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Networking Your Spare Home Computers.

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1 Networking Your Spare Home Computers

2 Overview Home Network Architecture Basic Network Concepts
Media Types and Terminations Local Area Networks (LANs) Distribution Panel/ Headend Now that you have an overview of Home Network integration, you are ready to explore the architecture that supports the Home Network. You will begin with an overview of some key concepts upon which Home Network integration is built. You will also review the many different wiring types and terminations that you may encounter in a Home Network integration project. You will then explore the Home Network as a local-area network (LAN), the wide-area network (WAN) that resides outside the home, and the LAN/WAN relationship via high-speed Internet access. Finally, you will learn about the function of the distribution panel, and the different components found in the panel. You will also review how the residential gateway adds pre-packaged convenience to the Home Network integration process.

3 Bandwidth Bandwidth typically indicates the amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time. It also means the width of the range of frequencies that an electronic signal occupies on a given medium. There are two delivery methods for bandwidth: baseband and broadband. These will be covered in the following sections. Bandwidth is measured for analog and digital devices, both of which are found in the home environment. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (Bps) for digital devices, and in hertz (Hz) for analog devices. You will be concerned with data-transmission rates of the Internet access technology, as well as the media types used in the home, which distribute the Internet service to the devices on the Home Network. High-speed Internet service is needed for many of the typical application uses on the Home Network. (We will explore data-transmission rates of media types and Internet access technologies later in this chapter.)

4 Broadband Whereas baseband can carry only one signal at a time, broadband is a type of data-transmission that can simultaneously carry multiple signals by using a form of frequency multiplexing. (Multiplexing allows the combination of the various signals for transmission and then signal recovery at the receiving end.) With multiple signal capacity, data-transmission can be broken into channels and allocated for simultaneously sending and receiving data. To maximize the total bandwidth available while both channels are being utilized, bandwidth can be allocated at different speeds for the downstream (to the home) and upstream (from the home) directions. For instance, a higher portion of the total bandwidth can be allocated to the downstream channel to deliver multimedia applications to the home. Additionally, multiple devices can communicate simultaneously on a broadband connection without having to compete for bandwidth allocation.

5 DSL - ADSL Technology

6 Pros and Cons of DSL • You can leave your Internet connection open and still use the phone line for voice calls. • The speed is much higher than a regular modem • DSL doesn't necessarily require new wiring; it can use the phone line you already have. • The company that offers DSL will usually provide the modem as part of the installation. • A DSL connection works better when you are closer to the provider's central office. The farther away you get from the central office, the weaker the signal becomes. • The connection is faster for receiving data than it is for sending data over the Internet. • The service is not available everywhere. Internet access using digital subscriber line (DSL) also uses the telephone line for high-speed data-transmission from the WAN to the LAN with the help of a modem (1). Similar to ISDN, DSL uses multiple channels, or frequencies, on the phone line to allow analog and digital transmissions simultaneously on the same line. The benefit of DSL over ISDN is that DSL transmits data at approximately 1.5 Mbps, a higher speed than ISDN. DSL operates on a local loop concept, which moves the signal between the Home Network LAN and the DSL service provider's central office (2). Because of the distance that the signal must travel between the Home Network LAN and the central office, DSL speeds vary. There are different types of DSL (referred to categorically as xDSL), and the characteristics of each will determine which type will fit the Home Network needs (3).  Note: Where it is economically feasible, fiber optic cable is being installed throughout the home to "future proof" the home. Some types of DSL provide very fast data-transmission rates, and fiber optic cable can be used to provide those same speeds to the client computers on the Home Network. DSL is not widely available in most areas because of business challenges facing the telephone service providers in retrofitting their equipment with DSL hardware. However, most telephone service providers are making plans for adding DSL capabilities to their network as a method to compete with the next form of high-speed Internet access, the cable modem.

7 Cable Technology A tuner A demodulator A modulator
A media access control (MAC) device A microprocessor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Cable modem high-speed Internet service is a broadband technology that is provided by cable television service providers and runs on coaxial cable. Cable modem data-transmissions can operate between 320 Kbps and 27 Mbps, depending on different factors like modulation scheme of the signal, and type of coaxial cable. The actual speed of the Internet access service coming to the home depends on the set up the service provider offers. Typically, bandwidth is shared between users in the neighborhood, and an individual cable modem subscriber may experience access speeds from 500 Kbps to 1.5 Mbps or more — depending on the network architecture and traffic load. The advantage of using cable modem high-speed Internet access is that coaxial cable wiring offers greater bandwidth to the Home Network LAN. Additionally, cable lines are already in place in most of the country because of the wide acceptance of cable television throughout the last few decades. Therefore, cable modem high-speed Internet access is more readily available in most areas than DSL.

8 Pros and Cons of Cable • If you are one of the first users to connect to the Internet through a particular cable channel, then you may have nearly the entire bandwidth of the channel available for your use. As new users, especially heavy-access users, are connected to the channel, you will have to share that bandwidth, and may see your performance degrade as a result. It is possible that, in times of heavy usage with many connected users, performance will be far below the theoretical maximums. The good news is that this particular performance issue can be resolved by the cable company adding a new channel and splitting the base of users. • Another benefit of the cable modem for Internet access is that, unlike ADSL, its performance doesn't depend on distance from the central cable office. A digital CATV system is designed to provide digital signals at a particular quality to customer households. On the upstream side, the burst modulator in cable modems is programmed with the distance from the head-end, and provides the proper signal strength for accurate transmission.

9 Verizon Fios Technology
• Feature - Verizon FiOS Internet service – Cable Speed - Why wait? • With FiOS, upload pictures and movies in a flash! Serious gamer? We've thought of you too. Play games with the other side of the world as if they were next door... lag-free! • With FiOS Packages offering up to 30 Mbps downloads and 5 Mbps uploads (and even higher in some locations), patience is generally the cable user's virtue. Wait patiently. Upload speeds are usually not even close to the speeds offered by FiOS. Most providers can only offer slower download speeds too! • Cost - Blazing speeds start at $39.99/month with choice of our annual package. That price stays the same for one full year and the installation's FREE! More speed. Less money. No contest. Why pay more for speed when you no longer have to? Most cable plans are more expensive. FTTH Council Certified! • FTTH (fiber to the home) Certified - Means you will have true fiber optic service all the way to your home. We’ll provide you with the superiority of a reliable, 100% fiber-optic network ready for future innovation. Don't be confused by misleading information. Currently no cable provider can provide fiber optic service all the way to the home.

10 What is the Difference Between a Router and a Firewall?
• By definition, a firewall is a system that protects the resources in a private network, while a router is a device that moves (or routes) data packets among networks. NAT in routers is simply a byproduct security feature. • The main differences between a router and a hardware firewall is in number of features and price. • Most low-cost Home/SOHO routers have a built-in DHCP server and NAT/PAT, which assigns private, non-routable IP addresses to LAN clients, and as a byproduct provides simple and effective security features. • Higher priced firewalls/routers provide additional security features, such as Stateful Packet Inspection, VPN support, content filters, intrusion attempt logs, etc.

11 What's the Difference Between a Hub, a Switch and a Router?
In a word: intelligence. Hubs, switches, and routers are all devices which let you connect one or more computers to other computers, networked devices, or to other networks. Each has two or more connectors called ports into which you plug in the cables to make the connection. Varying degrees of magic happen inside the device, and therein lies the difference. I often see the terms misused so let's clarify what each one really means. A hub is typically the least expensive, least intelligent, and least complicated of the three. Its job is very simple: anything that comes in one port is sent out to the others. That's it. Every computer connected to the hub "sees" everything that every other computer on the hub sees. The hub itself is blissfully ignorant of the data being transmitted. For years, simple hubs have been quick and easy ways to connect computers in small networks.

12 A switch does essentially what a hub does but more efficiently
A switch does essentially what a hub does but more efficiently. By paying attention to the traffic that comes across it, it can "learn" where particular addresses are. For example, if it sees traffic from machine A coming in on port 2, it now knows that machine A is connected to that port and that traffic to machine A needs to only be sent to that port and not any of the others. The net result of using a switch over a hub is that most of the network traffic only goes where it needs to rather than to every port. On busy networks this can make the network significantly faster. A router is the smartest and most complicated of the bunch. Routers come in all shapes and sizes from the small four-port broadband routers that are very popular right now to the large industrial strength devices that drive the internet itself. A simple way to think of a router is as a computer that can be programmed to understand, possibly manipulate, and route the data its being asked to handle. For example, broadband routers include the ability to "hide" computers behind a type of firewall which involves slightly modifying the packets of network traffic as they traverse the device. All routers include some kind of user interface for configuring how the router will treat traffic. The really large routers include the equivalent of a full-blown programming language to describe how they should operate as well as the ability to communicate with other routers to describe or determine the best way to get network traffic from point A to point B. A quick note on one other thing that you'll often see mentioned with these devices and that's network speed. Most devices now are capable of both 10mps (10 mega-bits, or million bits, per second) as well as 100mbs and will automatically detect the speed. If the device is labeled with only one speed then it will only be able to communicate with devices that also support that speed. 1000mbs or "gigabit" devices are starting to slowly become more common as well. Similarly many devices now also include b or g wireless transmitters that simply act like additional ports to the device.

13 How Do I Know If I Have a Router?
Click on Start Click on All Programs Click on Accessories Click on Command Prompt You'll probably get window similar to this one:

14 "...many broadband modems also act as a router ..."
In that Window type "ipconfig" followed by the enter key, and you should get something like this: Now, like me, you may have more than one network adapter. The one you probably want to pay attention to is the one labeled Local Area Connection, for wired connections, or Wireless Network Connection if you're running via a WiFi or other wireless connection. The line you care about is this one: IP Address :

15 Typical Home Network

16 Internet Protocol Internet Protocol (IP) is an addressing scheme used for sending data to a recipient over a network. IP allows for placing the data, in the form of data packets, out onto the network. However, a higher-level protocol, called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), is used to find the intended recipient by establishing a virtual connection between the source and the destination.

17 Topologies (1) (2) (3) At the most basic level, a topology is a network hardware configuration. Several different topologies can be used to configure a network. You should be aware of their application with the various subsystems on the integrated Home Network. Daisy Chain The daisy chain topology (1) flows in a serial manner, beginning at one end, connecting each hardware component in a linear chain, and concluding at the opposite end. The daisy chain is the simplest structure to implement, but is also the least flexible for Home Network scalability. Although daisy chains are easy to implement because they do not require any provisioning of bandwidth, they are inefficient. At any given time, the signal travels through, and is available on, each device on the network, instead of being addressed to a specific device on the network. Bus The bus topology (2) is similar to the daisy chain in that each hardware component is linearly aligned on a backbone that has a beginning and an end. However, the bus topology allows for addressable characteristics when a device on the bus requests signal service for sending and retrieving signals. Bus topologies are not always appropriate for the Home Network because the devices on the network compete for available bandwidth. Also, the network is susceptible to a higher rate of failure because any malfunction on the network will adversely affect the entire network. Star The star topology (3) individually connects the devices to a central hub that manages data-transmission. This configuration is the most flexible and scalable for a Home Network because it isolates devices and is not affected by problems on any given device. However, the use of a hub introduces a single point of failure. Additionally, the topology is more expensive to implement because it uses a larger amount of wiring than other topologies.

18 LAN Overview A local-area network, or LAN, is a physical interconnection of devices in a single building or group of buildings that communicate with each other using a specific protocol. The most common application of a LAN is the home computer network. However, Home Network integration connects other subsystem devices to the LAN to expand their capabilities and allow them to communicate with each other. The LAN consists of the various devices (such as computers and printers), the method of connection among the devices (hardwired or wireless), and the protocol used to send and receive data along the connection to the devices.

19 What is Network Cabling?
Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network. The following sections discuss the types of cables used in networks and other related topics.

20 Coaxial Cable • Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield (See fig. 3). The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers. • Although coaxial cabling is difficult to install, it is highly resistant to signal interference. In addition, it can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable. The two types of coaxial cabling are thick coaxial and thin coaxial. • Thin coaxial cable is also referred to as thinnet. 10Base2 refers to the specifications for thin coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 2 refers to the approximate maximum segment length being 200 meters. In actual fact the maximum segment length is 185 meters. Thin coaxial cable is popular in school networks, especially linear bus networks. • Thick coaxial cable is also referred to as thicknet. 10Base5 refers to the specifications for thick coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals. The 5 refers to the maximum segment length being 500 meters. Thick coaxial cable has an extra protective plastic cover that helps keep moisture away from the center conductor. This makes thick coaxial a great choice when running longer lengths in a linear bus network. One disadvantage of thick coaxial is that it does not bend easily and is difficult to install. • The most common type of connector used with coaxial cables is the Bayone-Neill-Concelman (BNC) connector (See fig. 4). Different types of adapters are available for BNC connectors, including a T-connector, barrel connector, and terminator. Connectors on the cable are the weakest points in any network. To help avoid problems with your network, always use the BNC connectors that crimp, rather than screw, onto the cable. Coaxial cable is a type of wire that can transmit voice, audio/video, and data at a speed of up to 10 Mbps, which is much less than Category 5/Category 5e. The construction of coaxial cable, using layers of wire with insulation in between, makes it less susceptible to interference than phone wire or Category 5/Category 5e.  Coaxial cable is used by the cable industry to distribute cable television, and therefore, it is widely used both outside and inside the home. Additionally, coaxial cable exists in many homes already, making it an easy choice for retrofitting home networking solutions.

21 Unshielded Twisted Pair
Categories of Unshielded Twisted Pair Types Cat 1- Voice Only (Telephone Wire) Cat 2 - Data to 4 Mbps (LocalTalk) Cat 3 - Data to 10 Mbps (Ethernet) Cat 4 - Data to 20 Mbps (16 Mbps Token Ring) Cat 5 - Data to 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet) Cat 5e - Data to 1gb Cat 6 - Data to 10Gigabit Ethernet

22 Standard Wiring for RJ45 Jack (Jack face shown)
Cat 5/Cat 5e                                                                        Standard Wiring for RJ45 Jack (Jack face shown)                                                                                                      Category 5 is a type of twisted-pair copper wire suitable for high-speed data-transmission (of up to 100 megabits per second [Mbps]) of voice and data). Note: "Fast Ethernet" is another term for networks operating at speeds up to 100 Mbps. Category 5 is comparable in price to phone wire; therefore, it is an attractive choice in new home building for both voice and data-transmissions for both analog and digital signals. Category 5e promotes higher throughput speeds than Category 5, a proper installation of Category 5e could enable network speeds of up to 1000 Mbps.

23 Unshielded Twisted Pair

24 Fiber Optic Cable • Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective materials. It transmits light rather than electronic signals eliminating the problem of electrical interference. This makes it ideal for certain environments that contain a large amount of electrical interference. It has also made it the standard for connecting networks between buildings, due to its immunity to the effects of moisture and lighting. • Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. It also has the capability to carry information at vastly greater speeds. This capacity broadens communication possibilities to include services such as video conferencing and interactive services. The cost of fiber optic cabling is comparable to copper cabling; however, it is more difficult to install and modify. 10BaseF refers to the specifications for fiber optic cable carrying Ethernet signals. Fiber optic cable is made of glass or plastic fibers that transmit data as light impulses. Fiber optic cable is capable of  very high bandwidth. Also, by transmitting data as light impulses over glass or plastic fibers, it is immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI; refer to the glossary for more information). There is an increase in fiber optic cable installation for bringing newly developed high-speed Internet access technologies to the home. Fiber optic cable installed up to the home is also referred to as "Fiber to the Curb," "Fiber to the Building," or "Fiber to the Home" (also called FTTx). The use of fiber optic cable to the home promises very high speed, security, and reliability. Although it is more expensive than other media types, you should consider recommending the installation of fiber optic cable throughout the home to "future proof" the home. Fiber optic cable in the home will allow the same data-transmission rates throughout the Home Network as is promised for the connection to the home.

25 Wireless Technology • Wireless LANs use high frequency radio signals, infrared light beams, or lasers to communicate between the workstations and the file server or hubs. Each workstation and file server on a wireless network has some sort of transceiver/antenna to send and receive the data. Information is relayed between transceivers as if they were physically connected. For longer distance, wireless communications can also take place through cellular telephone technology, microwave transmission, or by satellite. • Wireless networks are also beneficial in older buildings where it may be difficult or impossible to install cables. • The two most common types of infrared communications used in schools are line-of-sight and scattered broadcast. Line-of-sight communication means that there must be an unblocked direct line between the workstation and the transceiver. If a person walks within the line-of-sight while there is a transmission, the information would need to be sent again. This kind of obstruction can slow down the wireless network. • Scattered infrared communication is a broadcast of infrared transmissions sent out in multiple directions that bounces off walls and ceilings until it eventually hits the receiver. Networking communications with laser are virtually the same as line-of-sight infrared networks. • Wireless LANs have several disadvantages - poor security and interference from lights and electronic devices. They are also slower than LANs using cabling. Wireless is a very effective alternative to hardwiring with phone wire, Category 5/Category 5e, coaxial, and fiber optic cable, especially in retrofitting home networks or where local mobile access to a network subsystem is desired. Wireless operates using a wireless Ethernet card (see graphic) that is inserted into the computer to transmit signals to a wireless backbone hub (or access point). When considering wireless solutions for the Home Network, you must be aware of the signal strength according to distance. You should also consider the cost of the wireless solution. Although wireless devices are typically more expensive, they may be less costly when used in a retrofit Home Network project to avoid wiring installation and major wall reconstruction. You should also be aware that many of the wireless data solutions today operate over the unlicensed 2.4 GHZ frequency spectrum; the same spectrum occupied by many of today's long range 2.4 GHZ phones. Issues of contention between voice and data transmission must be considered in any wireless deployment where wireless phones are also used. Several types of wireless solutions are available for the Home Network: 802.11, a, and b These are standards that provide for different wireless rates of data-transmission with different modulation methods, all supporting 6, 12, and 24 Mbps with optional extensions up to 54 Mbps. Because they offer very high quality, they are also among the most expensive solutions. Home RF Home RF - stemming from Radio Frequency- is a lower cost alternative to the series, offering 1 to 3 Mbps transmission speed for both voice and data. A new version of Home RF is currently in development to provide up to 10Mbps. However, the modulation method can slow down the data-transmission speed because it takes time to lock a frequency. BlueTooth BlueTooth is another wireless method of data-transmission. BlueTooth is positioned as a secure medium for transmission because of its high channel-hopping capacity.  It is primarily intended for the wireless connection of devices in a very local area, (less than feet away) such as cellular phone connected to a laptop.

26 Wireless 802.11n Technology (300mbps)
• The very latest wireless networking technology - Wireless-N (draft n). By overlaying the signals of multiple radios, Wireless-N's “Multiple In, Multiple Out” (MIMO) technology multiplies the effective data rate. Unlike ordinary wireless networking technologies that are confused by signal reflections, MIMO actually uses these reflections to increase the range and reduce “dead spots” in the wireless coverage area. The wireless high-speed Internet access method, also called fixed wireless, uses radio frequencies (RF) to transmit data signals at various frequencies. Wireless is a broadband method that works on the concept of a footprint, or a large geographical area that is serviced by strategically located towers that provide signal service to all of the homes (see graphic) in the designated area. The benefit of wireless high-speed Internet access is the simplicity in obtaining service. Subscribers within a geographical service area can be added easily without any additional infrastructure to the wireless WAN or physical wiring to the home. The disadvantage of wireless high-speed Internet access is that most wireless service providers operate at a lower frequency that requires a line of sight with the tower. Physical objects such as trees can block some wireless service.  Additionally, latency of transmission can be an issue as well as the aesthetics of the receiving dish itself and its mounting pole.

27 Phone Wire Technology Phone wire is a type of copper wire (1) that is used to distribute voice service. Although phone wire (2) can also be used to transmit data, it has not been widely accepted as a high-speed data-transmission method because phone lines use filters to suppress frequencies above 3400 Hz for optimal voice service. However, there are technology solutions that utilize high-speed data-transmission on phone wire to take advantage of legacy wiring systems in existing residences where retrofitting with Category 5/Category 5e is difficult.

28 Powerline Technology • Power-line networking is one of several ways to connect the computers in your home. It uses the electrical wiring in your house to create a network. Turn any electrical outlet into a Home Network connection and share a Broadband Internet connection, files and printers with PCs in different rooms with no new wires at 14, 85, or 200 Mbps. Remotely connect your PCs, gaming consoles, Slingbox, or networked storage to a broadband Internet connection quickly and easily. Powerline refers to the use of existing power cables (see graphic), or electrical circuits, for data-transmission. The biggest advantage is the use of legacy wiring to accomplish home networking. No remodeling or retrofitting is necessary. However, the disadvantage of powerline is the negative affect that the powerline can exhibit on data-transmission (called crosstalk; see the Glossary for more information). • Disadvantages are It needs bulky wall devices to connect computer equipments to a power outlet.


30 Extend Your Network Using Electrical Outlets
Turns any outlet into an Ethernet network connection Delivers 85 Mbps speed Simple plug and play installation Extends your network using existing electrical outlets No software to install

31 Distribution Methods The distribution method that you choose for the Home Network LAN will depend upon the customer's requirements for speed and access. The following characteristics differentiate LAN distribution methods from one another: Topology used to arrange the devices on the LAN Protocols used to encode and send data along the LAN Media used to connect the devices on the LAN (wiring or wireless) Ethernet The most common type of LAN distribution method is the Ethernet, which uses a bus or star topology and transmits data up to 10 Mbps. Newer versions of the Ethernet are Fast Ethernet, which supports data-transmission up to 100 Mbps, and Gigabit Ethernet, with up to 1,000 Mbps of data-transmission. HomePNA Another distribution method is HomePNA, which uses the phone wire media. The benefit to HomePNA is that it uses the legacy wiring that exists in the home, thereby, reducing the complexity and inconvenience of rewiring a home with other media types. However, because the phone wire was not originally designated for high-speed data-transmission and it usually exists in a daisy chain topology, the performance is less than optimal when compared to LANs using other media types. Powerline Powerline is a third LAN distribution method that uses the existing powerline throughout the home. Powerline is usually laid using a bus topology throughout the home. Powerline is the lowest-performing LAN because of the high tendency for interference between devices that are obtaining AC voltage from the powerline and devices that are transmitting data along the same line. Wireless The LAN distribution method of choice for existing homes where rewiring is not possible is wireless, which uses a star topology. Wireless uses radio frequencies (RF) or infrared (IR) waves to transmit data between devices on the LAN. A key component is the wireless hub for signal distribution. Wireless is a costly option, has a range of data-transmission speeds (from 1 to 54 Mbps), and it has a limited range of transmission. However, wireless may be an appropriate choice for some connections on the LAN where the cost of rewiring the home offsets the cost of the wireless components.

32 Home Networking Infrastructure
Network Components. MDF Main Distribution Frame User end Jacks Cabinets What media shall be used. COAX F-type Unshielded Twisted Pair Cat 5 or Cat 6

33 Distribution Panel The distribution panel is the physical and logical point of access between the WAN and the Home Network LAN. The distribution panel consists of a configuration of the basic components that complete the LAN/WAN connection. These components include: Modem Network management devices (switch or hub; router or bridge) Home automation control unit Audio/video unit Telephone unit Security control panel Home automation controls distribution panels (HVAC, lighting, entertainment) The concept of the distribution panel is simple. All data, voice, and audio/video signals coming into the home (including broadband access, telephone, cable, satellite, and wireless) are connected through the distribution panel. The signals are then translated and distributed to the various devices attached on the Home Network LAN. Conversely, the signals sent from the Home Network LAN to the WAN are also funneled out through the distribution panel. Additionally, signals are sent between the devices on the LAN, and controlled through the distribution panel.

34 Home Network Panels                   

35 Residential Gateway The residential gateway is a preassembled and preconfigured package of the modem, switch or hub, and router or bridge devices to make the Home Network installation easy and convenient. Physically, the residential gateway can consist of a full or partial set of these devices to handle signal connection, translation, and direction. The selection and configuration of the devices in the residential gateway depend on the complexity of the network. Before recommending the configuration for a Home Network integration project, one should consider how the customer plans to use the network. For instance, if the customer has cable service, and a cable modem is the chosen high-speed Internet access method, then a cable modem should be included in the gateway. The Installer will need to review the manufacturer's residential gateway to ensure that it is scalable for future attachments as the customer's Home Network expands and as technology evolves.

36 What is NAS? Network Attached Storage (NAS) is dedicated hard disk-based storage technology designed to be connected directly to a computer network, providing centralized data access to multiple network clients.

37 Network Attached Storage
There are several additional modules, or units, in the distribution panel. The first is the home automation control unit, which connects subsystem modules to the integrated Home Network. The individual subsystem modules for security, lighting, HVAC, and audio/video connect to the home automation control unit. This allows these modules to function separately from the Home Network in case the network experiences difficulties. It ensures that there is no single point of failure in the Home Network. The entertainment control panel connects to the receiver, which is then connected to the home automation control unit. Another unit of the distribution panel is the telephone unit or Public Branch Exchange (PBX). The PBX unit controls multiple telephone lines, as well as providing expanded functionality and features for the telephone subsystem. Finally, a power distribution unit is also located in the panel, which provides multiple power connections and, optionally, surge protection to the subsystems. Further Exploration of the many Home Network subsystems in subsequent chapters and how they function in relation to the Home Network, you will better identify how to plan the distribution panel configuration.

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