2Why institutions resist change? It is usually easier and less risky to do nothing than to attempt to change.Universities exist in a culture of competition among institutions, programmes and faculty. Result - cooperation is often rarely rewarded.Faculty and admin staff will rarely be willing to exchange what they already do, even if they are not happy with it, for the unknown.Tradition is an extremely powerful force both within and outside of the academy.
3Why institutions resist change? Assessment and accountability are viewed by many as evils to be avoided rather than as tools for improving what they do or the quality of their institution.Significant change will never occur until the forces for change are greater in combination than the forces preserving the status quo. Therefore
45 good reasons for the constant change Rapidly changing technologyGrowing cooperation with professional worldNeed for constant modernization of curriculaMass educationGrowing number of higher education providers
5Student-centred learning Opinion: student-centred learning is a ‘good thing’it is an essential part of thinking in terms of Learning Outcomesit is an important aspect of modernising our curriculaBut what exactly is it?if it is such a good thing, why haven’t we always been using it?does this mean that what we were doing before was wrong?Student-centred Learning – one definition. SCL is about:helping students to discover their own learning styles, to understand their motivation and to acquire effective study skills that will be valuable throughout their lives.teachers need to help students set achievable goals; encourage students to assess themselves and their peers; help them to work co-operatively in groups and ensure that they know how to exploit all the available resources for learning.Learning is more a form of personal development than a linear progression that the teacher achieves by rewards and sanctions.’For many dedicated lecturers, it feels as though they are being criticised for previously being ‘self-centred’…and for not paying enough attention to their studentsThe argument for student-centred learning feels like a ‘moral crusade’ to get rid of old-fashioned, selfish teaching
7...to this?PrinciplesThe learner has full responsibility for her/his learningInvolvement and participation are necessary for learningThe relationship between learners is more equal, promoting growth, developmentThe teacher becomes a facilitator and resource personThe learner experiences confluence in his educationThe learner sees himself/herself differently as a result of the learning experience.
9The teacher has already made an equivalent journey of his or her own ‘the student is supported in making sense of their ‘journey’ through knowledge construction’The teacher has already made an equivalent journey of his or her ownSupport is informed by this experienceLearning proceeds through discussion and interaction, but it is not symmetricalThe teacher’s conceptual knowledge enriches the studentReflection on the interaction with the teacher leads the student to modify his actionsreflection on the student’s performance also leads to adaptation of the teacher’s construction of the world
10Teaching and learningThe focus is not just on what is taught but on how effective learning should be promotedStudent learning becomes the main preoccupation of the teacher (not the facts to be fed into the students)The student is supported in making sense of their ‘journey’ through knowledge constructionWhat is taught?What is learned?The unique character of each student and the abundance of information sources in the modern technological age
12increased responsibility and accountability on the part of the student Student-centred Learning – consequences for Competences and Learning OutcomesHE learning must prepare students to ‘graduate’ beyond student status and to take on the responsibilities of their professional rolesA student-centred approach helps the process of transition because it requires:increased responsibility and accountability on the part of the studenta ‘reflexive’ approach to the teaching and learning process on the part of both teacher and learnerSyllabi and curricula are organised not just around the facts the learner is supposed to acquire but around the processes through which learning is to be developed therefore promotes:the concept of generic competences and a sense of competences as dynamic attributes owned by each studentlearning outcomes as important thresholds in the development of these dynamic attributes, rather than checklists for factual knowledge
13Benjamin Bloom (1913 – 1999) He looked on learning as a process – we build upon our formerlearning to develop more complex levels ofunderstandingCarried out research in the development of classification of levels of thinking behaviours in the process of learning. PhD University of Chicago in 1942.Worked on drawing up levels of these thinking behaviours from the simple recall of facts at the lowest level up to evaluation at the highest level.Bloom’s taxonomy (1956). Bloom made a huge contribution in the field of education, had a very optimistic approach to education. Bachelors and Masters degree from Penn State University. PhD in Education from Chicago.He was appointed professor at the University of Chicago in 1970.Wrote a book called the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. (1956)The taxonomy consists of a hierarchy of increasingly complex processes which we want students to acquire.Provides the structure for writing learning outcomesBloom’s Taxonomy is frequently used by teachers in writing learning outcomes as it provides a structure and list of verbs.
14Bloom (1956) - knowing is composed of six successive levels arranged in a hierarchy. This area is the cognitive (“knowing” or “thinking”) domainBloom suggested certain characteristic werbs verbsThese verbs are the key to writing learning outcomes.A very useful practical tool to describe the levels of mental processes.He was interested in what students were thinking when they were interacting with what we were teaching or had taught them.
151. Knowledge: ability to recall or remember facts without necessarily understanding them Active verbs like:Arrange, collect, define, describe, duplicate, enumerate, examine, find, identify, label, list, memorise, name, order, outline, present, quote, recall, recognise, recollect, record, recount, relate, repeat, reproduce, show, state, tabulate, tell.EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledge
162. Comprehension - ability to understand and interpret learned information Active verbs:Associate, change, clarify, classify, construct, contrast, convert, decode, defend, describe, differentiate, discriminate, discuss, distinguish, estimate, explain, express, extend, generalise, identify, illustrate, indicate, infer, interpret, locate, predict, recognise, report, restate, review, select, solve, translate.EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeHow can we check that they have understood the knowledge – ask them to do things.Expanded from Bloom’s original list.
173. Application: ability to use learned material in new situations, put ideas and concepts to work in solving problemsActive verbs:Apply, assess, calculate, change, choose, complete, compute, construct, demonstrate, develop, discover, dramatise, employ, examine, experiment, find, illustrate, interpret, manipulate, modify, operate, organise, practice, predict, prepare, produce, relate, schedule, select, show, sketch, solve, transfer, use.EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledge
184. Analysis: ability to break down information into its components (understanding of organisational structure)Active verbs:Analyse, appraise, arrange, break down, calculate, categorise, classify, compare, connect, contrast, criticise, debate, deduce, determine, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, divide, examine, experiment, identify, illustrate, infer, inspect, investigate, order, outline, point out, question, relate, separate, sub-divide, test.EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeNote that some terms (e.g. calculate) not mutually exclusive e.g. you could have a calculation that simply involves an application or you could have a calculation that involves analysis as well.
195. Synthesis - ability to put parts together Active verbs:Argue, arrange, assemble, categorise, collect, combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, devise, establish, explain, formulate, generalise, generate, integrate, invent, make, manage, modify, organise, originate, plan, prepare, propose, rearrange, reconstruct, relate, reorganise, revise, rewrite, set up, summarise.EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledge
206. Evaluation: Ability to judge value of material for a given purpose Active verbs:Appraise, ascertain, argue, assess, attach, choose, compare, conclude, contrast, convince, criticise, decide, defend, discriminate, explain, evaluate, interpret, judge, justify, measure, predict, rate, recommend, relate, resolve, revise, score, summarise, support, validate, value.EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledge
212nd - AFFECTIVE DOMAIN (“Feeling”) concerned with value issues : involves attitudes. Active verbs:Appreciate, accept, assist, attempt, challenge, combine, complete, defend, demonstrate (a belief in), discuss, dispute, embrace, follow, hold, integrate, order, organise, join, share, judge, praise, question, relate, share, support, synthesise, value.CharacterisationOrganisationValuingRespondingReceivingIntegration of beliefs, ideas and attitudesComparing, relating, synthesising valuesCommitment to a valueThis could be used in the area of keeping attendance records to judge the commitment of students in attending lectures.Active participation in own learningWillingness to receive information
223rd - PSYCHOMOTOR (“Doing”) DOMAIN *Work not completed by Bloom.*Involves co-ordination of brain and muscular activity.*Active verbs for this domain:bend, grasp, handle, operate, perform, reach, relax, shorten, stretch, differentiate (by touch), perform (skilfully).Used in Feasibility Study on Practical Assessment
23Laboratory skills Operate the range of instrumentation specified in the module safely and efficiently in the chemistry laboratory. Perform titrations accurately and safely in the laboratory. Construct simple scientific sketches of geological features in the field. Clinical Skills Perform a comprehensive history and physical examination of patients in the outpatient setting and the general medical wards, excluding critical care settings. Perform venipuncture and basic CPR. Presentation skills Deliver an effective presentation. Demonstrate a range of graphic and CAD communication techniques. Perform basic voice and movement tasks (theatre studies).
24Bologna Process and Tuning TUNING EUROPEUSA AUSTRALIATUNING LATIN AMERICARussiaGeorgia200920072006LEUVEN2005LONDON2004BERGEN20032002BERLIN20012000PRAGUEBologna Process and Tuning1999BOLOGNA24
25Tuning Academy – Deusto-Groningen: the initial structure Five Units:Unit 1: study, research and innovationUnit 2: experimentation, training of trainersUnit 3: policy & analysis, education- employmentUnit 4: implementation, dissemination & projectsUnit 5: organisational development25
26Tuning project/process that created tools: Competences and LO
27Tuning vs traditional programme design: difference in approaches Teacher in the centre of the learning activity;Content based programme;Individual teacher decides on content and aims of the material;Passive material presentation methods dominate teaching;Passive role of the student;Tuning:Student in the centre opf learning activity;Study programme oriented to result (learning outcomes) expressed through competences;“Reverse” (top-down) approach;Active role of the student.
28From Project to Process Tuning modelDegree programme according to the Tuning methodology:Programme based on profile, sets of competences to be obtained, desired learning outcomes to be achieved, ECTS credits to be awardedProgramme design is team work, based on consultation, discussion, cooperationLearning outcomes / competences to be developed are the basis for credit allocationTeaching, learning and assessment approaches respect credit allocation: feasibility is key factor60 ECTSFIRST CYCLE PROGRAMMECOURSE UNITTop-down
29THE TUNING DYNAMIC QUALITY DEVELOPMENT CIRCLE Definition of academic and professional profilesIdentification of resourcesProgramme design: definition of learning outcomes / competencesconstruction of curricula: content and structure + balanced ECTS credit allocationEvaluation and improvement (on the basis of feed back and feed forward)Selection of types of assessmentSelection of teaching and learning approaches
30Application of ECTS at micro level - a study programme perspective Indication of the time students need to complete all learning activitiesStudent workloadLearning outcomesTransparency and Quality assuranceStatements of what a learner is expected to know , understand and be able to do after the process of learningExpressed through competences
31EQF for Higher Education 47 countries) EQF for Lifelong Learning (an EC initiative)(27 countries)Dublin descriptorsNational Qualification FrameworksSectoral Qualification FrameworksTUNING reference points for Higher Education programmes31
32Types of learning outcomes Tuning reference points forsubject areaNQF and Sectoral QFMeta frameworksGeneral cycleBa, Ma, PhD descriptorsLO for degree programmeProgrammeModule/course unit LOModule
33Dublin descriptors as benchmarks for LO Five aspects:Knowledge and understandingApplying knowledge and understandingMaking judgementCommunication skillsLearning skills
34Place of the study programme in the context of HE legislation, Lithuania Module LOEuropean Qualification FrameworkNational Qualification framework12345678III cycleII cycleI cycleIII pakopaII pakopaI pakopaDublin descriptorsLietuvos aukštojo mokslo pakoposEuropean qualification framework for Higher educationStudy programme competences and LOLithuanian HE levelsEmployment area research consultations with employers, visionaries of profession and/or researchers in the area34
35What is a degree profile? A description of the character of a degree programme or qualification explaining:the main features of the programme which are based on the specific aims of the programme,how it fits into the academic map of disciplines or thematic studies andhow it relates to the professional worldEach profile has an own identity based on specific elements developed by the institute:mission, strengths, particular constraints and opportunities derived from the local and regional economystudentsocietyA good profile takes into account different users’ perspectives & interestsProfileprofessionalacademics
36Guidelines for degree profile description Sections:General informationA – PurposeB - CharacteristicsC - Employability and Further EducationD - Education StyleE - Programme CompetencesF – Complete list of Learning outcomesOverall guidelinesBe readable in 5 minutesMaximum two pagesCoherent impression of the degreeSuccinct and to point, yet detailed and informative
37Key elements academic-professional profile IDENTITYgathers the essence of what is - “should be” - the degree holder.detects the occupations and tasks which can be carried out by the graduate.focuses on the environment in which the gaduate is able to function successfully.defines the main expected learning outcomes in terms of competences –generic and specific.IDENTITYFUNCTIONCONTEXTSEDUCATION
4110 steps for designing a programme – Tuning approach External reference points NQF, subject benchmarks,Programme specificationsDetermine need and potentialDefine the profile and the key competencesFormulate programme LODecide whether to “modularize” or notIdentify competences and LO for each moduleDetermine the approaches to teaching, learning and assessmentCheck whether the key generic and subject specific competences are coveredDescribe the programme and the course unitsCheck balance and feasibilityImplement, monitor, improve