2Introduction Functions: Hearing and Equilibrium Mechanoreception: because the ear receives mechanical vibrations and translates them into nerve impulsesStatic equilibrium: able to determine nonmoving positionDynamic equilibrium: motion is detected
8Inner Ear Composed of three areas: Cochlea Vestibule Semicircular Ducts (canals)
9Labyrinth Cochlea- snail shaped Contains sensory receptors for hearing, known as the organ of Corti (spiral organ)Sensory hair cells are found in all receptor organs of the inner ear which contain long microvilli, called stereociliaThese can be stimulated by gravitational forces in the vestibule, turning movements in the semicircular canals or sound waves in the cochlea
10The stapes strikes the oval window of the cochlea
11Cochlea Uncoiledvestibular ductoval windowhelicotremaround windowtympanic ductCochlear duct containing the Organ of CortiStapes pushes on fluid of vestibular duct at oval windowAt helicotrema, vibration moves into tympanic ductFluid vibration dissipated at round window which bulgesThe central structure is vibrated (cochlear duct)
12CochleaVestibulocochlear nerve sends impulses to the auditory cortex of the temporal lobe of brain and interpreted as sound
14Vestibule Consists of the utricle and saccule Involved in the interpretation of static equilibrium and linear accelerationRegions known as maculae, which consist of hair cells with stereocilia and a kinocilium grouped together in a gelatinous mass called otolithic membrane and weighted with calcium caronate stones called otoliths
15VestibuleAs the head is accelerated or tipped by gravity, the otoliths cause the cilia to bend, indicating that the position of the head has changed.Visual cues play a part in this alsoWhen visual and vestibular cues are not synchronized, a sense of imbalance or nausea can occur
16Inner EarSemicircular canals contain sensory receptors called crista and detect change in acceleration or deceleration.Dynamic equilibrium3 semicircular ducts, each at 90 degrees to one anotherFilled with endolymph and has an expanded base called an ampullaDynamic implies movement while static implies stationary
17Ampulla of the semicircular canals Inside are clusters of hair cells and supports cells (crista ampullaris)These cells have stereocilia and a kinocilium enclosed in a gelatinous material called the cupula.As the head is rotated, the endolymph pushes pushes against the stereocilia.
18Types of Hearing LossConductive hearing loss occurs when sound is not conducted efficiently through the outer ear canal to the eardrum and the bones of the middle ear.Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when there is damage to the inner ear (cochlea) or to the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain.
19Weber TestRing tuning fork and place on center of head. Ask the subject where they hear the sound.Interpreting the test:Normally, the sound is heard in the center of the head or equally in both ears.Sound localizes toward the poor ear with a conductive lossSound localizes toward the good ear with a sensorineural hearing loss
20Rinne TestPlace the vibrating tuning fork on the base of the mastoid bone.Ask patient to tell you when the sound is no longer heard.Immediately move the tuning fork to the front of the earAsk the patient to tell you when the sound is no longer heard.Repeat the process putting the tuning fork in front of the ear first
21Rinne TestNormally, someone will hear the vibration in the air (in front of the ear) after they stop hearing it on the boneConductive hearing loss: If the person hears the vibration on the bone after they no longer hear it in the air.
22Bing Test Similar to the Rinne Test Strike the tuning fork and place it on the mastoid process.With your other hand close off the auditory canal with pad of finger.A person with normal hearing or one with sensorineurial hearing loss will hear the sound better when ear canal is closed.A person with conductive hearing loss will not notice a change in sound
23Sound Location Have lab partner sit with eyes closed. Strike the tuning fork with a rubber reflex hammer above head.Have partner describe to you where the sound is located.Try the following locations: behind head, right side, left side, in front of head, below chin
24Postural Reflex TestUnexpected changes that move the body away from a state of equilibrium cause postural reflexes to compensate for that change.Important for maintaining the upright position of the body.Negative feedback mechanismsFind an area w/o obstaclesStand on tiptoes and read lab manualLab partner should give a little nudge to left or right (not too hard)
25Barany’s TestTests visual responses to changes in dynamic equilibrium.Place subject in a swivel chair with four or five students close by.Subject sits in chair and tilts head forward about 30 degreesSpin the chair about 10 timesNotice twitching of the eyes (nystagmus) after stopping.
26Romberg Test Tests static equilibrium Subject stands with back to the wall.Don’t lean on wallStand for 1 minute and have partner watch for swayingDo the same exercise again but have subject close eyes
27The End Identify structures on models View and identify structures on cochlea slidesMake sure that you understand the testsWhat cranial nerve is being innervated with the tests performed in lab?