Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Optimal External Route Selection: Tips and Techniques for ISPs Avi Freedman Net Access.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Optimal External Route Selection: Tips and Techniques for ISPs Avi Freedman Net Access."— Presentation transcript:

1 Optimal External Route Selection: Tips and Techniques for ISPs Avi Freedman Net Access

2 Overview Brief review of BGP routing concepts Safe routing Determining policy Using MEDs Setting MEDs on internal routes as-path padding to tune external traffic Using local-prefs to tune external traffic Setting MEDs to tune external traffic

3 BGP Concept Review

4 BGP Intro BGP4 is the protocol used on the Internet to exchange routing information between providers, and to propagate external routing information through networks. Each autonomous network is called an Autonomous System. ASs which inject routing information on their own behalf have ASNs.

5 BGP Peering BGP-speaking routers peer with each other over TCP sessions, and exchange routes through the peering sessions. Providers typically try to peer at multiple places. Either by peering with the same AS multiple times, or because some ASs are multi-homed, a typical network will have many candidate paths to a given prefix.

6 The BGP Route The BGP route is, conceptually, a promise to carry data to a section of IP space. The route is a bag of attributes. The section of IP space is called the prefix attribute of the route. As a BGP route travels from AS to AS, the ASN of each AS is stamped on it when it leaves that AS. Called the AS_PATH attribute, or as-path in Cisco-speak.

7 BGP Route Attributes In addition to the prefix, the as-path, and the next-hop, the BGP route has other attributes, affectionately known as knobs and twiddles - –weight, rarely used - sledgehammer –local-pref, sometimes used - hammer –origin code, rarely used –MED (metric) - a gentle nudge

8 BGP Policy BGP was designed to allow ASs to express a routing policy. This is done by filtering certain routes, based on prefix, as-path, or other attributes - or by adjusting some of the attributes to influence the best-route selection process.

9 BGP Best-Route Selection With all of the paths that a router may accumulate to a given prefix, how does the BGP router choose which is the best path? Through an RFC-specified (mostly) route selection algorithm.

10 BGP Best-Route Selection Do not consider IBGP path if not synchronized Do not consider path if no route to next hop Highest weight (local to router) Highest local preference (global within AS) Shortest AS path Lowest origin code IGP < EGP < incomplete Lowest MED Prefer EBGP path over IBGP path Path with shortest next-hop metric wins Lowest router-id

11 BGP Selection, Summary So, local-pref is stronger than as-path is stronger than MED. Setting local-pref without careful planning can cause strange things (preferring other paths to get to your own customers)…

12 Safe Routing

13 BGP routes are promises to carry traffic to a certain destination. Still, not every provider makes good promises {at all times}. So, it is best to sanity-filter all eBGP sessions.

14 Safe Routing Method 1: –The Cisco maximum-prefix keyword neighbor maximum-prefix [percent] [warning] –Sets a maximum number of prefixes allowed for a peer. –Behavior 1 - Shut down the session and log the fact. –Behavior 2 - Leave the session up; just log the warning.

15 Safe Routing - Filtering Another method of sanity filtering is to restrict your peers based on routes or as- paths. Usually, it is hard to filter based on routes (except for our friends, the fanatics at ANS). So, from smaller providers it is a good idea to prevent random route redistribution.

16 Safe Routing - Filtering ip as-path access-list 40 deny _701_ ip as-path access-list 40 deny _1239_ ip as-path access-list 40 deny _3561_ ip as-path access-list 40 deny _1_ ip as-path access-list 40 deny _1673_ ip as-path access-list 40 deny _174_ ip as-path access-list 40 permit.* Apply this access-list inbound for sanity.

17 I am Blackholio In sufficiently strange circumstances, this wont help. If someone (AS 7007, perhaps) strips the as-path information, as-path filters do no good.

18 Determining Policy

19 What do you want to do? The tricky part. Configuring is easy… Do you want to prefer higher-quality connections? Optimize for cost of the links?

20 Connection Quality We will assume that you want to optimize for connection quality. This generally means, in the Platonic zero- packet-loss Internet, minimizing latency and avoiding small pipes. Well come back to small pipes and backup paths when we talk about local-prefs. Well talk about minimizing latency when we explore MEDs.

21 Connection Quality At all times, we must minimize packet loss. In general, this means avoiding public exchanges in favor of private peering and/or transit. Sometimes this might not be economically desirable, but if you dont tune this way, stay vigilant about inter-connection quality. Best to measure it if you really care...

22 Max Max: 423.0 ms (352.5%) Average Max: 32.0 ms (26.7%) Current Max: 37.0 ms (30.8%) Max Min: 9.0 ms (7.5%) Average Min: 5.0 ms (4.2%) Current Min: 6.0 ms (5.0%) Measuring Packet Loss with MRTG

23 Peering Points You want to prefer paths that you hear over uncongested pipes. Assuming you have non-full private interconnects, PIs will be better than public exchanges. Of course, that can depend on which Gigaswitch youre on; whether youre at PSK, PACBell, AADS, or the MAEs.

24 Hot-Potato In general, traffic is handed off as soon as possible to external providers to minimize backbone utilization and costs. This is not always the best plan if you want to maximize connection quality (assuming your inter-LATA and/or cross-country links are not full). Solution - Listen to and use MEDs.

25 Asymmetry For this presentation, we are going to ignore the return path - data coming back into your network. Still, for best tuning you will want to explore this and use as-path padding and possibly controlled de-aggregation (to willing partners)...

26 Review: Policy Somehow, you want to prefer better-quality links. In the examples that follow, well assume a small but national network, peering at MAE-West, MAE-East, and Pennsauken. Additionally, private interconnects with IDT, PSI, Digex,, and Exodus. Transit through and UUNET.

27 Goals Our goals will be to prefer, in this order: –Private interconnects –Regionality of traffic –Pennsauken over MAE-East –Public Exchanges –Transit pipes, first

28 Using MEDs

29 Introduction to MEDs The MULTI_EXIT_DISCRIMINATOR, or MED, is a BGP attribute used to: –Describe internal network topology. –Pass on this topology to external peers. A smaller knob than others, like local-pref or as-path padding. Major problem - no inter-provide consistency on MED semantics. Internally, also called metrics.

30 Setting MEDs for Internal Route

31 Setting MEDs Use an internally consistent scheme. Usually, peoples MEDs are in the low hundreds or less. Suggestion - use average delay in ms between POPs. Set MEDs in one direction only. To be advanced, MEDs can be set on a per- router basis in a POP, but usually are not.

32 Network Diagram CHI SF DC PHL

33 Setting MEDs For SF, CHI, PHL, DC: SF-DC +60 SF-CHI +40 CHI-PHL +30 CHI-DC +25 PHL-DC +10 PHL-PSK +0 DC-MAE-E +5 SF-MAE-W +5

34 Network Diagram w/ MEDs CHI SF DC PHL 60 40 30 25 10

35 Route Maps in DC route-map from-sf set metric +60 route-map from-chi set metric +40 route-map from-phl set metric +10 neighbor route-map from-sf in etc...

36 What this Does A route originating in PHL will have: –metric 60 or or 70 in SF (unless there are multiple link failures) –metric 10 or 60 in SF –metric 10 or 35 in DC etc… Thus, a provider honoring MEDs (not doing hot-potato) will send packets destined to that route in PSK, to PHL.

37 Slight Improvement? Or, change things to weight PSK vs. DC over PHL vs. DC. PSK +0 MAE-E +20 Thus, a provider honoring MEDs will send a PHL-destined packet to PSK. This is generally a good thing.

38 Using as-path Padding

39 as-path padding Some think that modifying as-paths is a nasty business. It is a good beginning way to do preferences. If providers have already padded to de- prefer, preserves that de-preference. Simple to do.

40 as-path padding First, policy? –Private interconnects - pad no times –Regionality of traffic - pad four times x-country –Pennsauken over MAE-East - pad once; twice –Public Exchanges - twice at MAE-West –Transit pipes, first - pad three Problem - cant pad easily going cross-country. But we can do the rest. –Problem - lots of route-maps and typing. Why? Cant prepend our own AS inside network, so must have separate roue-map per session.

41 route-maps On everyone, at route-map prepend-once permit 10 set as pre 6461 6461 6461 On everyone, at UUNET: route-map prepend-once permit 10 set as pre 701 701 701 On PSI, at MAE-East and MAE-West: route-map prepend-once permit 10 set as pre 174 174 On PSI, at Pennsauken: route-map prepend-once permit 10 set as pre 174

42 Using local-prefs

43 Local-prefs Most common method of preferring external routes. Local-pref is a number, by default 100, put on routes and passed to all routers within a network. Never passed to an eBGP peer.

44 Implementing Policy –Customers - local-pref 200 –Private interconnects - local-pref 150 –Pennsauken over MAE-East - 120 for Pennsauken –Public Exchanges - 100 at MAE-East and MAE-West –Transit pipes, first - 80 from transit pipes –Regionality of traffic - defer to MEDS for equal local- pref. May want to add PACBELL cxn and make it 120.

45 route-maps At Pennsauken: route-map psk in set local-pref 120 set community 4969:800 neighbor peer-group external-peer-psk route-map psk in or neighbor route-map psk in

46 Problem: Prefers Bad Paths The problem with this approach: Take AS 14000, who has a T1 to Sprintlink and a backup-backup-backup 56k to another local provider, say, 13000. Announces as: –1239 14000 and –701 13000 14000 14000 14000 14000 1400 Local-prefs can screw with this.

47 Listening to MEDs

48 Listening to MEDs: Same Peer Nothing special is required to listen to MEDs. Because MEDs mean different things to different networks, one approach is no only set MEDs inbound for your own routes. When listening to MEDs at multiple locations from a peer, set to internal MEDs if you want to hot-potato.

49 route-map on DC, v2 route-map from-sf permit 10 match community 1 set metric +60

50 MEDs from Diff. eBGP Peers bgp always-compare-med keyword allows Ciscos to use MEDs among different providers. Otherwise, will use them to compare iBGP routes, or eBGP routes from the same AS.

51 Setting MEDs on External Routes

52 Preferring External Routes w/ MEDs Can be done, sometimes while preserving remote MED info, but usually remote MED info is lost. Better in some cases than as-path padding or local-prefs (as-path padding is undesirable when you have to pass routes on to customers; local-prefs might use backup links…).

53 Preferring External Routes w/ MEDs Assuming not honoring remote MEDs: –Set metric inbound to 0 and set internal-route MEDs on routes, then: –Private interconnects - no change –Regionality of traffic - no change - add normal MEDs –Pennsauken over MAE-East - add 20 for MAE-East –Public Exchanges - no change, or add 20 –Transit pipes, first - add 30 or 40

54 Active Route Override

55 Overriding BGP Some have started to override BGP when evidence suggests better routing, on a per- prefix basis. ASAP from, ?fastpath?, ?others? Ideally actively and autonomously, determine best path to frequently-used prefixes and inject fixer-routes. Soon, Cisco will have hooks for injection.

Download ppt "Optimal External Route Selection: Tips and Techniques for ISPs Avi Freedman Net Access."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google