Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Misunderstandings About Oracle Internals The Cost of Oracle Logical I/O Calls."— Presentation transcript:
Slide 1 Misunderstandings About Oracle Internals The Cost of Oracle Logical I/O Calls
Slide 2 Agenda The true cost of a block visit Operational measurements You probably dont need a hardware upgrade What you should do instead Conclusion
Slide 3 Do you believe? Retrieving information from memory is over 10,000 times faster than retrieving it from disk. To tune SQL, simply eliminate disk I/O. Solid-state disk devices will make our applications a lot faster! When we have terabytes of memory for our SGAs, therell be no more need for tuning!
Slide 4 Part I Reading from the buffer cache is more expensive than you might think.
Slide 5 The relative speeds of disk and memory accesses are less relevant than youre taught to believe. Storage mediumTypical access latencyRelative performance Memory seconds1 Disk seconds Retrieval methodTypical access latencyRelative performance Oracle LIO seconds1 Oracle LIO + PIO seconds37
Slide 6 Definitions: LIO and PIO… Oracle Logical I/O (LIO) –Oracle requests a block from the database buffer cache Oracle Physical I/O (PIO) –Oracle requests a block from the operating system –Might be physical, might not be for x in ( select rowid from emp ) --- CONSISTENT GETS loop delete from emp where rowid = x.rowid; --- CURRENT MODE GETS end loop;
Slide 7 An Oracle LIO is not just a memory access. function LIO(dba, mode,...) # dba is the data block address (file#, block#) of the desired block # mode is either consistent or current address = buffer_cache_address(dba,...); if no address was found address = PIO(dba, …);# potentially a multi-block pre-fetch update the LRU chain if necessary;# necessary less often in if mode is consistent construct read-consistent image if necessary, by cloning the block and calling LIO for the appropriate undo blocks; increment cr statistic in trace data and consistent gets statistic in v$ data; else (mode is current) increment cu statistic in trace data and db block gets statistic in v$ data; parse the content of the block; return the relevant row source; end
Slide 8 How does the Oracle kernel know whether a block is in the database buffer cache or not?
Slide 9 Latch serialization impacts LIO latency. Oracle8i –Scanners, modifiers serialize on a CBC latch => Oracle9i –Scanners can share a CBC latch –But modifiers still serialize
Slide 11 Oracles latch acquisition algorithm attempts the fine balance between busy-waiting and sleeping. function get_latch(latch, …)# multi-CPU implementation if fastget_latch(latch) return true; for try = 0 to +infinity for spin = 1 to _spin_count if fastget_latch(latch) return true; sleep for min(f(try), _max_exponential_sleep) centiseconds; end function fastget_latch(latch, …) if test(latch) shows that latch is available if test_and_set(latch) is successful return true; return false; end
Slide 13 To find long chains select hladdr, count(*) from x$bh group by hladdr order by 2; To find hot blocks : select sid, p1raw, p2, p3, seconds_in_wait, wait_time, state from v$session_wait where event = latch free order by p2, p1raw;
Slide 14 Part II How to measure LIO and PIO latencies operationally.
Slide 15 Tracing your own session alter session set timed_statistics = true; alter session set max_dump_file_size = 20M; alter session set tracefile_identifier = ; alter session set events '10046 trace name context forever, level 8'; …. alter session set events '10046 trace name context off Tracing someone elses session exec dbms_system.set_bool_param_in_session(sid,serial#,'timed_statistics', true); exec dbms_system.set_ev (sid,serial#,10046,8,''); ….. exec dbms_system.set_ev (sid,serial#,10046,0,'');
Slide 16 How to measure per-block LIO durations operationally… FETCH #1:c=3334,e=3919,p=58369,cr=586601,cu=0,mis=0,r=1,dep=0,og=4, tim= Logical reads –Consumed 3,334 quanta of user-mode CPU time 33.34s in Oracle8i and 0,003334s in 9I,10G –Retrieved 586,601 (586,601+0) blocks from db buffer cache – seconds per block (33.34s/586,601b) Note risk of overestimating LIO cost
Slide 17 How to measure per-block PIO durations operationally… WAIT #491: nam='db file scattered read' ela= 0 p1=142 p2=14523 p3=3 WAIT #491: nam='db file sequential read' ela= 1 p1=142 p2=9218 p3=1 WAIT #491: nam='db file sequential read' ela= 1 p1=142 p2=9223 p3=1 WAIT #491: nam='db file scattered read' ela= 1 p1=142 p2=9231 p3=4 WAIT #491: nam='db file scattered read' ela= 1 p1=142 p2=9237 p3=8 Physical reads –Consumed ela=4 quanta of elapsed time 0.04s in Oracle8i or 0,00004 s in 9i and 10G –Retrieved p3=17 database blocks – seconds per block (0.04s/17b)
Slide 18 How to measure latch sleep durations operationally… WAIT #92: nam='latch free' ela= 0 p1= p2=66 p3=0 WAIT #91: nam='latch free' ela= 0 p1= p2=66 p3=0 WAIT #98: nam='latch free' ela= 1 p1= p2=66 p3=0 WAIT #96: nam='latch free' ela= 1 p1= p2=66 p3=0 WAIT #96: nam='latch free' ela= 2 p1= p2=66 p3=0 Sleeps on latch acquisition attempts –Consumed ela=4 quanta of elapsed time 0.04s in Oracle8i –Latch number is p2=66 (cache buffers chains on this system)
Slide 19 Part III You probably dont need faster disk or more memory.
Slide 20 Increasing the parameter associated with latches is usually an ineffective remedy. Consider the relative impact… –Increase db_block_buffers by 10 –Increase _db_block_hash_buckets by 10 –Increase _db_block_hash_latches by 10 –Reduce LIO count by 100,000
Slide 21 PIOs Might Not Be Your Bottleneck Do you have a physical I/O bottleneck on your system? Chances are that if any of the following is true, then somebody at your business probably thinks that you do: Your disk utilization figures are high. Your disk queue lengths are long. Your average read or write latency is high. If you suspect that you have a physical I/O bottleneck for any of these reasons, do not upgrade your disk subsystem until you figure out how much impact your Oracle PIO latencies have upon user response time.
Slide 22 For example, what impact would a disk upgrade or more memory have upon the application with the following resource profile? Oracle Kernel Event Duration Calls Avg CPU service 1,527.51s 60.8% 158, s db file sequential read s 17.2% 62, s unaccounted-for s 8.3% global cache lock s to x 99.87s 4.0% 3, s global cache lock open s 85.93s 3.4% 3, s global cache lock open x 57.88s 2.3% 1, s latch free 26.77s 1.1% 1, s SQL*Net message from client 19.11s 0.8% 6, s write complete waits 11.13s 0.4% s row cache lock 11.10s 0.4% s enqueue 11.09s 0.4% s log file switch completion 7.31s 0.3% s log file sync 3.31s 0.1% s wait for DLM latch 2.95s 0.1% s Total 2,510.50s 100.0%
Slide 23 This statement went undetected for several years because, by traditional measures, it is efficient. update po_requisitions_interface set requisition_header_id=:b0 where (req_number_segment1=:b1 and request_id=:b2) Response Time Action Count Rows Elapsed CPU Waits LIO Blks PIO Blks Parse Execute 1, , , ,216,887 3,547 Fetch Total 1, , , ,216,887 3,547 Per Exe ,047 3 Per Row 1, , , ,216,887 3,547 db buffer cache hit ratio = %
Slide 24 SQL> select /*+ use_nl(o,n)*/ 2 o.object_name 3 from objects_t o, 4 nom_owner n 5 where o.owner=n.owner1; rows selected. SQL> select /*+ use_hash(n,o)*/ 2 o.object_name 3 from objects_t o, 4 nom_owner n 5 where o.owner=n.owner1; rows selected.
Slide 25 Execution Plan SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=ALL_ROWS (Cost=690 Card= By tes= ) 1 0 NESTED LOOPS (Cost=690 Card= Bytes= ) 2 1 TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF 'OBJECTS_T' (TABLE) (Cost=656 Car d= Bytes= ) 3 1 INDEX (UNIQUE SCAN) OF 'OWNER1_UK' (INDEX (UNIQUE)) (Cos t=0 Card=1 Bytes=13) Statistics recursive calls 0 db block gets consistent gets 2954 physical reads 0 redo size bytes sent via SQL*Net to client bytes received via SQL*Net from client SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client 0 sorts (memory) 0 sorts (disk) rows processed cash hit ratio =0.92 execution for 8.17 sec.
Slide 26 Execution Plan SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=ALL_ROWS (Cost=661 Card= By tes= ) 1 0 HASH JOIN (Cost=661 Card= Bytes= ) 2 1 INDEX (FULL SCAN) OF 'OWNER1_UK' (INDEX (UNIQUE)) (Cost= 1 Card=121 Bytes=1573) 3 1 TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF 'OBJECTS_T' (TABLE) (Cost=656 Car d= Bytes= ) Statistics recursive calls 0 db block gets consistent gets 2961 physical reads 0 redo size bytes sent via SQL*Net to client bytes received via SQL*Net from client SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client 2 sorts (memory) 0 sorts (disk) rows processed cash hit ratio =0.83 execution for 3,48 sec.
Slide 27 Part IV How to reduce LIO call frequency.
Slide 28 Focus on LIO reduction first. When youve eliminated PIOs, youre still not done yet If you begin with LIO reduction, youll get more benefit –Most PIOs are motivated by LIOs However, eliminating LIOs requires actual thought
Slide 29 Use the most efficient execution plan, not necessarily the one that your rules of thumb say to use. A statements buffer cache hit ratio is an illegitimate measure of its efficiency Any x% of rows returned index rule of thumb is illegitimate –Not all index range scans are good –Not all full-table scans are bad –Not all nested loops plans are good.
Slide 30 Efficient SQL is necessary SQL that puts as little load upon the database as possible. Eliminate unnecessary work –Filter early –Use arrays –Generate redo only when needed
Slide 31 Part V Conclusion: Excessive LIO frequency is a major scalability barrier.
Slide 32 When do you need faster disk? Buy faster disk only when... –Disk latency significantly impacts an important programs response time –And youve exhausted less expensive workload reduction opportunities Invalid motives –Device average I/O latency is higher than you want –Device utilization is higher than you want –PIO count is non-zero
Slide 33 When do you need more memory? Buy more memory only when… –The lack of memory significantly impacts an important programs response time E.g., user PGAs need so much memory you page/swap –And youve exhausted less expensive workload reduction opportunities Invalid motives –Your db buffer cache hit ratio is low –Your db buffer cache hit ratio is high
Slide 34 A multi-terabyte SGA wont reduce LIO latencies, or eliminate LIO calls. LIOs are expensive –User-mode CPU time Spinning for latch Inspecting cache buffers chain Interpreting and filtering block content Executing data type conversions –Other response time Sleeping for latch free –Additional LIOs required to build cr blocks