Presentation on theme: "Student-centered learning – is the work done - where are we now?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Student-centered learning – is the work done - where are we now? NORDIC Bologna SeminarOslo, 17 June 2011Student-centered learning – is the work done - where are we now?Robert WagenaarJoint co-ordinator Tuning ProjectsCo-ordinator Dutch team of Bologna ExpertsDirector of Undergraduate and Post Graduate Studies
2 Student-centered learning Outline of presentationChallenges regarding the Implementation of BolognaA moving target (aims and objectives)What is student centered learning?The role of Profiles, Competences and Learning OutcomesThe Tuning approach in a nutshellRole of Qualifications FrameworksIdentifying key competences and writing good Learning OutcomesConclusions
3 1. Challenges regarding the implementation of Bologna Grow of student mobility to 20% by 2020: Youth on the Move – New Flagship Programme of the EUImplementation of a three cycle system: Use of the Tuning modelCorrect use of transparency elements for comparison and recognition:Role of Profiles, Competences and Learning OutcomesRole of Qualifications FrameworksThe missing tool: how to formulate degree programme profiles, key competences and good Learning Outcomes?
4 Student-centered learning The Bologna Aims and Objectives - Modernisation of Higher Education:A moving target !More countries gradually included in the process: from 29 to 47.New action points and new aims and objectives:student centredness and learning outcomes
5 Student-centered learning Are our programmes (already) student centered and learning outcomes based?Is the glass half full or half empty?
6 Student-centered learning WHY STUDENT CENTRED AND LEARNING OUTCOMES?WHY TUNING?“We reassert the importance of the teaching mission of higher education institutions and the necessity for ongoing curricular reform geared toward the development of learning outcomes… Academics, in close cooperation with student and employer representatives, will continue to develop learning outcomes and international reference points for growing number of subject areas.” (Leuven Communiqué 2009)“In the last decade the Bologna Process has been focussing on structural reforms. In the next stage the focus will shift to the learning process itself.” The approach must be become more “student-centred” and the attention to discipline-specific outcomes should be accomplished by a “blurring [of] boundaries between disciplines” (Ghent seminar on Bologna Process May 2008)
7 2. What is student-centered learning ? A definitionAn approach or system that supports the design of learning programmes which focus on learners’ achievements, accommodate different learners’ priorities and are consistent with reasonable students’ workload (i.e. workload that is feasible within the duration of the learning programme). It accommodates for learners’ greater involvement in the choice of content, mode, pace and place of learning.
8 Two types of first cycle programmes: number 1 Programme Design:Traditional ModelTwo types of first cycle programmes: number 1Traditional (first cycle) programme:Constructed on the basis of rather loose course unitsCourse units content is responsibility of individual academics(Very) limited cooperation and consultation between academic staffDanger of limit balance between course unitsFeasibility not guaranteedAcademia oriented, limited concern for employability and educating for citizenshipOutcome (level) of programme not quite clearBottom-up
9 Programme Design: TUNING Model Two types of first cycle programmes: number 2Degree programme based on the Tuning methodology:Programme based on profile, sets of competences to be obtained, desired learning outcomes to be achieved, ECTS credits to be awardedProgramme design is team work, based on consultation, discussion, cooperationLearning outcomes / competences to be developed are basis for correct credit allocationTeaching, learning and assessment approaches respect credit allocation: feasibility key factor60 ECTSFIRST CYCLE PROGRAMMECOURSE UNITTop-down
10 I. The Tuning approach in a nutshell 2. The role of Profiles, Competences and Learning OutcomesI. The Tuning approach in a nutshellDeveloped by and for academics and studentsOffers:A transparent way to (re-)design degree programmesbased on the concept of student centered learningA language understood by all stakeholders (employers, professionals and academics)An approach respecting and allowing for differentiation / diversityAn approach for developing flexible and divers degree programmes in a Life Long Learning contextShared reference points (not standards) at subject area levelMethodology for high standard degree programmes in terms of process and outcomes
11 From staff oriented to student centered education Requires change of paradigm:Aims and ObjectivesMake Higher Education in Europe highly competitive at world levelMake students better employableRaise awareness about importance of citizenship / social responsibilityLeave space for personal developmentEnhance structures for mobility and recognitionStimulate structured International and National cooperation in higher education by developing transnational integrated programmesIntroduce and obtain acceptance of cycle level descriptors and reference points as a basis for degree programmes and Qualifications Frameworks
12 Focus on key competences and learning outcomes Tuning approach based on 6 consistent features for degree programmes:an identified and agreed needa well described profilecorresponding learning outcomes phrased in terms of generic and subject specific competence (lines 1 and 2)the correct allocation of ECTS credits to units (line 3)appropriate approaches to learning, teaching and assessment (line 4)methodology for quality enhancement (line 5)TUNING focuses on:<< fitness of purpose >> (meets expectations)and<< fitness for purpose >> (meets aims)
13 Profiles, Competences and Learning Outcomes Degree profile (Doctorate)3rdcycleThird cycle learning outcomes defined in terms of generic and subject specific competencesDegree profile 2nd cycle (MA)2ndcycleSecond cycle learning outcomes defined in terms of generic and subject specific competencesDegree profile 1st cycle (BA)1st cycleFirst cycle learning outcomes defined in terms of generic and subject specific competencesAss.DegreeDegree profile Associated degreeAssociated Degree / Certificate LO defined in terms of competences
14 Competences and Learning Outcomes in Higher Education Competences represent a dynamic combination of knowledge, understanding, skills and abilities, attitudes and values.Fostering competences is the object of educational programmes.Level of competence is expressed in terms of learning outcomes.Learning outcomesLearning outcomes are statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and be able to demonstrate after completion of a period of learning.
15 Relation between Competences and Learning Outcomes Source: Jeremy Cox (Polifonia Network) for Tuning
16 Profile Role of the Degree Profiles Profiles have to serve different purposesA good profile takes into account different users’ perspectives & interestssocietypersonProfileprofessionalacademics
17 Role of Employment Academic area vs. professional area and competences Competence CircleEmployment profileAcademic fieldAcademic fieldAcademic field
18 Role of Profiles in Higher Education programmes From the Tuning glossary“Degree profile“A description of the character of a degree programme or qualification. This description gives the main features of the programme which are based on the specific aims of the programme, how it fits into the academic map of disciplines or thematic studies and how it relates to the professional world”.
19 Profiles, Competences and Learning Outcomes THE TUNING DYNAMIC QUALITY DEVELOPMENT CIRCLEDefinition of academic and professional profilesIdentification of resourcesProgramme design: definition of learning outcomes / competencesEvaluation and improvement (on the basis of feed back and feed forward)Construction of curricula: content and structureSelection of types of assessementSelection of teaching and learning approaches
21 II. Role of Qualifications Frameworks We distinguish the following indicators:Module / Unit Learning OutcomesDegree Programme Learning OutcomesGeneral Cycle (level) descriptors (Ba, Ma, PhD)Tuning reference points for a particular Subject AreaMeta Frameworks: EQF and Sectoral QFs
22 Qualifications Frameworks and the National perspective Meta-framework: EQF/ QF for EHEANational QFsSectoral QFs/ Subject area based reference points
23 Qualifications Frameworks and the Subject area perspective EQFdescriptorsTUNINGSectoral reference pointsTUNING Subject specific Reference Points
24 Tuning Subject Area Reference Points publications Other subject area brochures: Business Administration, Educational Sciences, Gender Studies ..To be published soon: Architecture, Arts and Design, Dance and Theatre, History, Mathematics, Medicine, Nursing, Physiotherapy …..Also published: Tuning AHELO conceptual frameworks for Economics and Engineering (first cycle)
25 Student-centered learning Degree Programme Profile and Learning OutcomesSubject Area (Level) Descriptors and Reference Points (Sectoral Qualifications Framework)Descriptors National and International Qualifications Frameworks
26 Role of Qualifications Frameworks European perspective: Tuning and Qualifications frameworksEQF for Higher Education(Bologna Process -48 countries)EQF for Lifelong Learning (an EC initiative)(27 countries)Dublin descriptorsNational Qualifications FrameworksSectoral Qualifications FrameworksTUNING reference points for Higher Education programmes
27 International environment QFs of other world regions Qualifications FrameworksWord wide perspective: Tuning and Qualifications FrameworksInternational environmentEuropean QFNQFNQFQFs of other world regionsSectoral QFSectoral QFInternationally established (subject specific) Tuning reference pointsOECD-AHELO pilot
28 Role of Tuning Sectoral Qualifications Frameworks Humanities and the ArtsSocial SciencesNatural SciencesHealth CareEngineeringEQF
29 Main outcomes TUNING SQF for Social Sciences: Tuning and SQFsMain outcomes TUNING SQF for Social Sciences:Definition of the Social Sciences sectorSectoral Learning Outcomes framework based on agreed level descriptors covering levels 3 to 8 (bridging different subject areas)Identification of main progression routes from the EQF levels 3 to 6 at national levelProposals to bridge the Dublin cycle descriptors and the EQF level descriptors
30 III. Identifying key competences and writing good Learning Outcomes CoRe Project ENIC-Naric and Tuning:Preparation and publication of Tuning – ENIC-NARIC manual to assist university staff in writing reliable degree profiles and sets of degree programme Learning Outcomes to be used for RECOGNITION purposesInput European Diploma SupplementENIC-NARICS
31 A Guide to Formulating Degree Programme Profiles …
32 Outline of Tuning Guide to Formulating Degree Programme LOs Degree profile (professional and/or academic)Key elements:A. PurposeB. CharacteristicsC. Employability & further educationD. Education styleE. Programme competencesF. List of program learning outcomesAs part of the Competence and Recognition Project (CoRe) a Template as been developed which also contains guidelines for formulating Program Competences and good Programme Learning Outcomes.
33 Example of a programme generic competence / skill (E) Levels of Achievement : TEAMWORKFIRST LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT: Actively participates and collaborates in team tasks, and encourages trust, friendliness and focus on the common goal through the attitudes he/she conveys.SECOND LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT: Contributes to the consolidation and development of the team, encouraging communication, fair distribution of tasks, a pleasant atmosphere, and cohesion. THIRD LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT: Is capable of running work groups, guaranteeing the integration of all group members, and their focus on an excellent level of work achieved.
34 TEAMWORK: THIRD LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT (1/2) LEVELS OFACHIEVEMENTINDICA-TORSDESCRIPTIONS12345THIRD LEVEL:Is capable of running work groups, guaranteeing the integration of all group members, and their focus on an excellent level of work achieved. Actively co-operates in the planning of group work, the distribution of tasks, and deadlines.Does things without any prior planningMakes last minute plans, and leaves loose ends. Unrealistic deadlines.Makes concrete suggestions for the distribution of tasks, and sets reasonable deadlines.Stimulates the participation of other group members, coordinating their contributions.Distributes feasible tasks to members, along with clear aims, in time-pressured situations when there are many elements to be dealt with.Efficiently manages meetings.Is not capable of coordinating a meeting for which he/she is responsible.Attempts to manage the meeting but is not in control of the timetable, commitments made, nor the results.Efficiently manages meetings, and achieves objectives.Efficiently manages meetings, achieving balanced participation from all those present.Achieves balanced participation and commitment from all team members.Suggests ambitious and well-defined goals for the group.Is incapable of forming clear objectives for the group.Suggests ‘fuzzy’ goals that confuse the groupSuggests attractive goals for the group, and defines them clearly.Encourages the team, defining achievable goals and a clear vision for the future.Energizes the team so that they take on group objectives as their own.TEAMWORK: THIRD LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT (1/2)
35 TEAMWORK: THIRD LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT (2/2) LEVELSOFACHIEVEMENTINDICATORSDESCRIPTIONS12345THIRD LEVEL:Is capable of running work groups, guaranteeing the integration of all group members, and their focus on an excellent level of work achievedFacilitates the positive management of differences, disagreements, and conflicts that arise within the team.Encourages conflicts by exaggerating differences.Gets lost and does not know how to reconcile differences expressed by others without completely removing him/herself from the situation.Faces up to conflicts, dealing with all contributions and differences that there are in the team.Faces up to conflicts, balancing contributions, and coming out successfully.Makes others see differences are enriching, and enables the achievement of agreements pleasing to everybody.Encourages all team members to commit themselves to the manage-ment and running of the group.Does not get a personal commitment from the members of the team, damaging group dynamics and motivation.Finds it difficult to get a basic commit-ment from members for the functioning of the group.Gets the commitment of every participant, meaning that the team works as such.Gets a personal and collective commitment from the team regarding all key aspects of the project.Achieves a state in which team members show commitment and accept the suggestions of others as their own.Developed by Aurelio Villa and Manuel Poblete (Universidad de Deusto, 2007)
36 TEAMWORK: THIRD LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT (2/2) LEVELSOFACHIEVEMENTINDICATORSDESCRIPTIONS12345THIRD LEVEL:Is capable of running work groups, guaranteeing the integration of all group members, and their focus on an excellent level of work achievedFacilitates the positive management of differences, disagreements, and conflicts that arise within the team.Encourages conflicts by exaggerating differences.Gets lost and does not know how to reconcile differences expressed by others without completely removing him/herself from the situation.Faces up to conflicts, dealing with all contributions and differences that there are in the team.Faces up to conflicts, balancing contributions, and coming out successfully.Makes others see differences are enriching, and enables the achievement of agreements pleasing to everybody.Encourages all team members to commit themselves to the manage-ment and running of the group.Does not get a personal commitment from the members of the team, damaging group dynamics and motivation.Finds it difficult to get a basic commit-ment from members for the functioning of the group.Gets the commitment of every participant, meaning that the team works as such.Gets a personal and collective commitment from the team regarding all key aspects of the project.Achieves a state in which team members show commitment and accept the suggestions of others as their own.Developed by Aurelio Villa and Manuel Poblete (Universidad de Deusto, 2007)
37 Example of a generic key degree programme competence: Key Competences (E)Example of a generic key degree programme competence:Creativity: capacity to be creative in developing ideas and in pursuing research goals
39 Writing good Programme Learning Outcomes (F) CoRe - Tuning model to define Learning OutcomesA Learning Outcome should contain 5 elements:
40 Writing good Learning Outcomes (F) The Tuning model in practice:
41 Writing good Learning Outcomes (F) Examples of levels in the subject area HistoryBAMAPhD
42 Student-centered learning – is the work done - where are we now? 4. ConclusionsStudent-centered learning – is the work done - where are we now?Some indicators:Three cycles in placeECTS as a workload credit system largely implementedNumber of label application for DS and ECTS disappointingIntroduction of the concepts of student centeredness and learning outcomes based degree programmes: still a long way to go for many! How to win hearts and minds ?
43 Student-centered learning Thank you for your attention !
44 More information Web sites: Tuning Europe:Tuning América Latina: