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1 Observation Instrument Click now to advance to the next slide
for Autism Classrooms Click now to advance to the next slide Dr. Karen Berkman Hello, this is Dr. Karen Berkman . This tutorial is an accompaniment for the Observation instrument for Autism Classrooms. This instrument and tutorial was developed as a collaborative statewide project across all of the Florida Centers for Autism and Related Disabilities. On several slides throughout this presentation, you will see this button appear. If you would like additional information about the topic of the particular slide, just click the button. If you click it again when it appears at the end of the supplemental information, you will return to your previous point in the presentation. If you aren’t interested in learning more about the topic, just continue on with the presentation You may also from time to time see this button appear. Clicking on it will take you to a blank , printable copy of the form demonstrated on that slide of the presentation.

2 Effective Programs for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
(National Research Council, 2001 (www.nap.edu) Intensity matters Early is better Family participation is essential Goals should be individualized and monitored regularly Click now to advance to the next slide Instruction for students with autism often varies from one school or district to another. However, effective school programs – those in which student learning outcomes are consistently achieved and well documented – consistently reflect the same foundations. In 2001, The National Research Foundation acknowledged these foundations as he following: Intensity matters – quality education programs actively engage students in direct instruction for 25 hour per week or more. Early is better - Intervention by 3 ½ years is more effective than after 5 years Family participation is essential - Families involvement plays a critical role in effective educational programming Educational goals should be individualized - Goals and supports need to target individual behaviors, as well as social, communication and academic priorities Educational goals must also be monitored regularly – progress toward educational goals must be evaluated in an appropriate and ongoing manner in order to ensure effective instruction

3 CARD Classroom Observation Instrument
Click now to advance to the next slide Observers should: be familiar with all aspects of quality educational programs for students with autism use the tool as a starting point for discussions recognize the tool is a subjective structure for guiding classroom observations make more than one observation be able to explain their observations Based on these foundations, the CARD Classroom Observation Instrument is intended as a planning tool for professional development or program support. Observers should: Make more than one observation, scheduled at different points during the school day. Be familiar with all aspects of quality educational program for students with autism and be able to recognize all indicators or their absence. Recognize that this tool is a subjective structure for guiding classroom observations, not a measurement of teacher performance Use this tool as a starting point for discussions with classroom staff about program development and support needs Be able to explain their observations and the completed tool with classroom teachers and staff as a starting point for planning. Now let’s take a look at the instrument itself,

4 Observation Instrument: Heading
Click now to advance to the next slide At the top, you’ll find a Heading section, for recording the name of the classroom teacher and support staff who were directly observed, dates the observations were conducted and the name of the observer.

5 Observation Instrument: Ratings
Click now to advance to the next slide Directly beneath the heading, you’ll see rankings used to indicate the presence of each program indicator. Indicators should be rated as follows: A 2 reflects the indicator was readily apparent and used or demonstrated actively and consistently throughout the observation A rating of 1 reflects the indicator was present, but may not have been used or demonstrated consistently, or was only partially achieved. A 0 reflects the indicator was not present or observed, despite it’s appropriateness for the observation context. An NA rating is used if the observation context did not provide an adequate opportunity to observe the indicator.

6 Observation Instrument: Format Click now to advance to the next slide
Environmental arrangements Scheduling, activities and intensity Click now to advance to the next slide Core curriculum areas Instruction and Interaction

7 Observation instrument: Notations
Next to each program quality indicator, you will find 2 separate columns for your notations. The center column is for you to not your rating of that indicator as based on the time period in which the observation was conduct. On the right side of each indicator, you will also find a column for making notes ore comments regarding your observation of that indicator. Click now to advance to the next slide

8 Click now to advance to the next slide
Environmental Arrangement Click now to advance to the next slide Hello, this is Dr. Karen Berkman . This tutorial is an accompaniment for the Observation instrument for Autism Classrooms. This instrument and tutorial was developed as a collaborative statewide project across all of the Florida Centers for Autism and Related Disabilities. On several slides throughout this presentation, you will see this button appear. If you would like additional information about the topic of the particular slide, just click the button. If you click it again when it appears at the end of the supplemental information, you will return to your previous point in the presentation. If you aren’t interested in learning more about the topic, just continue on with the presentation You may also from time to time see this button appear. Clicking on it will take you to a blank , printable copy of the form demonstrated on that slide of the presentation.

9 Room arrangement is clearly defined.
Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Room arrangement are clearly defined, with visual boundaries for specific activities. This allows adequate supervision of all students at all times and prevents or minimizes problem behaviors. It also facilitates learning. Click the button if you would like to see a sample floor plan for an autism classroom.

10 Visual supports are at the correct level of symbolic representation.
school bus Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Visual supports are at the correct level of symbolic functioning (representation) for individual students, and are used to enhance predictability , facilitate transitions, and convey expectations . What does the term “symbolic representation mean? C;lick the button to learn more about it.

11 Materials and furniture are age appropriate.
Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Materials and furniture are age appropriate and the correct size for students

12 Individual workstations are arranged left to right or top to bottom.
Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Individual workstations are arranged correctly, either left-right or top-bottom, and in a manner that indicates how much work, identifies when the task is finished, and what’s next. Materials in workstations are varied from day to day and are educationally and functionally related to student IEPs.

13 Scheduling, Activities, and Intensity
Click now to advance to the next slide Now let’s consider the indicators that are reflective of good classroom management.

14 Staff schedules are posted.
Who: Shows staff and student assignments Where: Locations What: Activities Prominently posted and checked Click now to advance to the next slide XXX The staff schedule should reflect who the teachers, paraprofessionals, and other staff are working with, where they are working, and what they are doing. This should be posted in clear view for all classroom staff, and checked regularly by all. Click the button to view 2 examples of classroom staff schedules

15 A daily class schedule is posted.
At student’s visual level Appropriate for students’ level of symbolic understanding Used throughout the day Click now to advance to the next slide XXX This classroom schedule is for students to follow, so it should be posted at their visual level. Depending of the symbolic representation abilities of the students, classroom schedules may include objects, pictures, line drawings, or text. This schedule should be referred to throughout the day as the classroom activities change. Click the button to see an example of a classroom schedule for elementary level students with autism.

16 Schedules reflect appropriate distribution of curriculum.
Age-appropriate materials Adapted for individual needs, based on IEP goals Each student’s work at his/her instructional level Click now to advance to the next slide XXX The activities reflected in the schedule should be age appropriate for the students. For example, reading or listening to nursery rhymes would be an age appropriate activity for pre-school students, but not for students in a middle school classroom. Adapted work should reflect the student’s IEP goals and objectives. The materials should be adapted (if needed) to each student’s instructional level.

17 Schedules reflect a variety of learning formats.
1:1 instruction Small group activities Large group activities Independent work Social interaction/leisure options Click now to advance to the next slide XXX The schedules should reflect different learning formats throughout the day, including 1:1 instruction Small group activities Large group lessons Independent work Social interaction and leisure or recreational options Click the button to view and example of a classroom schedule that reflects all of these instructional groupings.

18 Individual schedules are available for each student.
Posted for convenient reference Reflect the student’s understanding of symbolic representation Checked frequently Activity completion is consistently indicated Used with increasing independence Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Individual schedules should be used for each student. These schedules should be posted where the student can easily refer to it – on or near his/her desk, or in a folder kept inside the student’s work space. Depending on the student’s level of symbolic representation, the schedule may be made of objects, pictures, line drawings, or text. To be used correctly, the student should check the schedule at the beginning of the day and each class period. As activities are finished, the symbol for that activity is removed, checked off, or marked in some way to indicate its completion. Students who are just learning to follow their schedule may need prompting to do this, but others should do it independently. To view examples of student visual schedules, click the button now.

19 Large group transitions are smooth.
Occur infrequently Supported by environmental arrangement and scheduling Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Large group transitions may be difficult for students with ASD, so they should happen infrequently, and be conducted in a smooth and efficient manner when they do. Transitions should be supported by environmental arrangements in order to define space and allow each student to know where he/she should be. This example shows pictures of students’ feet which indicate where they should stand to line up.

20 Staff/student ratio is adequate.
Considerations: The nature of the instructional activity Level of student familiarity with the task Environmental factors Student level of frustration or failure Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Determining a successful ratio of adults and students will vary depending on several factors, such as: The nature of the instructional activity – is it one in which student sill require close supervision for safely issues? Level of student skill and familiarity with the task – if the activity is the first time students are introduced to a new skill or situation, they may require closer supervision. Are there environmental factors to be considered, such as open doors, extraneous noise or the possibility of a disruption of a routine? Is the student likely to experience frustration or failure without adequate assistance in the activity?

21 Activities are language-based.
Instructional activities promote communicative exchanges such as requesting, commenting, and asking and/or answering questions. Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Because communication is one of their primary skill deficit area, language-based activities are particularly important for students with autism spectrum disorders, regardless of their current communication abilities. Classroom staff should promote communicate by arranging situations in which students must request materials or assistance, ask questions, share information and comment on activities.

22 All students are engaged in meaningful activities.
Instructional activities are… Relevant to the student’s educational goals Interesting and meaningful to the student Valued by other people Highly structured Varied in time length and level of motor activity Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Sound educational programming consistently provide learning activities that are educationally relevant, meaningful to the student and valued by other people. Instructional activities should consistently provide high levels of structure and routine and should be varied in the length of time and level of motor activity involved.

23 Staff interacts with every student.
Within a 5 minute time period Staff interacts with all students at least once During extending instructional activities Supports learning Isn’t interfering Click now to advance to the next slide XXX During a 5 minute observation period, you should see classroom staff interact with each student at least one time to teach or promote learning in some way. During extended work periods, this sort of interaction should continue to occur at a rate that supports learning but doesn’t interfere with it.

24 Instruction and Interaction
Click now to advance to the next slide The next categories addresses all the aspects of high quality instruction for students with autism spectrum disorders.

25 Staff communication with students is clear and relevant.
is appropriate to language ability communication supports are easily accessible at all times. regular opportunities for dialogue Click now to advance to the next slide

26 Staff interactions with students are positive.
Comments directed toward students follow a ratio of 7:1 instructive or positive comments to corrective or negative comments. XXX Most of the comments directed to students by classroom staff should be positive and instructive. If a corrective comment is made, efforts should then be made to add more positive comments. Click now to advance to the next slide

27 Staff members use systematic instructional strategies.
deliver instructional cues clearly prompt students as needed reinforce correct responses correct errors when needed Click now to advance to the next slide

28 Staff interact in a professional manner.
Communication between staff… is respectful of students and their families preserves confidentiality is limited to classroom issues and instruction Click now to advance to the next slide

29 Classroom staff deliver instruction actively and directly.
Staff Members: Recognize incidental opportunities for instruction in all school settings Deliver instruction within naturally occurring opportunities Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Opportunities for instruction often occur coincidentally in all school activities across the day, both in and out of the classroom. This indicator requires the observer to rate how well classroom staff recognize and use these opportunities to teach or reinforce relevant targeted skills.

30 All classroom staff are familiar with student learning goals….
and can target individual goals in learning activities. Click now to advance to the next slide XXX It is important for all staff to be familiar with the IEP goals for each student. All classroom staff should be able to explain how the activity they are conducting relates to each of the students learning goals. Click on the button to learn more about this.

31 Instructional methods reflect the unique needs of students…
Click now to advance to the next slide and are grounded in research-based practices. XXX Instructional strategies and intervention approaches should be individualized to suit the unique learning characteristics and needs of the students. These approaches should also be reflective of a significant body of research based evidence that clearly indicates their effectiveness.

32 Instructional pacing is appropriate.
Promotes a high rate of correct responding Actively engages student without frustration Correct responses and desired behaviors are reinforced frequently Click now to advance to the next slide XXX The pace of the instruction should promote a high rate of correct responding for each student. It should keep the students actively engaged but not so fast that it frustrates or overwhelms the student. Reinforcement for correct responding should occur at a rate that is appropriate for the student’s abilities and level of skill mastery.

33 Instruction is individualized.
Instructional goals, strategies, and materials are individualized for each student Reinforcers are a natural response to the targeted skills Planned opportunities for generalization of skills XXX Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders learn in their own way and have individual strengths and weaknesses. Effective teachers will demonstrate an ability to provide instruction that is individualized to the needs of each student. Reinforcers used reflect a natural response to the targeted skill. Additionally, instruction should include planned opportunities to practice skills in a number of different settings or circumstances. Click now to advance to the next slide

34 Instruction is an active process.
The instructional style of the teacher… Actively engages students Preserves students’ dignity Promotes independence Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Teachers should be actively engaged while teaching students.. They should demonstrate a teaching style that is emphasizes direct interaction with the student, respects their dignity and prioritizes student independence.

35 The instructional context is natural.
Generalization of skills Embedded skills instruction Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Learning and generalization of skills is enhanced when they are taught within the naturally occurring activities and routines of the school day. Opportunities to teach many important life skills, such as choice making, communication and social interaction should be embedded into routinely scheduled learning activities.

36 Instruction is intensive.
Students with slow rates of learning are provided: Intense levels of instruction Daily one-on-one instruction Click now to advance to the next slide XXX The intensity of instruction should increase for students who have more pronounced needs. This often will involve intense, daily, one-to one skills instruction and data collection for purposes of measurement of progress and decision making.

37 Student performance data is collected regularly.
Collected daily during instructional activities Summarized regularly Reviewed at team planning meetings Click now to advance to the next slide XXX The collection of data is critical aspect of designing, instructing, and evaluating targets skills for students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Student performance data during each instructional activity. This data should be taken daily and summarized regularly. It should be reviewed at team planning meetings to make decisions as the progress of the student’s learning and the effectiveness of instructional methodologies employed.

38 Communication with parents occurs frequently.
Information is specific to the student Positive comments and observations Non-judgmental Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Since students with autism are often not about to share events and news with parents, they need to receive information about the child’s school day from school personnel. Therefore, frequent and effective communication with parents is an important component of educational programming for students with autism spectrum disorders. Information provided should be specific to the student and be positive and non-judgmental in tone. Click the button to learn more about methods for communicating with parents

39 Instruction and Interaction
Click now to advance to the next slide The next categories addresses all the aspects of high quality instruction for students with autism spectrum disorders.

40 Communication is continuously promoted.
Classroom staff: create opportunities for spontaneous use of communication skills. foster communication through a variety of instructional approaches. Click now to advance to the next slide XXX As communication skills are a fundamental deficit area of autism spectrum disorders. Therefore, it needs to be addressed as an instructional priority throughout the entire school day. To do this, teachers and classroom staff should create continuous opportunities to elicit spontaneous communication from students, and to foster communication through a variety of instructional approaches. Click the button to learn more about specific strategies that will continuously promote communication.

41 Communication Supports and Devices
Use of communications supports is encouraged in all situations Students must understand the purpose of the device and be motivated to use it Students have access to their communication systems at all times. Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Some students with autism spectrum disorders can communicate more effectively and with less effort if they can rely on an augmentative communications support or device. Without the, these students in effect do not have a voice. But simply having the device available is not sufficient for students with this level of need – they must also be taught it’s purpose and motivated to use it. Therefore, communication devices and supports must be easily accessible to students at all times, and they should be encouraged to rely on them to express their needs and desires. Click on the button to see several strategies for promoting the use of communication devices and supports

42 A proactive approach to behavior is taken.
The likelihood of behavior problems is minimized by: Click now to advance to the next slide offering choice making opportunities clarifying expectations positive reinforcement XXX The likelihood of behavior problems is minimized by offering students choice making opportunities, , clarifying expectations and positive reinforcement of desired behaviors. Click on the button to learn suggested proactive strategies for behavior support.

43 Click now to advance to the next slide
Plans for addressing serious behavior problems are developed and in place. Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Students displaying behavioral difficulties have an individualized behavior plan or have been referred for an FBA Click the button to find out more about the teacher’s role in the development and implementation of a comprehensive behavior support plan.

44 Opportunities for social interaction and friendships are provided.
Instructional priority Targeted throughout the school day Frequent and varied opportunities to interact with non-disabled peers Social interactions are planned and supported Support for peers Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Social skills and abilities are another fundamental deficit area for students with autism spectrum disorders. Therefore, social competence are also an instructional priority to be targeted throughout the entire school day. Because of this, a typical school day should offer frequent and varied opportunities to interact with non-disabled peers. Social skills instruction should be planned and supported by staff, along with information and guidance for peers. Click the button to find out about specific teacher behaviors that promote social growth for their students

45 Teachers and staff understand the nature of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
skills instruction in deficit areas emphasize social interaction skills stress functional communication promote age appropriate engagement maximize independent functioning Click now to advance to the next slide XXX Teaching students with autism spectrum disorders requires that all instructional personnel be knowledgeable about the condition itself and its core deficit areas. This knowledge is critical so the classroom curriculum and schedule will reflect an emphasis on skills instruction in these deficit areas; activities will emphasize social interaction skills with adults and peers, stress functional communication for all students, promote age appropriate engagement, and maximize independent functioning

46 Using Gathered Information Click now to advance to the next slide
Examples of appropriate educational practice Priorities for further programmatic development Priorities for further staff development Click now to advance to the next slide Now that you’ve completed the classroom observation, information gathered with the instrument can be used to identify aspects of the classroom as: Strong examples of appropriate educational practice for students with autism spectrum disorders. These areas of programmatic strength can then be observed by other teachers for their own professional or programmatic development. Priorities for further programmatic development Priorities for further staff development

47 University Of South Florida Center for Autism & Related Disabilities
Questions? Contact University Of South Florida Center for Autism & Related Disabilities If you have questions after watching this tutorial, please feel free to contact CARD-USF for further assistance. (813) Click arrow to return to the beginning of this tutorial Press “Escape” to exit this tutorial

48 Click now to advance to the next slide
materials instructional class meeting space chalkboard/display space bulletin board filing cabinets bookshelves large group instructional table door student desks, independent learning area storage for student belongings student schedules computers play/recreation area storage student learning materials storage Click now to advance to the next slide

49 storage for student belongings
materials instructional materials instructional filing cabinets class meeting space chalkboard/display space bulletin board bookshelves large group Instructional table door student desks, independent learning area storage for student belongings storage for student belongings student schedules computers It’s important that materials and supplies are organized for use by both teachers and students. Materials needed for lessons should be located in a convenient spot that is easy to access as the activity begins and progresses. Valuable instructional time should not be wasted to gather materials. Student supplies and materials should be clearly marked and located in a part of the classroom that is easily accessible . These items can be labeled with student names and the name of the object. There should also be a clearly identified area for personal items, such as lunch bags and back packs. The personal belongs of classroom staff should be kept in a secure area, such as a filing cabinet or desk drawer, where they are out of the students’ visual field storage play/recreation area student learning materials student learning materials storage

50 Representing the Message
What symbol do you use? Objects or remnants Photographs Color drawings Icons Written or printed words “Deluxe Cheeseburger” An important consideration for the use of visual support for a student with autism is choosing the right level of symbolic representation for the student. The most concrete level or symbolic representation is to use an actual object, or a remnant of one, to represent the activity associated with it. Photographs are a bit more abstract because even though they look exactly like the object they represent, they are two dimensional Color drawings are the next symbolic level. The more closely they resemble the item or activity they represent, the more concrete and therefore easy to understand, they will be. Black and white drawings, icons or logos are an even more symbol for representing an item or activity. While the shape or form often looks like the item it represents, icons ore much more abstract in nature than color drawings. Written or printed words are the most abstract, because they rpresent the sounds that for a spoken word. In turn, spoken words represent other people, items, activities or concepts.

51 9:00-9:45 Reading Activities Language Arts 10:30-11:15 Math
Ms. Mattarelli - paraprofessional Ms. Simpson - teacher Ms. Fisher - paraprofessional 9:00 small group instruction Nikki, Jason, Jamal 9:20 small group instruction Steven, Mason, Emily 9:00 listening centers Steven, Mason, Caitlyn 9:20 listening centers Nikki, Jason, Logan independent supplemental activities Computer - Jamal Desk work - Caitlyn Book report center - Logan Click now to advance to the next slide 9:45 – 10:30 Language Arts Ms. Mattarelli - paraprofessional Ms. Simpson - teacher Ms. Fisher - paraprofessional Seatwork and skills practice Spelling review and test – Emily, Mason Sentence construction activity – Emily, Jamal 9:45 small group instruction Nikki, Jason, Logan 10:10 small group instruction Steven, Caitlyn, Mason independent supplemental activities Computer - Jamal Desk work - Caitlyn Book report center - Logan Here is an example of a staff schedule including 1 teacher and 2 paraprofessionals. Note that it shows which students each adult is working with, where they are working, and what they are doing. 10:30-11:15 Math Ms. Mattarelli - paraprofessional Ms. Simpson - teacher Ms. Fisher - paraprofessional Practical application activities Points banking – all students Create shopping list – Steven, Jamal Measurement – Mason, Jason 10:30 small group instruction Nikki, Jason, Jamal 10:50 small group instruction Steven, Mason, Emily Skills practice Seatwork – Logan, Emily Computer practice – Caitlyn Math folder games - Nikki

52 Monday Mrs. Johnson’s Monday Time Class Activity Assignment Morning
Routine Assist late arriving students Deliver attendance to office 8:15 – 8:30 group 1 – review vocabulary words Assist students with seat work Make work copies for math activity Prep for student snack Language Arts 8:30 – 10:30 Assist students with snack and clean up\supervise restroom break Facilitate reading activity with John and 3rd grade peers 10:30 – 11:00 Reading Set up and supervise measurement activity Review practice drill with David and Sam Assist students to prepare for lunch 11; :00 Math 12:00- 12:30 Lunch Supervise lunch activities Since planning time and opportunities to discuss student learning may be hard for staff to find, his example provides a daily schedule for one paraprofessional. Notice that it not only indicates time periods and class activities, but also clearly states the duties for that staff member during each time period. A blank copy of this duty roster is available by clicking on the arrow button. Social Studies Support David and Chris in 3rd grade class activities – facilitate social interaction with peers 12:30 – 1:30 Center time 1:30 – 2:15 Supervise students with gathering materials and belongings Assist students riding buses and 7271 to dismissal point 2:15-2:30 Dismissal

53 Wednesday Tuesday Friday Monday Thursday 8:15-8:30 8:30-10:30
Morning Routine 8:15-8:30 Social Studies Science Learning Centers Reading, Language Arts Snack, Play break Math Social skills groups 8:30-10:30 Art 11:00 – 11:40 Media Center Physical Education Music Story Time 11: :00 10:30-11:00 11:00 -12:00 12:00-12:30 Lunch 12:30 – 1:30 A schedule should reflect all class wide activities for the week. Certain daily school wide activities such as arrival and dismissal times and lunch should always be indicated at the same time each day. Time should also be allocated for class wide activities that occur at certain timed during the week, but may not occur every day or at the same time. These activities could be special classes, such as Art, PE or music. The remainder of the day should be allocated for individual and group instruction determined by the targeted educational goals of each student. 1:30-2:00 2:15-2:30 Classroom jobs Prep to go home, Dismissal 2:30–2:45

54 9:00-9:45 Reading Activities Language Arts 10:30-11:15 Math
Ms. Mattarelli - paraprofessional Ms. Simpson - teacher Ms. Fisher - paraprofessional 9:00 small group instruction Nikki, Jason, Jamal 9:20 small group instruction Steven, Mason, Emily 9:00 listening centers Steven, Mason, Caitlyn 9:20 listening centers Nikki, Jason, Logan independent supplemental activities Computer - Jamal Desk work - Caitlyn Book report center - Logan 9:45 – 10:30 Language Arts Ms. Mattarelli - paraprofessional Ms. Simpson - teacher Ms. Fisher - paraprofessional Seatwork and skills practice Spelling review and test – Emily, Mason Sentence construction activity – Emily, Jamal 9:45 small group instruction Nikki, Jason, Logan 10:10 small group instruction Steven, Caitlyn, Mason independent supplemental activities Computer - Jamal Desk work - Caitlyn Book report center - Logan 10:30-11:15 Math Ms. Mattarelli - paraprofessional Ms. Simpson - teacher Ms. Fisher - paraprofessional Practical application activities Points banking – all students Create shopping list – Steven, Jamal Measurement – Mason, Jason 10:30 small group instruction Nikki, Jason, Jamal 10:50 small group instruction Steven, Mason, Emily Skills practice Seatwork – Logan, Emily Computer practice – Caitlyn Math folder games - Nikki

55 Click now to advance to the next slide
This is an example of a written afternoon schedule for a student. The schedule should be individualized to include activities that only this student may do (go to office for medicine) and at the appropriate level for the student.

56 Social skills group 1:45-2:15
Student Schedule Time Subject Materials Lesson or activities Put away back pack Attendance Pledge of Allegiance Morning show Morning Routine Schedule card 8:15 – 8:30 Language Arts Vocabulary Spelling book page 27 Vocabulary sheet Spelling book Pencil 8:30 – 10:30 Speech 10:00 – 10:30 Read pages with a friend Write answers to comprehension questions Reading book Notebook Pencil 10:30 – 11:00 Reading Flash card practice Measurement activity Computer drill Flashcards Measuring cups Beans 11; :00 Math Sit at table 5 Gameboy when finished eating Lunch box Gameboy 12:00- 12:30 Lunch In order to anticipate transitions and changes in the routine, many students with autism rely on personal schedules that identify exactly what and when their personally activities will be for the day. Each student schedule should indicate anything that varies form what the rest of the e class is doing. Some students need to know the order and sequence of the day’s activities. Others may rely on their schedules to tell them exactly what work to do and the materials they will need to complete it. If a student isn’t able to read the printed words for his or her activities, they can be paired with a picture or symbol for it. Click now to view or print a blank copy of this student schedule form. Potato vines activity Identifying plant parts Activity materials in science center 12:30 – 1:30 Science Center time Computer 1:30 – 2:15 Permission slip, signed by parents Social skills group 1:45-2:15 Homework Feed Rusty Bathroom Go to bus Backpack Guinea pig food 2:15-2:30 Dismissal

57 Group Instructional Activity:
Student: Instructional Supports and Strategies Annual Goal to be Addressed: Skills Targeted for Instruction: Creating community map posters to be displayed in the front office. Students will create maps of the school neighborhood and community as a class project Michael Increased fluency with functional communication skills Prompt card with relevant personal information Photo of home and school as cue for location on neighborhood map Review sign in front of school and school website for name of school Labeled photos of parents and teacher Michael will both verbally and in writing provide his own name and his parents’ names, home address and phone number, and the name of his school and teacher Developing a lesson plan with multiple instructional goals for students at varying skill levels. Jennifer Seat Jennifer between two other students written scripts for asking for materials or help and commenting on the project Timer for determining length of activity Locate activity materials in the center of the table, out of Jennifer’s easy reach Increase range of interaction and participation skills within a group activity with peers Jennifer will share materials, take turns and complete the activity with peers Derek Review map on school website for location s of school and Davis Park Map and pictures of streets and intersections between home and school Increase functional academic skills at the 3rd grade level Identify and label names of streets on his bus route Write an itinerary as directions from school to Davis Park

58 Communication with Parents
At the start of the school year Daily or weekly communications School and classroom procedures Conferences and classroom visits Documentation of contacts The foundation for a collaborative partnership with the family members of students should begin a the start of the school year. Encourage teachers to use start of the year open house to distribute material lists, go over the daily routine, share instructional materials and gather input about the child from the family’s perspective. Many teacher also use this opportunity to gather this information. Click here to print a blank copy of a family survey. As parents to provide the class with a blank notebook for communication regarding events and issues between school and home. Classroom and school procedures should be clarified with parents. Some parents may wish to observe in the classroom or talk with classroom staff directly about their child. teachers should be encouraged to clarify procedures for classroom visits, phone calls and teacher conferences. To promote accountability, teachers should also keep a record of all phone conversations or messages with family members. Click this button to print a blank copy of a classroom phone log

59 Suggested Strategies uses motivating materials incorporating child's preferences modifies interactive style to support student learning refers to sequences of picture symbols to expand use of single words to multiple word utterances adjusts learning environment to enhance attention and motivation uses appropriate waiting/pacing uses computer programs that ask “What”, “Why”, “How”, “Where” questions uses felt board characters that student can manipulate when reading stories utilizes typical peers as models for age appropriate communication and social interaction skills To promote spontaneous use of communication skills and foster communication through a variety of instructional approaches, the teacher: uses motivating materials incorporating child's preferences modifies interactive style to support student learning refers to sequences of picture symbols to expand use of single words to multiple word utterances adjusts learning environment to enhance attention and motivation uses appropriate waiting/pacing uses computer programs that ask “What”, “Why”, “How”, “Where” questions uses felt board characters that student can manipulate when reading stories utilizes typical peers as models for age appropriate communication and social interaction skills

60 Suggested Strategies consistent use of visual supports such as schedules and calendars, first/then boards and social scripts, when needed addresses students with a respectful manner and a calm tone predictable sequences using routines and repetition clearly defined beginning and ending structure within and across activities alternate between movement and sedentary activities XXX Specific strategies for reducing the likelihood or behavior problems include the following: Activities are structured to provide predictable sequences using routines and repetition Activities also have clearly defined beginning and ending points visual supports are used to provide structure within and across activities Schedules alternate between high energy and sedentary activities Students consistently rely on visual supports including schedules and calendars, , first/then boards, social scripts as indicated by the situation and their needs Adults address students with a respectful manner and a calm tone of voice and

61 Suggested Strategies For students with individualized behavior plans, the teacher: defines target behaviors tracks students progress can state behavioral hypotheses can provide a rationale for interventions For students with individualized behavior plans, the teacher: Can clearly and concisely define target behaviors in observable and measurable terms tracks students progress through consistent data collection procedures Can state hypotheses as the purpose of the targeted behavior Can provide a rationale for interventions that is driven by these hypotheses

62 Click now to advance to the next slide
Suggested Strategies Meaningful interactions with non-disabled peers and social skills instruction are supported by teachers who: Team effectively with other teachers and staff 1 Model appropriate attitudes and interactions 2 Share information and expertise 3 Conduct lessons and activities using differentiated instructional techniques 4 Click now to advance to the next slide Meaningful interactions with non-disabled peers and social skills instruction are supported by the teacher who: Team effectively with other teachers and staff around collaborative teaching activities Model appropriate attitudes and interactions for students and other staff members Share information and expertise with regard to their areas of specialization Conduct lessons and activities using differentiated instructional techniques

63 References Rainforth, Beverly and York-Barr, Jennifer (1997). Collaborative Teams for Students with Severe Disabilities, (pp. 3-13). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company. Snell, Martha and Brown, Fredda (2006). Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, (pp ). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall. Giangreco, Michael (1997). Quick Guides to Inclusion, (pp ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company. Snell, Martha and Janney, Rachel (2000). Teacher’s guide to Inclusive Practices: Social relationships and Supports, (pp ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

64 Suggested Strategies consistently uses visual supports for students’ schedules, daily class schedules, and special areas provides picture schedule to prepare students for transition or change utilizes sign language videos that teach simple signs gives opportunities on a daily basis to generalize the use of visual supports To encourage use of augmentative communication, the teacher: provides picture schedule prior to event to prepare student for transition/change utilizes sign language videos that teach simple signs consistently uses visual supports for students’ schedules, daily class schedules, and special areas (P.E., Music, etc.) gives opportunities on a daily basis to generalize the use of signs


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