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© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Tuning a PI Controller This unit discusses Zone-based tuning for a PI controller Adjusting gains with Live Constants Visual ModelQ Training Retuning the system from the Training unit Building a PI ControllerRetuning the system from the Training unit Building a PI Controller
© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Install Visual ModelQ Click here to visit www.QxDesign.com **This unit can be completed with a free (unregistered) copy of Visual ModelQ Download Visual ModelQ** Run Visual ModelQ installation Launch Visual ModelQ using the Windows start button or clicking on the icon The default model should appear To run Visual ModelQ the first time:
© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Start with the model Building a PI Controller Visit www.QxDesign.com/VisualModelQ#Training Download Building a PI Controller.mqd or build the model yourself using the presentation Building a PI Controller.pps
© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Check performance with the initial values Click the run button to see the performance with the initial gains of KP = 100, KP = 2, and with a System Gain of 500. Looks good; feedback (red) responds fast, with little overshoot.
© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Zone-based Tuning Procedure An overview of the Zone-based Tuning Procedure for a PI (Proportional-Integral) controller: 1. Set integral gain (KI) to zero** 2. Set proportional gain (KP) low for system stability 3. Apply a step command 4. Increase KP to max value without overshoot to a step++ 5. Increase KI for ~10% overshoot to a step++ The starting model is tuned with KP=2 and KI=100. Lets revisit, but ignore the fact that these values are known. For more detail on Zone-based Tuning see Control System Design Guide, 2nd Ed., Chapter 3. **Note that in practice, some systems should not be operated with zero integral gain because external loading may cause undesirable consequences (example: in a motion-control system where an unbalanced load could fall with integral gain of zero). ++Note that steps 4 and 5 are rules of thumb. The settings for KP and KI may be somewhat higher or lower for a given application. The point of Zone-based tuning is that, usually, having a fixed procedure with specific performance criteria speeds the tuning process and produces more consistent results.
© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Step 1: Zero Integral Gain While model runs, double-click in KI block; adjuster box appears. Click in edit box (initially 100) and type 0 to disable integral. Press OK button and adjuster box will hide. Live Constant adjuster box allows easy adjustment of gains, even while the model runs. Note: compiling the model restores the initial value to Live Constants.
© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Step 2: Set Proportional Gain Low Double-click in KP block; adjuster box appears. Click in edit box (initially 2), type 0.1 and press Enter key. Note slow response; thats okay…here, we just need stability. Low proportional gain gives slow response, but stability is usually assured when this gain is low and KI is zero.
© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Step 3: Apply Step Command Already done. This model is built with the step command applied. Now that the starting conditions are set, we can start tuning.
© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. KP = 0.5KP = 1.0 KP = 2.0 KP = 3.0 KP = 5.0 Step 4: Increase KP, avoid overshoot Increase KP. Response improves up to KP ~2.0; KP > 3.0 makes overshoot. Several cases are shown below. Choose KP = 2.0. Slow Response Slight overshoot Overshoot and ringing Choose this! TIP: Use adjustment such as >> (large increase) to quickly vary gains while the model runs
© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. KI = 100KI = 200KI = 500 Step 5: Set KI for ~10% overshoot Start with KI low (say, 1) Increase KI for ~10% overshoot. Choose KI = 200. ~10% overshoot 25% overshoot ~5% overshoot Choose this! TIP: To save a value so it isnt reset by each compile, click the save as initial value button right of the value.
© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Visit www.QxDesign.com for information about software and practical books on controls. Click here for information on Visual ModelQ Click here for information on Observers in Control Systems, published by Academic Press in 2002 Click here for information on Control System Design Guide (2nd Ed.), published by Academic Press in 2000
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© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Building a PI controller This unit discusses Installation of Visual ModelQ The Visual ModelQ default model Placing and configuring.
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© 2002 QxDesign, Inc. Variation of plant gain This unit discusses Changes in system stability with increasing plant gain Adjusting KP to correct for changing.
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