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Oracle Wait Events That Everyone Should Know Kerry Osborne Senior Oracle Guy.

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Presentation on theme: "Oracle Wait Events That Everyone Should Know Kerry Osborne Senior Oracle Guy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oracle Wait Events That Everyone Should Know Kerry Osborne Senior Oracle Guy

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3 What Are Wait Events? Basically a section of code Uses gettimeofday All time is stuck in a bucket with a name Multiple things can be stuck in the same bucket Oracle is very well instrumented (but Its not 100%) There are 41 classes of wait events in There are 878 wait events in enqueue events 29 latch events 41 I/O events

4 What do you do with Wait Events? See where Oracle is spending its time Create a Resource Profile Aggregate the time by Wait Event Order the profile by time Include # of occurrences and avg. time/event Shows where to focus Shows how much improvement can be made

5 Profiles Basic Tool – maybe the most important Shows up in Statspack / AWR reports Shows up in tkprof output (10g) Can be pulled out of trace files Can be pulled from V$ tables (v$system_event) Can be pulled from ash tables Oracle is very well instrumented

6 Profiles Top 5 Timed Events ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ % Total Event Waits Time (s) Ela Time CPU time 37, SQL*Net message from dblink 7,065,802 11, async disk IO 943,852 5, db file sequential read 13,042,432 3, direct path write 108,862 3,

7 Why should developers know this stuff? 1. Because you need to know where your code is spending its time 2. Scalability is Important

8 1. These are the events you should know by heart 2. The other 260 or so you can figure out 3. You need to know what causes them 4. You need to know what values are reasonable 5. You need to know what you can do to fix them Top 10 List of Wait Events select name, parameter1, parameter2, parameter3 from v$event_name where name like nvl('&event_name',name) order by name

9 Not a wait event – but often included in a profile Time spent but not accounted for in other buckets Primarily time spent doing lio (we hope) We want it to be on top It may be an indicator of inefficient plans CPU

10 Single block read Usually index block or data block via rowid Can be done by fts to get chained rows P1=file, P2=block, P3=# of blocks (always 1) Always a users server process reading into buffer cache Reasonable e values: <10ms DB File Sequential Read WAIT #14: nam='db file sequential read' ela= file#=1 block#=67745 blocks=1 obj#=84920

11 Do Less Work tune SQL reduce lios 7 / obj rule of thumb Explain plan lies (see notes on this slide) bigger buffer cache Do the Work Faster Speed up I/O Call Jack DB File Sequential Read – fixes

12 Explain plan appears to executes a separate code path Even if it didnt there is no guarantee TEST matches PROD Best bet is to execute and look at V$SQL_PLAN This is easy in 10g with dbms_xplan select * from table(dbms_xplan.display_cursor('&sql_id','&child_no','')) See an example in the notes section for this slide Digression – Explain Plan Lies

13 Multi block read Usually full table scan or index fast full scan P1=file, P2=block, P3=# of blocks (always < MBRC) Always a users server process reading into buffer cache Reasonable ela values: <10ms Relevant parameters: DBFMBRC, System Stats: MBRC, _db_file_exec_read_count, _db_file_optimizer_read_count DB File Scattered Read WAIT #14: nam='db file scattered read' ela= file#=139 block#=44 blocks=5 obj#=83580

14 Do Less Work (fewer multi-block reads) MBRC Better Indexes System Stats bigger buffer cache Tune SQL Do the Work Faster Speed up I/O DB File Scattered Read – fixes

15 Usually sorting to Temp Can also be parallel query Could also be insert append, etc… Reasonable ela values: <20ms Relevant parameters: DBFMBRC _db_file_direct_io_count (1M) Direct Path Read/Write WAIT #10: nam='direct path write' ela= 4475 p1=401 p2= p3=57 WAIT #10: nam='direct path read' ela= p1=401 p2= p3=63

16 Adjust PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET Turn off PX query Call Randy Direct Path Read/Write – fixes

17 User process wait for LGWR to flush dirty buffers on commit Synchronous write event P1=log buffer block Reasonable ela values: <4ms Log File Sync WAIT #16: nam='log file sync' ela= 1286 buffer#=11910 p2=0 p3=0 obj#=84920

18 Do Less Work (fewer commits) Autocommit? Row at a time processing with commits? Do the Work Faster Speed Up I/O No RAID 5 No Contention (other db, arch, ASM) SS Disk Improve LGWR Scheduling Renice Log File Sync – fixes

19 Wait for LGWR to write to current log files Not necessarily synchronous write event System I/O event Reasonable ela values: <4ms Occurs as follows: Every 3 seconds Log_buffer is 1/3 full or redo = 1M ( default _log_io_size) Commit or rollback by user session RAC needs to transfer a dirty block Log File Parallel Write

20 Often fixed by fixing Log File Sync (i.e. speed up i/o, etc) Force LGWR to write more often Log File Parallel Write – fixes

21 Happens when database cant switch to next log file Freezes the whole database Several Flavors Checkpoint incomplete Archiving needed Reasonable ela values: 0ms Log file switch … WAIT #9: nam='log file switch (checkpoint incomplete)' ela= p1=0 p2=0 p3=0

22 Do less work Make total online log space bigger Force more frequent incremental checkpoints Speed up i/o Log file switch … – fixes

23 Contention event for the same block Read by other session (new event in 10g) Held by other session in incompatible mode New event in 10g – read by other session Multiple sections of code throw time in this bucket P1=file, P2=block, P3=reason code See metalink note ( ) for details Buffer Busy Waits WAIT #7: nam='read by other session' ela= 3251 file#=4 block#= class#=1 obj#=53707 tim=

24 Its complicated – but basically - eliminate the contention For Read by Other Session Do Less Work (tune SQL to do less lio) Eliminate i/o – bigger buffer cache, etc… Speed up i/o For Others Find type of hot objects and statements suffering Address issue - ASSM, Freelist groups (RAC), etc.. Buffer Busy Waits - fixes

25 No place to put a new block Free Buffer Waits

26 Do Less Work Reduce the amount of lio Make more buffer space available Add memory to the buffer cache Speed up DBWR to flush blocks more quickly Async_io More dbwr processes Renice Free Buffer Waits - fixes

27 Database is idle – waiting on next request from client Often marked as an idle event which it may be Time distribution can be skewed Common technique to ignore anything over 1 sec Reasonable e values: <2ms Protocol should be tcp (or beq for local processes) SQL*Net message from client WAIT #1: nam='SQL*Net message from client' ela= 336 driver id= #bytes=1 p3=0 obj#=83660

28 Speed up app server Reduce the number of calls Use the right protocol (tcp to beq) Call network guy Get the users to type faster SQL*Net message from client – fixes

29 More than 1 packet required to send SQL statement SQL*Net more data from client

30 Dont send 50K SQL statements Use packages SQL*Net more data from client – fixes

31 Time to send a SQL*Net message to a client (sort of) Actually time it took to write the return data from Oracles userland SDU buffer to OS kernel-land TCP socket buffer (Tanel Poder) Often marked as an idle event which it may be Reasonable e values: <1ms (micro seconds actually) P1=bytes (usually 1 ???) SQL*Net message to Client WAIT #1: nam='SQL*Net message to client' ela= 2 driver id= #bytes=1 p3=0 obj#=83660

32 Use correct protocol Fix network issue Call Andy SQL*Net message to Client – fixes

33 When more than one packet required Rows spanning block LOBs Array fetches Often marked as an idle event which it may be Reasonable e values: <1ms P1=bytes (usually 1 ???) SQL*Net more data to client WAIT #1: nam='SQL*Net message to client' ela= 2 driver id= #bytes=1 p3=0 obj#=83660

34 Fix chained/migrated rows Dont use LOBs Nothing to fix SQL*Net more data to client – fixes

35 Locks for objects Que up in order 9i lumped them all together 10g has 209 separate events Enqueues

36 P1 has encoded type and mode Enqueue in 9i SELECT chr(bitand(p1, )/ )|| chr(bitand(p1, )/65535) Type, mod(p1,16) lmode from v$session_wait where event=enqueue;

37 Several Major Categories TM – table modification TX – Transaction locks UL – user lock CI – Cross Instance CU – Cursor Bind HW – High Water RO – Reusable Object ST – Space Transaction TS – Temporary Space Parameters depend on type Enqueue in 10g

38 User cant modify block until other user commits Enqueue: TX row lock

39 Use ash tables to find statements waiting Fix the code Or do what one of our clients did: write some code to kill any processes blocking for more than 60 seconds – lots easier than changing the app Enqueue: TX row lock – fixes

40 Waiting on exclusive access to a sequence Seems minor but can actually be a big issue on some systems Enqueue: SQ

41 Cache the sequence Use NOORDER in RAC Enqueue: SQ – fixes

42 Locks internal memory structures Not ordered Very light weight Kid Asking for Candy Model Spins vs. Sleeps (_spin_count, _latch_class_X) Wait events do not include time spent spinning 9i lumped them all together 10g has 28 separate events Latches

43 All dumped in the Latch Free event P2 has latch# Latches in 9i WAIT #9: nam='latch free' ela= 185 p1= p2=157 p3=0 SQL> Select name from v$latch where latch#=157; NAME library cache

44 Primarily Deal with major SGA areas Shared Pool Latch: shared pool Latch: library cache Latch row cache Buffer Cache Latch: cache buffer chains Latch: cache buffers lru chain Log Buffer Latch: redo … Parameters depend on type (see v$event_name) Latches in 10g

45 Each block hashes to a chain Several chains per latch Several latches per instance (default based on cache size) Latch: cache buffers chains

46 Find hot blocks Fix bad SQL Maybe Increase number of latches Maybe decrease rows per block Latch: cache buffers chains –fixes

47 Shared Pool Contention Due primarily to parsing See also latch: library cache … Latch: shared pool WAIT #28: nam='latch: shared pool' ela= 751 address= number=213 tries=1 j#=46024

48 Use Bind Variables CURSOR_SHARING = FORCE Increase SHARED_POOL – this is where Darcy came in and sat in my office so I didnt get much more done – You can thank Darcy later! Latch: shared pool – fixes

49 Some tools show this (Hotsos Profiler) Indicates lost time due to rounding (small) Or lost time due to CPU contention (large) Unaccounted for

50 Tracing alter session set events '10046 trace name context forever, level 8'; Spits out wait events, plans (real), stats Level 12 includes bind variables – makes file very big Puts file in user_dump_dest (ls –altr) Can be executed from logon trigger, in-line, etc… Scoping is important (i.e. when its turned on and off) Note: bug in early versions of 9.2, fixed in

51 Trace File Contents WAIT FETCH EXEC PARSE STAT XCTEND PARSING IN CURSOR

52 Raw Trace File /opt/oracle/admin/LAB102/udump/lab102_ora_4207.trc Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release Production ORACLE_HOME = /opt/oracle/product/db/10.2.0/db1 System name: Linux Node name: homer Release: ELhugemem Version: #1 SMP Fri Feb 24 17:04:34 EST 2006 Machine: i686 Instance name: LAB102 Redo thread mounted by this instance: 1 Oracle process number: 20 Unix process pid: 4207, image: (TNS V1-V3) *** ACTION NAME:() :48: *** MODULE NAME:(SQL*Plus) :48: *** SERVICE NAME:(SYS$USERS) :48: *** SESSION ID:( ) :48: ===================== PARSING IN CURSOR #7 len=68 dep=0 uid=61 oct=42 lid=61 tim= hv= ad='30663e48' alter session set events '10046 trace name context forever, level 8' END OF STMT EXEC #7:c=0,e=269,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=0,og=1,tim= WAIT #7: nam='SQL*Net message to client' ela= 7 driver id= #bytes=1 p3=0 obj#=-1 tim= WAIT #7: nam='SQL*Net message from client' ela= 119 driver id= #bytes=1 p3=0 obj#=-1 tim= ===================== PARSING IN CURSOR #8 len=44 dep=0 uid=61 oct=3 lid=61 tim= hv= ad=' ' select avg(col1) from skew where rownum < 10 END OF STMT PARSE #8:c=4000,e=3904,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=0,og=1,tim= EXEC #8:c=0,e=185,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=0,og=1,tim= WAIT #8: nam='SQL*Net message to client' ela= 9 driver id= #bytes=1 p3=0 obj#=53707 tim= WAIT #8: nam='db file scattered read' ela= 218 file#=4 block#=21900 blocks=5 obj#=53707 tim= FETCH #8:c=0,e=665,p=5,cr=4,cu=0,mis=0,r=1,dep=0,og=1,tim= WAIT #8: nam='SQL*Net message from client' ela= 157 driver id= #bytes=1 p3=0 obj#=53707 tim= FETCH #8:c=0,e=7,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=0,og=0,tim= WAIT #8: nam='SQL*Net message to client' ela= 7 driver id= #bytes=1 p3=0 obj#=53707 tim= WAIT #8: nam='SQL*Net message from client' ela= 298 driver id= #bytes=1 p3=0 obj#=53707 tim= XCTEND rlbk=0, rd_only=1 STAT #8 id=1 cnt=1 pid=0 pos=1 obj=0 op='SORT AGGREGATE (cr=4 pr=5 pw=0 time=736 us)' STAT #8 id=2 cnt=9 pid=1 pos=1 obj=0 op='COUNT STOPKEY (cr=4 pr=5 pw=0 time=846 us)' STAT #8 id=3 cnt=9 pid=2 pos=1 obj=53707 op='TABLE ACCESS FULL SKEW (cr=4 pr=5 pw=0 time=639 us)' WAIT #0: nam='log file sync' ela= 680 buffer#=4862 p2=0 p3=0 obj#=53707 tim=

53 Questions?


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