Why institutions resist change? It is usually easier and less risky to do nothing than to attempt to change. Universities exist in a culture of competition among institutions, programmes and faculty. Result - cooperation is often rarely rewarded. Faculty and admin staff will rarely be willing to exchange what they already do, even if they are not happy with it, for the unknown. Tradition is an extremely powerful force both within and outside of the academy.
Why institutions resist change? Assessment and accountability are viewed by many as evils to be avoided rather than as tools for improving what they do or the quality of their institution. Significant change will never occur until the forces for change are greater in combination than the forces preserving the status quo. Therefore
5 good reasons for the constant change Rapidly changing technology Growing cooperation with professional world Need for constant modernization of curricula Mass education Growing number of higher education providers
Student-centred learning Student-centred Learning – one definition. SCL is about: helping students to discover their own learning styles, to understand their motivation and to acquire effective study skills that will be valuable throughout their lives. teachers need to help students set achievable goals; encourage students to assess themselves and their peers; help them to work co-operatively in groups and ensure that they know how to exploit all the available resources for learning. Learning is more a form of personal development than a linear progression that the teacher achieves by rewards and sanctions. But what exactly is it? if it is such a good thing, why havent we always been using it? does this mean that what we were doing before was wrong? Opinion: student-centred learning is a good thing it is an essential part of thinking in terms of Learning Outcomes it is an important aspect of modernising our curricula
Is it that we are moving from this…
...to this? The learner has full responsibility for her/his learning Involvement and participation are necessary for learning The relationship between learners is more equal, promoting growth, development The teacher becomes a facilitator and resource person The learner experiences confluence in his education The learner sees himself/herself differently as a result of the learning experience. Principles
the student is supported in making sense of their journey through knowledge construction The teacher has already made an equivalent journey of his or her own Support is informed by this experience Learning proceeds through discussion and interaction, but it is not symmetrical The teachers conceptual knowledge enriches the student Reflection on the interaction with the teacher leads the student to modify his actions reflection on the students performance also leads to adaptation of the teachers construction of the world
Teaching and learning What is taught? What is learned? The unique character of each student and the abundance of information sources in the modern technologic al age The focus is not just on what is taught but on how effective learning should be promoted Student learning becomes the main preoccupation of the teacher (not the facts to be fed into the students) The student is supported in making sense of their journey through knowledge construction
Student-centred Learning – consequences for Competences and Learning Outcomes Syllabi and curricula are organised not just around the facts the learner is supposed to acquire but around the processes through which learning is to be developed therefore promotes: the concept of generic competences and a sense of competences as dynamic attributes owned by each student learning outcomes as important thresholds in the development of these dynamic attributes, rather than checklists for factual knowledge A student-centred approach helps the process of transition because it requires: increased responsibility and accountability on the part of the student a reflexive approach to the teaching and learning process on the part of both teacher and learner HE learning must prepare students to graduate beyond student status and to take on the responsibilities of their professional roles
Benjamin Bloom (1913 – 1999) He looked on learning as a process – we build upon our former learning to develop more complex levels of understanding Carried out research in the development of classification of levels of thinking behaviours in the process of learning. PhD University of Chicago in Worked on drawing up levels of these thinking behaviours from the simple recall of facts at the lowest level up to evaluation at the highest level. The taxonomy consists of a hierarchy of increasingly complex processes which we want students to acquire. Provides the structure for writing learning outcomes Blooms Taxonomy is frequently used by teachers in writing learning outcomes as it provides a structure and list of verbs.
Bloom (1956) - knowing is composed of six successive levels arranged in a hierarchy. Bloom suggested certain characteristic werbs verbs These verbs are the key to writing learning outcomes. This area is the cognitive (knowing or thinking) domain
1. Knowledge: ability to recall or remember facts without necessarily understanding them Evaluat ion Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Active verbs like: Arrange, collect, define, describe, duplicate, enumerate, examine, find, identify, label, list, memorise, name, order, outline, present, quote, recall, recognise, recollect, record, recount, relate, repeat, reproduce, show, state, tabulate, tell.
3. Application: ability to use learned material in new situations, put ideas and concepts to work in solving problems E valuat io n Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Active verbs: Apply, assess, calculate, change, choose, complete, compute, construct, demonstrate, develop, discover, dramatise, employ, examine, experiment, find, illustrate, interpret, manipulate, modify, operate, organise, practice, predict, prepare, produce, relate, schedule, select, show, sketch, solve, transfer, use.
4. Analysis: ability to break down information into its components (understanding of organisational structure) Evaluat ion Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Active verbs: Analyse, appraise, arrange, break down, calculate, categorise, classify, compare, connect, contrast, criticise, debate, deduce, determine, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, divide, examine, experiment, identify, illustrate, infer, inspect, investigate, order, outline, point out, question, relate, separate, sub-divide, test.
5. Synthesis - ability to put parts together Evaluat ion Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Active verbs: Argue, arrange, assemble, categorise, collect, combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, devise, establish, explain, formulate, generalise, generate, integrate, invent, make, manage, modify, organise, originate, plan, prepare, propose, rearrange, reconstruct, relate, reorganise, revise, rewrite, set up, summarise.
6. Evaluation: Ability to judge value of material for a given purpose Evalua tion Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Active verbs: Appraise, ascertain, argue, assess, attach, choose, compare, conclude, contrast, convince, criticise, decide, defend, discriminate, explain, evaluate, interpret, judge, justify, measure, predict, rate, recommend, relate, resolve, revise, score, summarise, support, validate, value.
2 nd - AFFECTIVE DOMAIN (Feeling) concerned with value issues : involves attitudes. Charact erisatio n Organisati on Valuing Responding Receiving Integration of beliefs, ideas and attitudes Comparing, relating, synthesising values Commitment to a value Active participation in own learning Willingness to receive information Active verbs: Appreciate, accept, assist, attempt, challenge, combine, complete, defend, demonstrate (a belief in), discuss, dispute, embrace, follow, hold, integrate, order, organise, join, share, judge, praise, question, relate, share, support, synthesise, value.
3 rd - PSYCHOMOTOR (Doing) DOMAIN *Work not completed by Bloom. *Involves co-ordination of brain and muscular activity. *Active verbs for this domain: bend, grasp, handle, operate, perform, reach, relax, shorten, stretch, differentiate (by touch), perform (skilfully).
Laboratory skills Operate the range of instrumentation specified in the module safely and efficiently in the chemistry laboratory. Perform titrations accurately and safely in the laboratory. Construct simple scientific sketches of geological features in the field. Clinical Skills Perform a comprehensive history and physical examination of patients in the outpatient setting and the general medical wards, excluding critical care settings. Perform venipuncture and basic CPR. Presentation skills Deliver an effective presentation. Demonstrate a range of graphic and CAD communication techniques. Perform basic voice and movement tasks (theatre studies).
BOLOGNA TUNING EUROPE PRAGUE BERLIN TUNING LATIN AMERICA LONDON BERGEN Russia Bologna Process and Tuning 2009 LEUVEN Georgia USA AUSTRALIA
Tuning Academy – Deusto-Groningen: the initial structure Five Units: Unit 1: study, research and innovation Unit 2: experimentation, training of trainers Unit 3: policy & analysis, education- employment Unit 4: implementation, dissemination & projects Unit 5: organisational development
Tuning project/process that created tools: Competences and LO
Tuning vs traditional programme design: difference in approaches Traditional: Teacher in the centre of the learning activity; Content based programme; Individual teacher decides on content and aims of the material; Passive material presentation methods dominate teaching; Passive role of the student; Tuning: Student in the centre opf learning activity; Study programme oriented to result (learning outcomes) expressed through competences; Reverse (top-down) approach; Active role of the student.
60 ECTS FIRST CYCLE PROGRAMME COURSE UNIT 60 ECTS Degree programme according to the Tuning methodology: Programme based on profile, sets of competences to be obtained, desired learning outcomes to be achieved, ECTS credits to be awarded Programme design is team work, based on consultation, discussion, cooperation Learning outcomes / competences to be developed are the basis for credit allocation Teaching, learning and assessment approaches respect credit allocation: feasibility is key factor Top-down Tuning model From Project to Process
THE TUNING DYNAMIC QUALITY DEVELOPMENT CIRCLE Definition of academic and professional profiles Identification of resources Programme design: definition of learning outcomes / competences construction of curricula: content and structure + balanced ECTS credit allocation Evaluation and improvement (on the basis of feed back and feed forward) Selection of types of assessment Selection of teaching and learning approaches
Application of ECTS at micro level - a study programme perspective Student workload Learning outcomes Credit and its application Transparency and Quality assurance Indication of the time students need to complete all learning activities Statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and be able to do after the process of learning Expressed through competences
EQF for Lifelong Learning (an EC initiative) (27 countries) EQF for Higher Education 47 countries) National Qualification Frameworks Sectoral Qualification Frameworks TUNING reference points for Higher Education programmes Dublin descriptors
Types of learning outcomes Programme Module General cycle Meta frameworks NQF and Sectoral QF Ba, Ma, PhD descriptors LO for degree programme Module/course unit LO Tuning reference points for subject area
Dublin descriptors as benchmarks for LO Five aspects: Knowledge and understanding Applying knowledge and understanding Making judgement Communication skills Learning skills
Module LO European Qualification Framework National Qualification framework III cycle II cycle I cycle III pakopa II pakopa I pakopa Dublin descriptors Lietuvos aukštojo mokslo pakopos European qualification framework for Higher education Study programme competences and LO Module LO Lithuanian HE levels Employment area research consultations with employers, visionaries of profession and/or researchers in the area Place of the study programme in the context of HE legislation, Lithuania
What is a degree profile?Profile A good profile takes into account different users perspectives & interests A description of the character of a degree programme or qualification explaining: -the main features of the programme which are based on the specific aims of the programme, - how it fits into the academic map of disciplines or thematic studies and - how it relates to the professional world 2.Each profile has an own identity based on specific elements developed by the institute: -mission, strengths, particular constraints and opportunities derived from the local and regional economy
Guidelines for degree profile description Sections: General information A – Purpose B - Characteristics C - Employability and Further Education D - Education Style E - Programme Competences F – Complete list of Learning outcomes Overall guidelines Be readable in 5 minutes Maximum two pages Coherent impression of the degree Succinct and to point, yet detailed and informative
gathers the essence of what is - should be - the degree holder. detects the occupations and tasks which can be carried out by the graduate. focuses on the environment in which the gaduate is able to function successfully. defines the main expected learning outcomes in terms of competences –generic and specific. IDENTITY FUNCTION CONTEXTS EDUCATION Key elements academic-professional profile
10 steps for designing a programme – Tuning approach Determine need and potential Define the profile and the key competences Formulate programme LO Decide whether to modularize or not Identify competences and LO for each module Determine the approaches to teaching, learning and assessment Check whether the key generic and subject specific competences are covered Describe the programme and the course units Check balance and feasibility Implement, monitor, improve External reference points NQF, subject benchmarks, Programme specifications