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Quirine M. Ketterings, Joe Lawrence, Jon Klapwyk, Michele Wang, Miriam Goler, Karl Czymmek Nutrient Management Spear Program Department of Animal Science,

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Presentation on theme: "Quirine M. Ketterings, Joe Lawrence, Jon Klapwyk, Michele Wang, Miriam Goler, Karl Czymmek Nutrient Management Spear Program Department of Animal Science,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Quirine M. Ketterings, Joe Lawrence, Jon Klapwyk, Michele Wang, Miriam Goler, Karl Czymmek Nutrient Management Spear Program Department of Animal Science, Cornell University Fine-Tuning Corn Nitrogen Management

2 Cornell corn N recommendations are based on: - Yield potential - soil type and drainage - Soil N supply - soil type and drainage - N fertilizer uptake efficiency - soil type and drainage - N credits from sods - % legume/grass in the sod - N credits from manure - application method + timing Cornell Corn N Recommendations

3 (yield potential * 1.2) – soil N – sod N (yield potential * 1.2) – soil N – sod N N requirement = N requirement = (fertilizer efficiency/100) (fertilizer efficiency/100) in lbs N/acre in % in bushels/acre = soil series specific Cornell Corn N Recommendations - soybean N or manure N credits

4 Humid Northeastern Region

5 12 inch soil cores to when corn is 6-12 inches tall. Pre-Sidedress Nitrate Test (PSNT)

6 You really have to want to do this….

7 It can add to the work overload! Impractical timing for dairy farms. Pre-Sidedress Nitrate Test (PSNT)

8 And there are many opportunities to make mistakes. Pre-sidedress Nitrate Test

9 Test Method (Kahn et al., 2001) 1 g soil + 10 mL of 2M NaOH in mason jar.1 g soil + 10 mL of 2M NaOH in mason jar. Add 5 mL of 4% boric acid to suspended petri dish.Add 5 mL of 4% boric acid to suspended petri dish. Heat for 5 hours on hotplate griddles.Heat for 5 hours on hotplate griddles. Titrate with sulfuric acid.Titrate with sulfuric acid. Illinois Soil N Test (ISNT)

10 225 ppm ResponsiveNon responsive Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test (ISNT)

11 Main research questions in NY: Can this test separate responsive from non-responsive sites in New York? Can we use regular 8 inch cores instead of 12 inch cores? Can we sample before planting or after harvest? Can we determine N rates? No Yes [ ? ] Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test (ISNT)

12 Four Project Phases 1.Fine-tuning the laboratory procedure 2.Initial field calibration –0-8 or 0-12 inch samples? –Timing of sampling? 3.ISNT and manure N credits 4.ISNT use for corn in rotation

13 High degree of day-to- day and within-griddle variability.High degree of day-to- day and within-griddle variability. Initial Observation: Phase 1: Laboratory Procedure

14 Klapwyk and Ketterings (2005)

15 MethodTreatment Mean (±SE) Temperature (˚C) ISNT-N (mg N kg -1 ) Mean recovery (%) UnspikedSpiked Standard open-bench 1 45.7 (±0.1) 213497 94.5 a 2 49.5 (±0.5) 245529 94.2 a 3 52.1 (±0.7) 269550 93.5 a 4 55.2 (±0.8) 300578 92.6 a Enclosed 1 45.6 (±1.0) 176473 99.1 a 2 49.0 (±1.0) 223487 87.7 a 3 51.3 (±0.6) 237515 92.5 a 4 55.6 (±0.3) 275547 90.8 a Phase 1: Laboratory Procedure Klapwyk and Ketterings (2005)

16 Temperature did not affect N recovery.Temperature did not affect N recovery. ISNT results increase with temperature.ISNT results increase with temperature. Enclosing griddles resulted in:Enclosing griddles resulted in: Lower ISNT-N.Lower ISNT-N. Lower CV.Lower CV. Similar findings in Illinois led to modifications to include jar rotation at 1.5 and 3 h in Illinois.Similar findings in Illinois led to modifications to include jar rotation at 1.5 and 3 h in Illinois. Enclosed griddles at 50.6°C gave results directly comparable with Illinois.Enclosed griddles at 50.6°C gave results directly comparable with Illinois. Phase 1: Laboratory Procedure

17 Four Project Phases 1.Fine-tuning the laboratory procedure 2.Initial field calibration –0-8 or 0-12 inch samples? –Timing of sampling? 3.ISNT and manure N credits 4.ISNT use for corn in rotation

18 Phase 2: Initial Field Calibration 2002: Albers Barney Bossard Carey Czymmek Kilcer T&R Center 2003: Albers Barney Bossard Czymmek Degni Kilcer T&R Center 2004: Albers Barney Bossard Czymmek Degni Hunter Kilcer Miller/Stockin Miner Institute Tillapaugh T&R Center Collaboration with local extension educators

19 Soil ParametersSilage Yield%NN UptakeMilk Yield PSNT*** OMNSS ISNT at planting 0-20 cmS*SNS 0-20 cm, OM** 0-30 cm, OM*** ISNT at sidedress 0-20 cmNS*S 0-20 cm, OMS*S* 0-30 cm, OMNS*S ISNT at harvest 0-20 cmNSS 0-20 cm, OM**** 0-30 cm, OM**** Klapwyk and Ketterings (2006) Phase 2: Initial Field Calibration

20 Conclusions: 8 inch samples ok8 inch samples ok Samples could be taken outside growing seasonSamples could be taken outside growing season Both ISNT and LOI were needed to predict responsivenessBoth ISNT and LOI were needed to predict responsiveness Phase 2: Initial Field Calibration

21 Loss-on-ignition (g kg -1 ) Phase 2: Initial Field Calibration

22 Four Project Phases 1.Laboratory procedure 2.Initial field calibration –0-8 or 0-12 inch samples? –Timing of sampling? 3.ISNT and manure N credits 4.ISNT use for corn in rotation

23 Phase 3: ISNT and Manure

24 *** * * * ** NS Michelle Wang, 2005 Klapwyk et al. (2006) Nitrate Ammonium ISNT

25 Phase 3: ISNT and Manure N CreditsISNT: Part of the soil N poolPart of the soil N pool Increases with manure and compost additionIncreases with manure and compost addition Reflects NH 4 + peaks after manure applicationReflects NH 4 + peaks after manure application So, for assessment of soil N supply potential: Dont sample within 5 weeks after manure applicationDont sample within 5 weeks after manure application

26 Four Project Phases 1.Laboratory procedure 2.Initial field calibration –0-8 or 0-12 inch samples? –Timing of sampling? 3.ISNT and manure N credits 4.ISNT use for corn in rotation

27 Phase 4: ISNT for Corn in Rotation

28 1 st yr corn after sod Small starter N Forget about sidedress N. Grass or alfalfa does not matter. Late fall versus spring does not matter. Stand needs to be sod, not weeds… YieldMilk Tons/acre at 35% DM lbs per ton 021.7 a3193 a 5022.2 a3234 a 10022.4 a3214 a 15022.4 a3211 a Phase 4: ISNT for Corn in Rotation Lawrence et al. (2008)

29 N sidedress200520062007 lbs/acretons/acre 022.3 a30.0 a19.0 a 5022.5 a31.3 a19.7 a 10022.9 a29.7 a20.5 a 15022.3 a29.8 a19.9 a Average22.530.019.8 2 nd+ yr corn or corn after soybean? Responsive: 8 sites, Nonresponsive: 10 sites Phase 4: ISNT for Corn in Rotation

30 Overall Accuracy: 83% (15 of 18). Site A Phase 4: ISNT for Corn in Rotation

31 Overall Accuracy: 83% (15 of 18). Site B Phase 4: ISNT for Corn in Rotation

32 Hail storm 2 hours after sidedressing

33 Site C Phase 4: ISNT for Corn in Rotation Overall Accuracy: 83% (15 of 18).

34 First year corn: Correct: 10 sites Incorrect: 6 sites 63% accuracy 2 nd+ year corn: Correct: 15 sites Incorrect: 3 sites 83% accuracy

35 Measures soil organic N mineralization potential? Samples taken at PSNT time… Phase 4: ISNT for Corn in Rotation ISNT in year 1 versus year 2…

36 Phase 4: ISNT for Corn in Rotation Un-amended soil had constant ISNT. ISNT follows ammonium release for both roots and shoots. Nitrification gives flush of nitrate 4-6 weeks after alfalfa incorporation. ISNT does not reflect nitrate N. A B NO 3 -N NH 4 -N ISNT Miriam Goler, 2007

37 First year corn: Correct: 10 sites Incorrect: 6 sites 63% accuracy 2 nd + year corn: Correct: 15 sites Incorrect: 3 sites 83% accuracy Sod N credits need to be added!!

38 Conclusions for ISNT ISNT is an accurate tool for predicting corn responsiveness (yes or no) to sidedress N in NY for 2 nd+ year corn Fits well with 3-year sampling protocol for general fertility However: ISNT can capture ammonium release 1 – 5 wk after manure application or sod plowdown And: 1 st yr corn does not need N so no need to sample for ISNT Therefore: Avoid sampling within about 5 weeks after manure application, sod/cover crop plowdown or chemical kill Add manure N and cover crop N credits

39 Main research questions: Can this test separate responsive from non-responsive sites in New York? Can we use regular 8 inch cores instead of 12 inch cores? Can we sample before planting or after harvest? Can we determine N rates? No Yes [ ? ] [ x ] [ x ] [ ? ] Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test

40 Cornell Nutrient Management Spear Program – qmk2@cornell.edu Fine-Tuning Corn Nitrogen Management Questions?


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