2LearningA process based on experience that results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential. Examples: Riding a bike; Using chopsticks; reading; sleeping in a bed
3Classical Conditioning Ivan PavlovRussiaWhat is learning?Classical Conditioning: A learning process in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus.Pavlov’s doggy . . .
4Classical Conditioning Pavlov began his experiments by ringing a tuning fork and then immediately placing some meat powder on the dogs tongue. He chose the tuning fork because it was a neutral stimulus.Neutral Stimulus: A stimulus that does not initially elicit any part of the unconditioned response.
5Classical Conditioning Well, after a few times the dog begins to salivate by merely hearing the sound, even if there was no food within it’s sight.Pavlov demonstrated that a neutral stimulus (here, the tuning fork) can cause a formerly unrelated response.This occurs if it is presented regularly just before the stimulus (here, the food) that normally brings about a response (here, salivation.)
7Classical Conditioning According to Pavlov, every human or animal has a set of unconditional or involuntary responses.Such responses include blushing, shivering, being startled, and salivating.In this experiment, food was the unconditional stimulus.Unconditional Stimulus (UCS): An event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training.
8Classical Conditioning A few other important things:Unconditioned Response (UCR): An organism’s automatic (or neutral) reaction to a stimulus. (Example = salivation).Under normal conditions, the sound of a tuning fork would not cause salivation. The dog had to be taught, or conditioned to associate this sound with food.An ordinarily neutral event that, after training, leads to a response such as salivation is termed a conditioned stimulus.
9Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.The salivation that is caused by the tuning fork is called a conditioned response.Conditioned Response (CR): The learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus.
12Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery A classically conditioned response, like any other behavior, is subject to change.Pavlov discovered that if he stopped presenting food after the sound of the tuning fork, the sound gradually lost its effect on the dog.After he repeatedly struck the tuning fork without giving food, the dog no longer associated the sound with the arrival of food – the sound of the tuning fork no longer caused the salivation response.
13Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery Pavlov called this effect extinction!Extinction: The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.Yet, even though the conditioned response has been extinguished, it does not mean that the CR has been completely unlearned.Spontaneous Recovery!You eventually see the object again and get a response…
14CC Used in AdvertisingMountain Dew OriginalMD RamMD Baa
16Operant ConditioningOk, so, suppose you have a dinosaur! Yes a dinosaur!Your dinosaur is wandering around the neighborhood, sniffing trees, checking garbage cans, and looking for a squirrel to chase.A kind neighbor sees the dinosaur and tosses a bone out of the kitchen door to it.The next day the dinosaur is likely to stop at the same door on it’s rounds. Once again your neighbor produces another bone, so the dinosaur becomes a regular visitor!Why?
17Operant Conditioning Well I’ll tell ya why! Hold your horses! Well, ummm, see, there’s this, well, ummm, thing called, like, operant conditioning.Operant Conditioning: Learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases and decreases in occurrence.Operant = operates due to a change yo.
18Operant ConditioningThorndike = Law of Effect – learning from the consequences of our behavior (cat and puzzle box) – repeat the positivesB.F. Skinner = new ideas to OC – Reinforcement; behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to vanish (i.e. weakened)
21There are different ways to do this Positive ReinforcementNegative ReinforcementPositive PunishmentNegative PunishmentTry to frame your thinking like this:Reinforcement=DesirablePunishment=NOT desirablePositive=to addNegative=to take away
22Which do you think is the most effective? School Rules Activity
23Reinforcement Procedures Shaping- reinforcement of behaviors that are increasingly similar to the one that you want to occur.Discrimination-the ability to distinguish among similar signals or stimuli.Extinction- loss of a learned response when a consequence no longer follows it.
25Positive Reinforcement Reinforcement: Stimulus or event follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated.Examples of reinforcers:Social ApprovalMoneyExtra privilagesGiving a dog a treat when it shakes your hand.
26Negative Reinforcement In the concept of negative reinforcement, a painful or unpleasant stimulus is removed. The removal of unpleasant consequences increases the frequency of a behavior.Negative Reinforcement: Increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs.
28Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement- Vending machine approachFixed-Ratio Schedule: A pattern of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained.Variable-Ratio Schedule: A pattern of reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of responses are required before reinforcement can be obtained.Fixed-Interval Schedule: A pattern of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement.Variable-Interval Schedule: A pattern of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement.
29Cognitive LearningCognitive Learning focuses on how information is obtained, processed, and organized. Such learning is concerned with the mental process involved in learning. Latent Learning and Learned Helplessness are examples of cognitive learning.Cognitive Learning: Form of altering behavior that involves mental processes and may result from observation or imitation.
30Cognitive Learning Examples: 1. Latent Learning. Latent learning is not demonstrated by an immediately observable change in behavior at the time of the learning. Although the learning typically occurs in the absence of a reinforcer, it may not be demonstrated until the reinforcer appears.Example: Have you ever had to locate a building or a street in a section of Durham that you are unfamiliar with? You may have been through that section of town before and remember details such as an unusual sign or building. Remembering these details may have helped you find the building or street you were looking for. In other words, you learned some details you were not intending to.
31Cognitive Learning Examples: 2. Learned Helplessness. Learned helplessness is a condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable.Example: You do poorly on a math test the first time you try and decide it was because you had not studied enough. The next test, you do poorly again and decide it was because you did not feel well. On the third test, you once again score poorly…You give up and decide that you “are just dumb,” giving up on math.
32Modeling and Behavior Modification Modeling: Learning by imitating others; copying behavior!This is how the majority of people learn how to act in new situations (sports, concerts, etc.)
33Modeling and Behavior Modification The term “behavior modification” often appears in magazine articles describing research on changing people’s behavior through drugs, “mind control,” or even brain surgery.In fact, it is none of these things.Behavior Modification: Refers to the systematic application of learning principles to change people’s actions and feelings.Example: Giving your little brother a quarter to go away!
34Observational Learning Definition = The process of learning new responses by watching the behavior of anotherThe process of acquiring information by observing othersExample: Learning to tie your shoe by observing someone else perform the task
35Observational Learning Albert Bandura =1. People can learn through observation2. Mental states are important to learning (awareness)3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior
37Observational Learning Albert Bandura =The Modeling Process1.) Attention: In order to learn, you need to be paying attention.2.) Retention: ability to store the information3.) Reproduction: actually performing the behavior you observed4.) Motivation: for learning to be successful, one has to be motivated to act upon the behavior. Reinforcement and punishment can help focus learners