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**Off-Center Fed Dipoles**

Practical Applications N1IW

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**Why? Looking for solutions for low band antennas**

Was abused by a counterpoise as a child Looking for multiband solutions Traditional low band wire arrays use dipoles or inverted vees Applications to driven & parasitic arrays N1IW

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**Off Center Fed Dipole Basics**

Half wave resonant antenna at lowest frequency of operation Even Harmonic resonances (V/I ratio is approximately constant) 160M: 160, 80, 40, 20, 17, 12, 10 80M: 80, 40, 20, 10 Fed 1/3 of the way from the end vs. in the middle Feed point impedance is approximately 200Ω 4:1 current balun does the trick N1IW

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**OCFD Data 80M 160M (measured data) Used for 10 years**

136 feet in length (located at abt 30 feet) Fed 44.5 feet from one end Resonant on 80M, 40M, 20M, 10M (no tuner) 160M (measured data) Recent addition 264 feet long (located at abt 80 feet) Fed 88 feet from one end; 4:1 homebrew balun 200Ω on 160M and 166Ω on 80M at resonance 2:1 BW: >200 kHz on 160M, 260 kHz on 80M N1IW

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**Why They Work It’s just a dipole! But**

½ wave resonant element, then harmonic wire Voltage/Current relationship at 1/3 feed point provides essentially constant ratio on even harmonics Broadside null on harmonics N1IW

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**Current Distribution on a Dipole**

N1IW

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**Current & Voltage at Fundamental**

I V N1IW

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I & V at 2nd Harmonic I V N1IW

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I & V at 4th Harmonic I V (2X Expanded Scale) N1IW

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I & V at 8th Harmonic I V (2X Expanded Scale) N1IW

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**But what about the 6th harmonic?**

Feed point is at a current minimum Very high impedance N1IW

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**I & V at 6th Harmonic (Bad Dog!)**

(2X Expanded Scale) N1IW

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And Odd Harmonics? Same problem: Current minimum N1IW

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**I & V at 3rd Harmonic (Bad Dog!)**

N1IW

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Basic Gain Plots N1IW

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**160M center fed dipole at 80 feet**

AZ EL N1IW

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160M OCFD at 80 feet AZ EL N1IW

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160M OCFD on 80M (x2) EL N1IW

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160M OCFD on 40M (x4) EL N1IW

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160M OCFD on 20M (x8) EL N1IW

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160M OCFD on 10M (x16) EL N1IW

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**Geometry/Height Old 80M design: 45.3 ft, 90.7 ft; 30 ft high**

New 160M design: 88ft, 176 ft; 80 ft high Both use 4:1 Guanella balun design 80M variation: 45/65 ft flat+26 ft dropper Feed point impedance at resonance drops as effective height above ground decreases Recommend 1/3 λ up for 4:1 balun to work well N1IW

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**4:1 Guanella Current Balun**

N1IW

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**80M OCFD Construction Detail**

~8 Wraps, covered with heatshrink tubing 45’ Leg 90’ Leg “Dogbone” Insulator #12 stranded/insulated copper Stainless hardware 4:1 Current Balun (PVC enclosure) UHF Connector N1IW

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**160M OCFD Construction Detail**

~8 Wraps, covered with heatshrink tubing 88’ Leg 176’ Leg “Dogbone” Insulator #12 stranded/insulated copper Stainless hardware 4:1 Current Balun (PVC enclosure) UHF Connector N1IW

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**160M OCFD Normalized VSWR Plots**

N1IW

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**OCFD Orientation Issues**

N1IW

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Single 160M OCFD at 125º, 160M/80M How to deal with the broadside null… Rotate antenna to achieve best gain compromise El of 30º Europe (50º) 80M 160M N1IW

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**Disclaimer… Your mileage may vary Batteries not included**

Some assembly required Professional driver, closed course Void where prohibited Do not dispose of in fire Taxes, titles, license fees extra 10M band openings longer than 2 hours require immediate medical attention N1IW

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