: Reservoir quality: Where & how is gas stored? Net Value: What is the effective gas in place? Accessibility: What is the relationship between high gas concentration and containment? Production and Recovery: How discontinuous is the stress profile? How discontinuous is the pressure profile? What are the relevant discontinuities? Is the system stiff (open vs. closed fractures)? What is the variability in rock properties? What is the degree of anisotropy? Is brittleness an indication of anything fundamental? Heterogeneity is a Key Issue

20 First Pilot Well(s) First Pilot Well to Evaluate Shale and Geol Confirmation Consider what data is in hand and the quality against the uncertainty and design the Pilot data strategy Hole Core or infill with Side Wall (rotary) Horizontal or Vertical Assumptions Heterogeneity Completion Strategy Do you have containment? Are multi stages feasible? Fluid and proppant selection 1 st new well is a data rich well designed around filling gaps in data audit and employing the key technologies to prove commercial viability and completion design

21 Anisotropy and Fracture Containment Isotropic Blue (v) Anisotropic Red (E h, E V, h, V )

22 Note: You must have core measurements of stress in 3 axis to cover the remaining unknowns

23 Staging the Stimulation Anisotropic Stress Profile Isotropic Stress Profile

24 Staging the Stimulation Anisotropic Stress Profile Isotropic Stress Profile

25 Pilot Update - Development Update model and tune Cluster systems from old wells Second well- offset to prove commerciality and development strategy Prove repeatability and completion concept and performance OR React and re- design and treat as 1 st well. Build up Petrel model and design seismic survey for Ant Tracking correlation for field development strategy. Develop initial stress model and resulting model post 1 st stage development for optimum infill drilling and re- frac stage Continue to pilot across the play First Pilot Well to Evaluate Shale and Geol Confirmation A second pilot well to optimize or confirm the completion is recommended Horizontal vs. Vertical Completion Optimization Update Model Plan for periodic checks Field Optimization Upscale Clusters into Petrel and Seismic Visage Coupled Stress Model Fine tuning risks of heterogeneity Well Placement Frac geometry Simultaneous frac planning Consider forward stress modeling

26 TRA Real Time Support Core to log integration allows you to tag intervals along the borehole of a non cored well with similar patterns. Log data can be transmitted to town as you identify dissimilar patterns you can quickly take a sample in real time to insure a proper evaluation of the units on the subject well. A rotary sidewall coring tool is used and the sample is returned to the lab for analysis

27 Basin-scale 3D Visualization (Petrel Models ) Compílanse Gross Thickness

28 Completion Options SPE SPE

29 Fiber Diversion Technology StimMore

30 Asset Optimization Exploitation Optimization of well placement and completions Spot check with side wall cores Test tandem well stimulation approach Monitor with microseismics Spot check resulting stress and anisotropy changes from development and plan re- frack sequence.. Plan for heterogeneous challenges and include a degree of periodic checks Logs to confirm stress distributions and anisotropy Cluster updates as needed Update seismic scaling of clusters Field Optimization Determine if Simultaneous well treatments will bring improvements. Monitor stress changes with Sonic Scanner and update Visage Model Plan second stage of drilling or refrac based on the Petrel Model

31 Design with Stress in Mind Figure 4 SPE

32 Conclusions Shales are heterogeneous in both reservoir and mechanical properties. This is the most important property to understand. The workflow presented has been proven (in part) to be most effective helping clients increasing their ultimate recovery by %. We continue to evolve this workflow as we learn from new applied technology. Proper characterization requires data and sampling on all prospective zones. Not all zones are good reservoir, not all high resistivities are good reservoir. Containment zones may be hydraulic seals or they may be zones within the shale. Worst case there is not reliable containment. Not all zones react the same way with completion fluids.

33 Conclusions Field Optimization Use core-to-logs integration (MP2) to define a baseline for testing and also increases sampling efficiency Establish the well placement and completion strategy with an integrated plan of the current and forward modeled stress state Do not assume what works in one shale applies to a different one and be ready to realize this in different sections of a large shale play.

34 The Art of Modeling is in the application Barnett Haynesville Wolfcamp Woodford Marcellus Mancos AntrimNiobrara Montney White Specks Green River


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