Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ginseng was one of the earliest marketable herbs to be harvested in this country. Wild ginseng was one of Minnesota's first major exports. In 1860, more.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Ginseng was one of the earliest marketable herbs to be harvested in this country. Wild ginseng was one of Minnesota's first major exports. In 1860, more."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Ginseng was one of the earliest marketable herbs to be harvested in this country. Wild ginseng was one of Minnesota's first major exports. In 1860, more than 120 tons of dried ginseng roots were shipped from the state to China. American ginseng is similar to Asian ginseng, Panax ginseng, L., which grows wild in Northern Manchuria and has been harvested there for thousands of years.China Ginseng is prized in the Orient for its purported curative properties. Based on an ancient Chinese legend, early emperors proclaimed it a panacea to be ingested or used in lotions and soaps. The genus name, Panax, is derived from the Greek "panakeia," which means universal remedy. The term "ginseng" is derived from the Chinese term "jen-shen," which means "in the image of a man." Ginseng roots shaped like the human body are considered highly desirable. In particular, old roots (some may be nearly a century old) are prized because their longevity is claimed to be transferred to the person who consumes them. Ginseng can be a profitable crop, but it requires an enormous commitment of time, money and labor for successful commercial production. Ginseng beds in Wisconsin are usually cultivated for three years before harvest, unless disease problems mandate earlier harvest.timemoneybeds

3 In the Far East, ginseng root is used in toothpaste, soft drinks, tea, candy, chewing gum and cigarettes. It also appears on the market as crystals, extract, powder capsules and is sold as the whole root. In the United States, ginseng and ginseng products are marketed in Asian food and health food stores. Most of the ginseng used in the United States, however, is imported from Korea. The amount of Asian ginseng that is imported is about equal to the amount of higher-priced American ginseng that is exported. Ginseng seed is also marketed. Ginseng plants generally begin to produce harvestable seed in the third year of growth. It takes approximately 200 plants to produce 1 lb of seed, which may produce 5,000 seedlings. American ginseng plants are generally started from seeds. Seedlings or roots for transplanting are available commercially, but are used infrequently. Seeds are planted in the fall and germinate in the spring. Although researchers have examined ways to break this juvenility requirement and hasten germination, it is still not understood. First-year seedlings produce one compound leaf with three leaflets. This leaf, 1 to 2 in. in height and spread, is the only above-ground growth in the first year. Underground, the plant develops a thickened root about 1 in. long and up to 1/4 in. wide. At the top of the root, a small rhizome or "neck" develops with a regeneration bud at the apex of the rhizome. In autumn, the leaf drops, and a stem supporting new leaves emerges from the regeneration bud the following spring. The plant develops more leaves, with more leaflets, each year until the fourth or fifth year. A mature plant is 12 to 24 in. tall and has 3 or more leaves, each consisting of 5 ovate leaflets. Leaflets are approximately 5 in. long and oval- shaped with serrated edges. In midsummer, the plant produces inconspicuous greenish-yellow clustered flowers. The mature fruit is a pea-sized crimson berry, generally containing 2 wrinkled seeds.flowers After three years of growth, the roots begin to attain a marketable size (3 to 8 in. long by 1/4 to 1 in. thick) and weight (1 oz). In older plants, the root is usually forked. Wild or high-quality cultivated ginseng root has prominent circular ridges. Highest quality mature root breaks with a somewhat soft and waxy fracture. Young or undersized roots dry hard and glassy and are less marketable.

4

5 Acacia is a very large genus of shrub and trees coming from all over the tropical world. There are a large number of acacias that grow remarkably well in the southwestern USA. They share a light, fine, foliage. The leaves are generally either bipinnate, or in many species the actual leaflets are gone, and the leaf looking structure is actual the modified leaf stalk and is called phyllode. A few don't even have phyllodes, and instead the stems have flat extensions named cladodes. The name acacia comes from the Greek for thorns, since a large number of species are thorny. The flowers are small, but they are crowded in globular or finger shaped structures, looking like puffballs. They often come in large quantities at the end of the winter or early spring, and can be rather spectacular. They are followed by woody seed pods. They can be propagated easily by seeds. The seeds generally needs some treatment to weaken the waterproof layer coating it. They can be dipped for 5 minutes in boiling water and then kept in warm water for a couple of days, or the glossy coating can be lightly sanded. It is also possible to propagate many of the acacias with semi-hardwood cuttings, although the species with phyllodes are generally easier. Most species grow rapidly if provided with adequate water and fertilizer. Acacia karroo has a rounded crown, branching fairly low down on the trunk. It is variable in shape and size, reaching a maximum of about 12m where there is good water. The bark is red on young branches, darkening and becoming rough with age. Sometimes an attractive reddish colour can be seen in the deep bark fissures The leaves are finely textured and dark green. The flowers appear in early summer in a mass of yellow pompons. Many insects visit and pollinate these flowers. The seed pods are flat and crescent shaped, sometimes with constrictions between the seeds. They are green when young becoming brown and dry. The pods split open allowing the seeds to fall to the ground. The thorns are paired, greyish to white and are long and straight. On mature trees, the thorns may be quite short. They may be held at 90° to the stem or raked forward slightly. Technically the thorns are called "spines" and are developed from modified stipules (small, leaf-like scales, seen at the base of the leaf-stalk). In some other thorny acacia species, the thorns are not stipular in origin and are called "prickles". These originate in the epidermis ("skin") and are always short and curved, a bit like rose thorns. Thorns on African acacias are important for identification, they are divided into 5 main groups according the size, shape and position of the thorns.waterflowers rose

6

7 Flowers of the mountain mahogany can be whitish-pink, red, or yellow. They also have silver-white fruits and curling, feathery tails as they wither. The flowers are not very showy but they do have a very pleasant, sweet smell. The bloom period is from May through November. Mountain mahogany has brown seeds which are dispersed in the air on the feathery plumes. The roots of the mountain mahogany plant are strong, lateral, and come from a large root crown. They descend to depths of 3.3 feet or more. The average root depth found in north central New Mexico was 3.7 feet. The maximum root depth was between 4 and 5.6 feet and this was found near Colorado Springs. The roots of the true or alderleaf mountain mahogany may have associations of nitrogen-fixing endomycorrhizae. True mountain mahogany is in all probability a long-living plant. In Utah, some true mountain mahogany was found to be 54 years old. True mountain mahogany exhibits relatively low initial growth rates and seedling heartiness. The plant can be seeded or transplanted and the seeds can be stored for a number of years. REAL FURNITURE MAHOGANY grows in the Everglades National Park as a native tree of the United States. Actually there are three mahoganies of commercial importance: West Indian (Swietenia mahogani) that grows in southern Florida and in the Caribbean area; tropical American (Swietenia macrophylla) that grows in Central and South America; and the African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) from the West African coast. South Florida no longer has commercial quantities of the West Indian mahogany, although there are many trees still growing on the Florida Keys and the southern tip of the peninsula. Even as late as 1940 the writer has seen large mahogany logs being taken from the Keys and the Cape Sable area. Furthermore, the tree is extensively planted in southern Florida as a parkway and landscape tree and in some areas has seeded into adjacent pine woods. To see the largest mahogany tree of the Park, one has to be prepared for a hard two and a half mile hike to the west through sawgrass, after leaving a point on the road to Cape Sable about fifteen miles south of the first ranger station. At this point the road turns due south from a west and southwesterly course. Mahogany trees are associated with jungle territory and the big trees of the Park are located in "hammocks" that are the nearest approach to jungle growth to be found on the U. S. mainland. These hammocks tend to be circular in shape and the largest in this area is about one-quarter of a mile in diameter. Looking west from the road the hammocks appear as dark, rounded mounds of trees low on the horizon and, as one walks, individual hammocks gradually take on form until a dark wall appears to spring abruptly from the sawgrass prairie. In this area one usually sees an eagle high overhead. In season hawks rise from their nests to scream their warning and fresh deer tracks tell the intruder that he has disturbed the peacefulness of the expansive area.

8

9 also called Asana, any of several timber trees of the genus Pterocarpus of the pea family (Fabaceae or Leguminosae). The name refers especially to P. indicus, or India padauk, or the hard wood, noted for its ability to take a high polish, that is derived from the trees. Narra wood is used for cabinetwork; it is usually red or rose colour, often variegated with yellow, and is hard and heavy. The trunk…familywood rose This species has a widespread distribution and is widely cultivated e.g. it is the most common street tree in Singapore. This species has been recorded as Vulnerable in the Philippines and threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). It is probably now extinct in Peninsular Malaysia because of exploitation of its few known stands (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). It has been known for 300 years that this species is extinct in the wild in VietNam (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). The species has been heavily exploited in Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea having the largest remaining supplies (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). In India this species is endangered (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997).distribution Exploitation for timber, including illegal felling, and shifting cultivation (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). The sustainablily of timber extraction should remain of concern. As narra wood is in great demand for top-class furniture, trees of less than 60 cm diameter are sometimes cut illegally, particularly in the Philippines (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993) Utilisation The narra timber is used for high class furniture and cabinets, decorative sliced veneer, interior wall paneling, feature flooring (including strip and parquet), musical instruments, gun stocks, rifle butts, turned articles, knife handles, boat building and specialised joinery (Eddowes 1977, ) Trade In the Philippines export of narra wood was 3 million kg in 1985, declining to 2.3 kg in 1986 (57% processed) and 430,000 kg in 1987 (all processed). From that time export has been negligible and at present there is a total cutting ban on the species (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). In Papua New Guinea, narra is an important timber which fetches high prices. The export of logs is banned and only processed wood is exported (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). Thailand exported 5.8 million kg of sawn Pterocarpus (P. indicus and P. macrocarpus) in Thailand also imports this timber, m3 in 1990, mainly from Myanmar but also in small amounts from Laos, Cambodia and Viet Nam (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993).

10 1.What was the plant the earliest marketable herbs in this country? 2.The plant that can be profitable crop but it requires enormous commitment of time money and labor? 3.The roots of this plant can be a herb toothpaste, soft drink and etc. 4.Harvestable seed in the 3 rd year growth it takes approximately 200 plants to produce 1 lb pounds of seed.. 5.This plant is large genus of shrub and leaves from all over the tropical world. 6.This plants can share light fine foliage 7.The stems of this plants have flat extensions named cladodes 8.The name of this plants comes from Greek for thorns since a large number of species are thorny. 9.This plant can be whitish- pink, red or yellow 10.This plant is strong lateral and come from a large root crown 11.This plant is in all probability a long living plant. 12.This plant was found in 54 years. 13.It is the most common street tree in Singapore 14.This plant is also called as Asana 15.This plant is having the largest remaining supplies.

11 What do we do as GREEN THUMB Defenders of the Environment In our own simple ways, we try our best to save as many seedlings of Narra, Mahogany and Acacia plants. If you would observe our school grounds, there are hundreds and thousands of these seedlings that sprout and live for 2-3 months only because, either we step on them, the lawn mower weeds them off or they just simply die because of poor soil. But majority of them die naturally due to competition with the more hardy weeds. By transplanting them in our schools plant boxes, the GREEN THUMB members give these seedlings more chance to survive. Many of our members have brought them in our homes where they are given more love and attention so that they would mature into big healthy trees.

12 YOU too can be a defender of the Environment ! Join us in our mission, plant a tree, water the plants, protect our plant boxes and make ornamentals bloom. Be a GREEN THUMB and make a difference for the world ! WE HAVE ONLY ONE EARTH. WE ARE ONE WITH THE EARTH.


Download ppt "Ginseng was one of the earliest marketable herbs to be harvested in this country. Wild ginseng was one of Minnesota's first major exports. In 1860, more."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google