# A PRIMER FOR ANIMALS & HEARING Sound & Waves. Sound is Vibration.

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A PRIMER FOR ANIMALS & HEARING Sound & Waves

Sound is Vibration

Vibrations create Waves

Characteristics of Waves

Frequency in a Sound Wave determines Pitch

Describing Waves (rope demonstration) Frequency Amplitude Wavelength Period = the time between the wave crests

Describing Sound Frequency = Pitch Amplitude = Volume (how loud it sounds) What is the term for reflected sound?

Tuning Forks & Frequency Which tuning fork will have a higher pitch? UNITS Frequency is measured in Hertz Hertz = Cycles per Second, ie. the number of S curves in one second. These Tuning forks create sounds with frequency 256 Hz & 512 Hz.

Tuning Forks & Frequency Which tuning fork will have a higher pitch? UNITS Frequency is measured in Hertz Hertz = Cycles per Second, ie. the number of S curves in one second. These Tuning forks create sounds with frequency 256 Hz & 512 Hz. 256 Hz512 Hz

Not all Frequencies of Vibration can be Heard

Day 2 Materials 4 Stethocopes Tuning forks Ear funnel setup Flour baggie/watch/air baggie Slinky Funnel/milk jug to hold up to the ear

Describe this wave in terms of frequency, amplitude and wavelength.

Day 2: Movement of Sound Sound Waves Travel through: Gases Liquids Solids Sound does NOT travel through a vacuum. It requires a medium.

Air is the medium for this sound wave

Compression Wave http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/Demos/rad2/mdq.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Onde_compression_impu lsion_1d_30_petit.gifhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Onde_compression_impu lsion_1d_30_petit.gif

A Slinky Can be a Hands On model of movement of a Compression Wave

If sound is a compression wave, which medium do you think it will move faster through?

Sound travels more efficiently through solids than gases. The sound of the ticking watch will be louder through the flour than through the air.

Which will be louder?

Sound travels more efficiently through liquids than gases

Speed of Sound Substancemeters/secmiles/hours vacuum 00 Carbon dioxide 270604 Air 340760 Hydrogen 1,3202.950 Water 1,4703,290 Glass 5,00011,180 Iron 5,12011,450

Direction of Sound The brain interprets direction from which a sound orginates by the difference in time it takes to get to each ear.

Amplify Sound If sound is created by vibrations, what is a strategy for making a sound louder?

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