More likely to be professional educator More likely to be in line with governors vision (CSSO)
Risk: Perception of partisanship Appointees answer to the governor (or not) Governor has greater influence w/board; indirect influence on chief
Does governor appoint all or some? Does legislature confirm? Are board terms staggered? (limits # appointed by particular governor) Any criteria for board members or recruitment strategies? Apply to other models as well
Nominating and recruiting committee Broad-based membership to recruit potential board candidates. Prepares a list for the governor of at least three candidates who possess outstanding professional qualifications related to the powers and duties of the state board (including but not requiring experience in areas outside of education) Section 20A-14-104 Potential to broaden input, deepen consideration & improve pool
Does the chiefs term end with the governors term? Are appointments made with advice and consent of the Senate &/or House? Does CSSO need to meet certain criteria (i.e., former educator)
Governor in strong position but could get at odds with legislature Risk perception of partisanship Greater likelihood that governor, board and CSSO support same direction. Does citizenry?
No board Wisconsin - CSSO elected Minnesota - CSSO appt. by governor - Board abolished in 1998 Board advisory only New Mexico (2004) (Public Education Commission) - CSSO appt. by governor State Board
Louisiana 8 board members elected 3 appointed by the governor Board appoints chief Ohio 11 board members elected 8 appointed by the governor Board appoints chief
New York Legislature appoints the board Board appoints the CSSO South Carolina Legislature appoints the board CSSO is elected Terms matter
Mississippi Governor, lieutenant governor and speaker of the House appoint members Board appoints CSSO Washington Board = 16 members 5 elected by district directors (3 for the western half of the state, 2 for the eastern) 1 at-large member elected by members of boards of directors of state-approved private schools CSSO (who is elected) 7 members appointed by the governor 2 student members (non-voting) Potential checks & balances
Texas Governor appoints CSSO CSSO serves as executive secretary of the elected state board
Appointed by governor (32 states) (appoints ALL voting members in 23 states) Elected (9 states) Appointed and elected (2 states and D.C.) Appointed by legislature (2 states) Appointed by multiple authorities (2 states) No state board or advisory only (3 states and D.C.) terms matter
Governor appoints 7-member Florida Board of Education with authority for PreK-graduate school. This change was the result of an amendment to the State Constitution adopted in 1998 (codified later as Florida Education Governance Reorganization Act of 2000). State board appoints CSSO. Commissioner of Education is the chief educational officer of the state, the sole custodian of the K-20 data warehouse, and is responsible for giving full assistance to the State Board of Education in K-20 education system in enforcing compliance with the mission and goals of the K-20 system except for the State University System. A 2002 constitutional amendment created the Board of Governors to oversee the state university system (codified in 2003). Roles continue to be sorted out in legislative and board actions. Board of Governors appoints a chancellor.
Appointed by Governor (12 states and D.C.) Appointed by State Board of Education (24 states) Elected (14 states)
According to state Web sites, at least 25 governors appoint an education official to the executive cabinet. Such officials may be the superintendent or commissioner of education or the secretary of education.
California Secretary of Education Superintendent of Public Instruction who serves on the governors cabinet (not appointed by governor) Kentucky, Massachusetts Secretary of Education Commissioner of Education (not appointed by governor) Virginia Secretary of Education (a cabinet position) Superintendent of Public Instruction (not appointed by governor) District of Columbia State Superintendent of Education Chancellor of Education (both appointed by the mayor)
Vary widely in scope of duties and structure Some have a very specific purview and limited term of operation Others broad in scope and ongoing Most target accountability
Kentucky Office of Education Accountability South Carolina Education Oversight Committee Subcommittee of the Legislative Research Commission Examines funding issues Verifies accuracy of school, district & state performance Verifies accuracy of state dept. reports Conducts studies, evaluates data on efficiencies Advisory but can make recommendations Independent, nonpartisan (18 members appointed by legislature and governor) Conducts regular review of improvement process Assesses how schools are doing Evaluates standards schools must meet Advisory but can make recommendations
The drive cant be a fad. It must be permanent and it must be irresistible. Its not important unless its important to the head of government. -- Dalton McGuinty Premier, Ontario Meets regularly with a cross-agency results team. Meets regularly with a group of 20 principals to get a sense of how all is working.
Kathy Christie Chief of Staff Education Commission of the States 303-299-3613 firstname.lastname@example.org www.ecs.org