Presentation on theme: "Todays Schedule of Your Visit (1) Presentation about CERN (~ 20 min) -- João BENTO (2) A short film about CERN and particle physics (~ 10 min) (3) A visit."— Presentation transcript:
Todays Schedule of Your Visit (1) Presentation about CERN (~ 20 min) -- João BENTO (2) A short film about CERN and particle physics (~ 10 min) (3) A visit to CERN facilities (~ 1-2 hours)
05 Novembre 20032 European Organization for Nuclear Research 1.What and where is CERN? 2.What does CERN do and how does CERN do it? 3.LHC (The Large Hadron Collider) and its 4 experiments 4.Particle physics and standard model 5.Spin-off of the particle physics (e.g. WWW was invented at CERN) 6.Summary
CERN member states Founded in 1954 by 12 countries Today: 20 member states More than 7000 users from all over the world ~1000 MCHF / Year budget 1954: Convention establishing the Organization - original signatures2004: The 20 member states
4 CERN in Numbers 2256 staff ~700 other paid personnel ~9500 users Budget (2009) 1100 MCHF 2256 staff ~700 other paid personnel ~9500 users Budget (2009) 1100 MCHF 20 Member States:20 Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. 1 Candidate for Accession to Membership of CERN:1 Candidate for Accession to Membership of CERN: Romania 8 Observers to Council:8 Observers to Council: India, Israel, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, Turkey, the European Commission and Unesco 20 Member States:20 Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. 1 Candidate for Accession to Membership of CERN:1 Candidate for Accession to Membership of CERN: Romania 8 Observers to Council:8 Observers to Council: India, Israel, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, Turkey, the European Commission and Unesco
CERN's mission: to build particle accelerators Accelerator chain at CERN, a complex business
CERN site LHC accelerator CERN main site SPS accelerator CERN 2nd site Geneva Airport CH - F Border
8 The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be the most powerful instrument ever built to investigate particles properties. Four gigantic underground caverns to host the huge detectors The highest energy of any accelerator in the world The most intense beams of colliding particles It will operate at a temperature colder than outer space
9 The LHC: what it will look like The LHC will start operation in October 2009. It will certainly change our view of the Universe
10 Preparing the LHC 27 km circumference 100 m underground SM18 Magnets Test Facility
12 Particle accelerator. How it works Accélération linéaire: - La particule avance tout droit Le champ électrique (tension) appliqué entre les deux plaques fait accélérer la particule selon une trajectoire rectiligne. Générateur de tension + - Le champ électrique Ligne de champ électrique entre électrodes Électron (négatif) accéléré À un instant Polarité négative Groupe délectrons entre deux électrodes est accéléré Un peu après Zéro Groupe délectrons dérivent dans le tube Encore un peu après Polarité positive Groupe délectrons à nouveau accélérées Électrodes plus longs, car électrons vont plus vite 1 er terme de la loi de Lorentz Hendrik Lorentz (1853-1928)
13 Accélération circulaire: - La particule effectue une trajectoire courbe Le champ magnétique crée par l aimant fait courber la particule 2 ème terme de la loi de Lorentz Hendrik Lorentz (1853-1928) I N S Trajectoire de la particule Particle accelerator. How it works
14 The Synchrotron accelerator Le synchrotron – un accélérateur circulaire AIMANT DE COURBURE (DIPÔLES) AIMANT FOCALISATEUR (QUADRUPOLES) CAVITÉ RADIOFRÉQUENCE CIBLE CHAMBRE À VIDE
Methods of Particle Physics 3) Identify created particles in Detector (search for new clues) 1) Concentrate energy on particles (accelerator) 2) Collide particles (recreate conditions after Big Bang) http://pdg.web.cern.ch/pdg/particleadventure/
Todays periodic system of the fundamental building blocks The constituents of matter The Atoms Nucleus: Proton: 2/3 + 2/3 – 1/3 Neutron: 2/3 – 1/3 – 1/3
We don't know everything! Why three generations? There are three "sets" of quark pairs and lepton pairs. Each "set" of these particles is called a generation, or family. Each set of quark and lepton charge types is called a generation of matter (charges +2/3, -1/3, 0, and -1 as you go down each generation). The generations are organized by increasing mass.
18 We don't know everything! Supersymmetry? Some physicists attempting to unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have come to a startling prediction: every fundamental matter particle should have a massive "shadow" force carrier particle, and every force carrier should have a massive "shadow" matter particle. This relationship between matter particles and force carriers is called supersymmetry. For example, for every type of quark there may be a type of particle called a "squark." No supersymmetric particle has yet been found, but experiments are underway at CERN and Fermilab to detect supersymmetric partner particles.
19 We don't know everything! Higgs boson? The LHC will help solving all these unsolved mysteries The Standard Model cannot explain why a particle has a certain mass. For example, both the photon and the W particle are force carrier particles: why is the photon massless and the W particle massive? Physicists have theorized the existence of the so-called Higgs field, which in theory interacts with other particles to give them mass. The Higgs field requires a particle, the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson has not been observed, but physicists are looking for it with great enthusiasm.
Higgs signature at the LHC We expect only 1 Higgs in 1,000,000,000,000 events The two proton beams at the LHC will collide head- on 800 million times per second
Moores law 10K SI95 = 1200 cpu LHC experiments Other experiments Evolution of CERN computing needs CPU capacity 1998-2010 The number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits doubles every year and half
The GRID: a possible solution to CERN computing needs The LHC computing GRID is a project funded by the European Union. The objective is to build the next generation computing infrastructure providing intensive computation and analysis
25 Summary CERN is the largest laboratory for particle physics research in the world It was founded 57 years ago and has built the most powerful particle accelerator in the world in 2008 The particle physics studies the matter in its smallest dimension and deepens the human beings understanding about the nature Research at CERN advances the development of technology, e.g. WWW was invented at CERN at the end of 1980s Welcome to CERN, we wish you have a pleasant visit