Presentation on theme: "Observation Instrument Click now to advance to the next slide"— Presentation transcript:
1Observation Instrument Click now to advance to the next slide forAutism ClassroomsClick now to advance to the next slideDr. Karen BerkmanHello, this is Dr. Karen Berkman . This tutorial is an accompaniment for the Observation instrument for Autism Classrooms.This instrument and tutorial was developed as a collaborative statewide project across all of the Florida Centers for Autism and Related Disabilities.On several slides throughout this presentation, you will see this button appear. If you would like additional information about the topic of the particular slide, just click the button. If you click it again when it appears at the end of the supplemental information, you will return to your previous point in the presentation. If you aren’t interested in learning more about the topic, just continue on with the presentationYou may also from time to time see this button appear. Clicking on it will take you to a blank , printable copy of the form demonstrated on that slide of the presentation.
2Effective Programs for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (National Research Council, 2001(www.nap.edu)Intensity mattersEarly is betterFamily participation is essentialGoals should be individualized and monitored regularlyClick now to advance to the next slideInstruction for students with autism often varies from one school or district to another. However, effective school programs – those in which student learning outcomes are consistently achieved and well documented – consistently reflect the same foundations.In 2001, The National Research Foundation acknowledged these foundations as he following:Intensity matters – quality education programs actively engage students in direct instruction for 25 hour per week or more.Early is better - Intervention by 3 ½ years is more effective than after 5 yearsFamily participation is essential - Families involvement plays a critical role in effective educational programmingEducational goals should be individualized - Goals and supports need to target individual behaviors, as well as social, communication and academic prioritiesEducational goals must also be monitored regularly – progress toward educational goals must be evaluated in an appropriate and ongoing manner in order to ensure effective instruction
3CARD Classroom Observation Instrument Click now to advance to the next slideObservers should:be familiar with all aspects of quality educational programs for students with autismuse the tool as a starting point for discussionsrecognize the tool is a subjective structure for guiding classroom observationsmake more than one observationbe able to explain their observationsBased on these foundations, the CARD Classroom Observation Instrument is intended as a planning tool for professional development or program support.Observers should:Make more than one observation, scheduled at different points during the school day.Be familiar with all aspects of quality educational program for students with autism and be able to recognize all indicators or their absence.Recognize that this tool is a subjective structure for guiding classroom observations, not a measurement of teacher performanceUse this tool as a starting point for discussions with classroom staff about program development and support needsBe able to explain their observations and the completed tool with classroom teachers and staff as a starting point for planning.Now let’s take a look at the instrument itself,
4Observation Instrument: Heading Click now to advance to the next slideAt the top, you’ll find a Heading section, for recording the name of the classroom teacher and support staff who were directly observed, dates the observations were conducted and the name of the observer.
5Observation Instrument: Ratings Click now to advance to the next slideDirectly beneath the heading, you’ll see rankings used to indicate the presence of each program indicator.Indicators should be rated as follows:A 2 reflects the indicator was readily apparent and used or demonstrated actively and consistently throughout the observationA rating of 1 reflects the indicator was present, but may not have been used or demonstrated consistently, or was only partially achieved.A 0 reflects the indicator was not present or observed, despite it’s appropriateness for the observation context.An NA rating is used if the observation context did not provide an adequate opportunity to observe the indicator.
6Observation Instrument: Format Click now to advance to the next slide Environmental arrangementsScheduling, activities and intensityClick now to advance to the next slideCore curriculum areasInstruction and Interaction
7Observation instrument: Notations Next to each program quality indicator, you will find 2 separate columns for your notations. The center column is for you to not your rating of that indicator as based on the time period in which the observation was conduct.On the right side of each indicator, you will also find a column for making notes ore comments regarding your observation of that indicator.Click now to advance to the next slide
8Click now to advance to the next slide EnvironmentalArrangementClick now to advance to the next slideHello, this is Dr. Karen Berkman . This tutorial is an accompaniment for the Observation instrument for Autism Classrooms.This instrument and tutorial was developed as a collaborative statewide project across all of the Florida Centers for Autism and Related Disabilities.On several slides throughout this presentation, you will see this button appear. If you would like additional information about the topic of the particular slide, just click the button. If you click it again when it appears at the end of the supplemental information, you will return to your previous point in the presentation. If you aren’t interested in learning more about the topic, just continue on with the presentationYou may also from time to time see this button appear. Clicking on it will take you to a blank , printable copy of the form demonstrated on that slide of the presentation.
9Room arrangement is clearly defined. Click now to advance to the next slideXXX Room arrangement are clearly defined, with visual boundaries for specific activities. This allows adequate supervision of all students at all times and prevents or minimizes problem behaviors. It also facilitates learning.Click the button if you would like to see a sample floor plan for an autism classroom.
10Visual supports are at the correct level of symbolic representation. school busClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Visual supports are at the correct level of symbolic functioning (representation) for individual students, and are used to enhance predictability , facilitate transitions, and convey expectations . What does the term “symbolic representation mean? C;lick the button to learn more about it.
11Materials and furniture are age appropriate. Click now to advance to the next slideXXX Materials and furniture are age appropriate and the correct size for students
12Individual workstations are arranged left to right or top to bottom. Click now to advance to the next slideXXX Individual workstations are arranged correctly, either left-right or top-bottom, and in a manner that indicates how much work, identifies when the task is finished, and what’s next. Materials in workstations are varied from day to day and are educationally andfunctionally related to student IEPs.
13Scheduling, Activities, and Intensity Click now to advance to the next slideNow let’s consider the indicators that are reflective of good classroom management.
14Staff schedules are posted. Who: Shows staff and student assignmentsWhere: LocationsWhat: ActivitiesProminently posted and checkedClick now to advance to the next slideXXX The staff schedule should reflect who the teachers, paraprofessionals, and other staff are working with, where they are working, and what they are doing. This should be posted in clear view for all classroom staff, and checked regularly by all.Click the button to view 2 examples of classroom staff schedules
15A daily class schedule is posted. At student’s visual levelAppropriate for students’ level of symbolic understandingUsed throughout the dayClick now to advance to the next slideXXX This classroom schedule is for students to follow, so it should be posted at their visual level. Depending of the symbolic representation abilities of the students, classroom schedules may include objects, pictures, line drawings, or text. This schedule should be referred to throughout the day as the classroom activities change.Click the button to see an example of a classroom schedule for elementary level students with autism.
16Schedules reflect appropriate distribution of curriculum. Age-appropriate materialsAdapted for individual needs, based on IEP goalsEach student’s work at his/her instructional levelClick now to advance to the next slideXXX The activities reflected in the schedule should be age appropriate for the students. For example, reading or listening to nursery rhymes would be an age appropriate activity for pre-school students, but not for students in a middle school classroom.Adapted work should reflect the student’s IEP goals and objectives. The materials should be adapted (if needed) to each student’s instructional level.
17Schedules reflect a variety of learning formats. 1:1 instructionSmall group activitiesLarge group activitiesIndependent workSocial interaction/leisure optionsClick now to advance to the next slideXXX The schedules should reflect different learning formats throughout the day, including1:1 instructionSmall group activitiesLarge group lessonsIndependent workSocial interaction and leisure or recreational optionsClick the button to view and example of a classroom schedule that reflects all of these instructional groupings.
18Individual schedules are available for each student. Posted for convenient referenceReflect the student’s understanding of symbolic representationChecked frequentlyActivity completion is consistently indicatedUsed with increasing independenceClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Individual schedules should be used for each student. These schedules should be posted where the student can easily refer to it – on or near his/her desk, or in a folder kept inside the student’s work space. Depending on the student’s level of symbolic representation, the schedule may be made of objects, pictures, line drawings, or text. To be used correctly, the student should check the schedule at the beginning of the day and each class period. As activities are finished, the symbol for that activity is removed, checked off, or marked in some way to indicate its completion. Students who are just learning to follow their schedule may need prompting to do this, but others should do it independently.To view examples of student visual schedules, click the button now.
19Large group transitions are smooth. Occur infrequentlySupported by environmental arrangement and schedulingClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Large group transitions may be difficult for students with ASD, so they should happen infrequently, and be conducted in a smooth and efficient manner when they do. Transitions should be supported by environmental arrangements in order to define space and allow each student to know where he/she should be. This example shows pictures of students’ feet which indicate where they should stand to line up.
20Staff/student ratio is adequate. Considerations:The nature of the instructional activityLevel of student familiarity with the taskEnvironmental factorsStudent level of frustration or failureClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Determining a successful ratio of adults and students will vary depending on several factors, such as:The nature of the instructional activity – is it one in which student sill require close supervision for safely issues?Level of student skill and familiarity with the task – if the activity is the first time students are introduced to a new skill or situation, they may require closer supervision.Are there environmental factors to be considered, such as open doors, extraneous noise or the possibility of a disruption of a routine?Is the student likely to experience frustration or failure without adequate assistance in the activity?
21Activities are language-based. Instructional activities promote communicative exchanges such as requesting, commenting, and asking and/or answering questions.Click now to advance to the next slideXXX Because communication is one of their primary skill deficit area, language-based activities are particularly important for students with autism spectrum disorders, regardless of their current communication abilities. Classroom staff should promote communicate by arranging situations in which students must request materials or assistance, ask questions, share information and comment on activities.
22All students are engaged in meaningful activities. Instructional activities are…Relevant to the student’s educational goalsInteresting and meaningful to the studentValued by other peopleHighly structuredVaried in time length and level of motor activityClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Sound educational programming consistently provide learning activities that are educationally relevant, meaningful to the student and valued by other people. Instructional activities should consistently provide high levels of structure and routine and should be varied in the length of time and level of motor activity involved.
23Staff interacts with every student. Within a 5 minute time periodStaff interacts with all students at least onceDuring extending instructional activitiesSupports learningIsn’t interferingClick now to advance to the next slideXXX During a 5 minute observation period, you should see classroom staff interact with each student at least one time to teach or promote learning in some way. During extended work periods, this sort of interaction should continue to occur at a rate that supports learning but doesn’t interfere with it.
24Instruction and Interaction Click now to advance to the next slideThe next categories addresses all the aspects of high quality instruction for students with autism spectrum disorders.
25Staff communication with students is clear and relevant. is appropriate to language abilitycommunication supports are easily accessible at all times.regular opportunities for dialogueClick now to advance to the next slide
26Staff interactions with students are positive. Comments directed toward students follow a ratio of 7:1 instructive or positive comments to corrective or negative comments.XXX Most of the comments directed to students by classroom staff should be positive and instructive. If a corrective comment is made, efforts should then be made to add more positive comments.Click now to advance to the next slide
27Staff members use systematic instructional strategies. deliver instructional cues clearlyprompt students as neededreinforce correct responsescorrect errors when neededClick now to advance to the next slide
28Staff interact in a professional manner. Communication between staff…is respectful of students and their familiespreserves confidentialityis limited to classroom issues and instructionClick now to advance to the next slide
29Classroom staff deliver instruction actively and directly. Staff Members:Recognize incidental opportunities for instruction in all school settingsDeliver instruction within naturally occurring opportunitiesClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Opportunities for instruction often occur coincidentally in all school activities across the day, both in and out of the classroom. This indicator requires the observer to rate how well classroom staff recognize and use these opportunities to teach or reinforce relevant targeted skills.
30All classroom staff are familiar with student learning goals…. and can target individual goals in learning activities.Click now to advance to the next slideXXX It is important for all staff to be familiar with the IEP goals for each student. All classroom staff should be able to explain how the activity they are conducting relates to each of the students learning goals.Click on the button to learn more about this.
31Instructional methods reflect the unique needs of students… Click now to advance to the next slideand are grounded in research-based practices.XXX Instructional strategies and intervention approaches should be individualized to suit the unique learning characteristics and needs of the students. These approaches should also be reflective of a significant body of research based evidence that clearly indicates their effectiveness.
32Instructional pacing is appropriate. Promotes a high rate of correct respondingActively engages student without frustrationCorrect responses and desired behaviors are reinforced frequentlyClick now to advance to the next slideXXX The pace of the instruction should promote a high rate of correct responding for each student. It should keep the students actively engaged but not so fast that it frustrates or overwhelms the student. Reinforcement for correct responding should occur at a rate that is appropriate for the student’s abilities and level of skill mastery.
33Instruction is individualized. Instructional goals, strategies, and materials are individualized for each studentReinforcers are a natural response to the targeted skillsPlanned opportunities for generalization of skillsXXX Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders learn in their own way and have individual strengths and weaknesses. Effective teachers will demonstrate an ability to provide instruction that is individualized to the needs of each student. Reinforcers used reflect a natural response to the targeted skill. Additionally, instruction should include planned opportunities to practice skills in a number of different settings or circumstances.Click now to advance to the next slide
34Instruction is an active process. The instructional style of the teacher…Actively engages studentsPreserves students’ dignityPromotes independenceClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Teachers should be actively engaged while teaching students.. They should demonstrate a teaching style that is emphasizes direct interaction with the student, respects their dignity and prioritizes student independence.
35The instructional context is natural. Generalization of skillsEmbedded skills instructionClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Learning and generalization of skills is enhanced when they are taught within the naturally occurring activities and routines of the school day. Opportunities to teach many important life skills, such as choice making, communication and social interaction should be embedded into routinely scheduled learning activities.
36Instruction is intensive. Students with slow rates of learning are provided:Intense levels of instructionDaily one-on-one instructionClick now to advance to the next slideXXX The intensity of instruction should increase for students who have more pronounced needs. This often will involve intense, daily, one-to one skills instruction and data collection for purposes of measurement of progress and decision making.
37Student performance data is collected regularly. Collected daily during instructional activitiesSummarized regularlyReviewed at team planning meetingsClick now to advance to the next slideXXX The collection of data is critical aspect of designing, instructing, and evaluating targets skills for students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Student performance data during each instructional activity. This data should be taken daily and summarized regularly. It should be reviewed at team planning meetings to make decisions as the progress of the student’s learning and the effectiveness of instructional methodologies employed.
38Communication with parents occurs frequently. Information is specific to the studentPositive comments and observationsNon-judgmentalClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Since students with autism are often not about to share events and news with parents, they need to receive information about the child’s school day from school personnel. Therefore, frequent and effective communication with parents is an important component of educational programming for students with autism spectrum disorders. Information provided should be specific to the student and be positive and non-judgmental in tone.Click the button to learn more about methods for communicating with parents
39Instruction and Interaction Click now to advance to the next slideThe next categories addresses all the aspects of high quality instruction for students with autism spectrum disorders.
40Communication is continuously promoted. Classroom staff:create opportunities for spontaneous use of communication skills.foster communication through a variety of instructional approaches.Click now to advance to the next slideXXX As communication skills are a fundamental deficit area of autism spectrum disorders. Therefore, it needs to be addressed as an instructional priority throughout the entire school day. To do this, teachers and classroom staff should create continuous opportunities to elicit spontaneous communication from students, and to foster communication through a variety of instructional approaches.Click the button to learn more about specific strategies that will continuously promote communication.
41Communication Supports and Devices Use of communications supports is encouraged in all situationsStudents must understand the purpose of the device and be motivated to use itStudents have access to their communication systems at all times.Click now to advance to the next slideXXX Some students with autism spectrum disorders can communicate more effectively and with less effort if they can rely on an augmentative communications support or device. Without the, these students in effect do not have a voice. But simply having the device available is not sufficient for students with this level of need – they must also be taught it’s purpose and motivated to use it. Therefore, communication devices and supports must be easily accessible to students at all times, and they should be encouraged to rely on them to express their needs and desires.Click on the button to see several strategies for promoting the use of communication devices and supports
42A proactive approach to behavior is taken. The likelihood of behavior problems is minimized by:Click now to advance to the next slideoffering choice making opportunitiesclarifying expectationspositive reinforcementXXX The likelihood of behavior problems is minimized by offering students choice making opportunities, , clarifying expectations and positive reinforcement of desired behaviors.Click on the button to learn suggested proactive strategies for behavior support.
43Click now to advance to the next slide Plans for addressing serious behavior problems are developed and in place.Click now to advance to the next slideXXX Students displaying behavioral difficulties have an individualized behavior plan or have been referred for an FBAClick the button to find out more about the teacher’s role in the development and implementation of a comprehensive behavior support plan.
44Opportunities for social interaction and friendships are provided. Instructional priorityTargeted throughout the school dayFrequent and varied opportunities to interact with non-disabled peersSocial interactions are planned and supportedSupport for peersClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Social skills and abilities are another fundamental deficit area for students with autism spectrum disorders. Therefore, social competence are also an instructional priority to be targeted throughout the entire school day. Because of this, a typical school day should offer frequent and varied opportunities to interact with non-disabled peers. Social skills instruction should be planned and supported by staff, along with information and guidance for peers.Click the button to find out about specific teacher behaviors that promote social growth for their students
45Teachers and staff understand the nature of Autism Spectrum Disorders. skills instruction in deficit areasemphasize social interaction skillsstress functional communicationpromote age appropriate engagementmaximize independent functioningClick now to advance to the next slideXXX Teaching students with autism spectrum disorders requires that all instructional personnel be knowledgeable about the condition itself and its core deficit areas. This knowledge is critical so the classroom curriculum and schedule will reflect an emphasis on skills instruction in these deficit areas; activities will emphasize social interaction skills with adults and peers, stress functional communication for all students, promote age appropriate engagement, and maximize independent functioning
46Using Gathered Information Click now to advance to the next slide Examples of appropriate educational practicePriorities for further programmatic developmentPriorities for further staff developmentClick now to advance to the next slideNow that you’ve completed the classroom observation, information gathered with the instrument can be used to identify aspects of the classroom as:Strong examples of appropriate educational practice for students with autism spectrum disorders. These areas of programmatic strength can then be observed by other teachers for their own professional or programmatic development.Priorities for further programmatic developmentPriorities for further staff development
47University Of South Florida Center for Autism & Related Disabilities Questions?ContactUniversity Of South FloridaCenter for Autism & Related DisabilitiesIf you have questions after watching this tutorial, please feel free to contact CARD-USF for further assistance.(813)Click arrow to return to the beginning of this tutorialPress “Escape” to exit this tutorial
48Click now to advance to the next slide materialsinstructionalclass meeting spacechalkboard/display spacebulletin boardfiling cabinetsbookshelveslarge groupinstructional tabledoorstudent desks, independent learning areastorage for student belongingsstudent schedulescomputersplay/recreation areastoragestudent learning materialsstorageClick now to advance to the next slide
49storage for student belongings materialsinstructionalmaterialsinstructionalfiling cabinetsclass meeting spacechalkboard/display spacebulletin boardbookshelveslarge groupInstructional tabledoorstudent desks, independent learning areastorage for student belongingsstorage for student belongingsstudent schedulescomputersIt’s important that materials and supplies are organized for use by both teachers and students.Materials needed for lessons should be located in a convenient spot that is easy to access as the activity begins and progresses. Valuable instructional time should not be wasted to gather materials.Student supplies and materials should be clearly marked and located in a part of the classroom that is easily accessible . These items can be labeled with student names and the name of the object.There should also be a clearly identified area for personal items, such as lunch bags and back packs. The personal belongs of classroom staff should be kept in a secure area, such as a filing cabinet or desk drawer, where they are out of the students’ visual fieldstorageplay/recreation areastudent learning materialsstudent learning materialsstorage
50Representing the Message What symbol do you use?Objects or remnantsPhotographsColor drawingsIconsWritten or printed words“Deluxe Cheeseburger”An important consideration for the use of visual support for a student with autism is choosing the right level of symbolic representation for the student.The most concrete level or symbolic representation is to use an actual object, or a remnant of one, to represent the activity associated with it.Photographs are a bit more abstract because even though they look exactly like the object they represent, they are two dimensionalColor drawings are the next symbolic level. The more closely they resemble the item or activity they represent, the more concrete and therefore easy to understand, they will be.Black and white drawings, icons or logos are an even more symbol for representing an item or activity. While the shape or form often looks like the item it represents, icons ore much more abstract in nature than color drawings.Written or printed words are the most abstract, because they rpresent the sounds that for a spoken word. In turn, spoken words represent other people, items, activities or concepts.
519:00-9:45 Reading Activities Language Arts 10:30-11:15 Math Ms. Mattarelli - paraprofessionalMs. Simpson - teacherMs. Fisher - paraprofessional9:00 small group instructionNikki, Jason, Jamal9:20 small group instructionSteven, Mason, Emily9:00 listening centersSteven, Mason, Caitlyn9:20 listening centersNikki, Jason, Loganindependent supplemental activitiesComputer - JamalDesk work - CaitlynBook report center - LoganClick now to advance to the next slide9:45 – 10:30Language ArtsMs. Mattarelli - paraprofessionalMs. Simpson - teacherMs. Fisher - paraprofessionalSeatwork and skills practiceSpelling review and test – Emily, MasonSentence construction activity – Emily, Jamal9:45 small group instructionNikki, Jason, Logan10:10 small group instructionSteven, Caitlyn, Masonindependent supplemental activitiesComputer - JamalDesk work - CaitlynBook report center - LoganHere is an example of a staff schedule including 1 teacher and 2 paraprofessionals. Note that it shows which students each adult is working with, where they are working, and what they are doing.10:30-11:15MathMs. Mattarelli - paraprofessionalMs. Simpson - teacherMs. Fisher - paraprofessionalPractical application activitiesPoints banking – all studentsCreate shopping list – Steven, JamalMeasurement – Mason, Jason10:30 small group instructionNikki, Jason, Jamal10:50 small group instructionSteven, Mason, EmilySkills practiceSeatwork – Logan, EmilyComputer practice – CaitlynMath folder games - Nikki
52Monday Mrs. Johnson’s Monday Time Class Activity Assignment Morning RoutineAssist late arriving studentsDeliver attendance to office8:15 – 8:30group 1 – review vocabulary wordsAssist students with seat workMake work copies for math activityPrep for student snackLanguageArts8:30 – 10:30Assist students with snack and clean up\supervise restroom breakFacilitate reading activity with John and 3rd grade peers10:30 – 11:00ReadingSet up and supervise measurement activityReview practice drill with David and SamAssist students to prepare for lunch11; :00Math12:00- 12:30LunchSupervise lunch activitiesSince planning time and opportunities to discuss student learning may be hard for staff to find, his example provides a daily schedule for one paraprofessional. Notice that it not only indicates time periods and class activities, but also clearly states the duties for that staff member during each time period.A blank copy of this duty roster is available by clicking on the arrow button.SocialStudiesSupport David and Chris in 3rd grade class activities – facilitate social interaction with peers12:30 – 1:30Centertime1:30 – 2:15Supervise students with gathering materials and belongingsAssist students riding buses and 7271 to dismissal point2:15-2:30Dismissal
53Wednesday Tuesday Friday Monday Thursday 8:15-8:30 8:30-10:30 MorningRoutine8:15-8:30SocialStudiesScienceLearningCentersReading,LanguageArtsSnack,Play breakMathSocial skillsgroups8:30-10:30Art 11:00 – 11:40MediaCenterPhysical EducationMusicStory Time11: :0010:30-11:0011:00 -12:0012:00-12:30Lunch12:30 – 1:30A schedule should reflect all class wide activities for the week. Certain daily school wide activities such as arrival and dismissal times and lunch should always be indicated at the same time each day.Time should also be allocated for class wide activities that occur at certain timed during the week, but may not occur every day or at the same time. These activities could be special classes, such as Art, PE or music.The remainder of the day should be allocated for individual and group instruction determined by the targeted educational goals of each student.1:30-2:002:15-2:30Classroom jobsPrep to gohome,Dismissal2:30–2:45
549:00-9:45 Reading Activities Language Arts 10:30-11:15 Math Ms. Mattarelli - paraprofessionalMs. Simpson - teacherMs. Fisher - paraprofessional9:00 small group instructionNikki, Jason, Jamal9:20 small group instructionSteven, Mason, Emily9:00 listening centersSteven, Mason, Caitlyn9:20 listening centersNikki, Jason, Loganindependent supplemental activitiesComputer - JamalDesk work - CaitlynBook report center - Logan9:45 – 10:30Language ArtsMs. Mattarelli - paraprofessionalMs. Simpson - teacherMs. Fisher - paraprofessionalSeatwork and skills practiceSpelling review and test – Emily, MasonSentence construction activity – Emily, Jamal9:45 small group instructionNikki, Jason, Logan10:10 small group instructionSteven, Caitlyn, Masonindependent supplemental activitiesComputer - JamalDesk work - CaitlynBook report center - Logan10:30-11:15MathMs. Mattarelli - paraprofessionalMs. Simpson - teacherMs. Fisher - paraprofessionalPractical application activitiesPoints banking – all studentsCreate shopping list – Steven, JamalMeasurement – Mason, Jason10:30 small group instructionNikki, Jason, Jamal10:50 small group instructionSteven, Mason, EmilySkills practiceSeatwork – Logan, EmilyComputer practice – CaitlynMath folder games - Nikki
55Click now to advance to the next slide This is an example of a written afternoon schedule for a student. The schedule should be individualized to include activities that only this student may do (go to office for medicine) and at the appropriate level for the student.
56Social skills group 1:45-2:15 Student ScheduleTimeSubjectMaterialsLesson or activitiesPut away back packAttendancePledge of AllegianceMorning showMorningRoutineSchedule card8:15 – 8:30LanguageArtsVocabularySpelling book page 27Vocabulary sheetSpelling bookPencil8:30 – 10:30Speech 10:00 – 10:30Read pages with a friendWrite answers to comprehension questionsReading bookNotebookPencil10:30 – 11:00ReadingFlash card practiceMeasurement activityComputer drillFlashcardsMeasuring cupsBeans11; :00MathSit at table 5Gameboy when finished eatingLunch boxGameboy12:00- 12:30LunchIn order to anticipate transitions and changes in the routine, many students with autism rely on personal schedules that identify exactly what and when their personally activities will be for the day. Each student schedule should indicate anything that varies form what the rest of the e class is doing.Some students need to know the order and sequence of the day’s activities.Others may rely on their schedules to tell them exactly what work to do and the materials they will need to complete it.If a student isn’t able to read the printed words for his or her activities, they can be paired with a picture or symbol for it.Click now to view or print a blank copy of this student schedule form.Potato vines activityIdentifying plant partsActivity materials in science center12:30 – 1:30ScienceCentertimeComputer1:30 – 2:15Permission slip, signed by parentsSocial skills group 1:45-2:15HomeworkFeed RustyBathroomGo to busBackpackGuinea pig food2:15-2:30Dismissal
57Group Instructional Activity: Student:Instructional Supports and StrategiesAnnual Goal to be Addressed:Skills Targeted for Instruction:Creating community map posters to be displayed in the front office. Students will create maps of the school neighborhood and community as a class projectMichaelIncreased fluency with functional communication skillsPrompt card with relevant personal informationPhoto of home and school as cue for location on neighborhood mapReview sign in front of school and school website for name of schoolLabeled photos of parents and teacherMichael will both verbally and in writing provide his own name and his parents’ names, home address and phone number, and the name of his school and teacherDeveloping a lesson plan with multiple instructional goals for students at varying skill levels.JenniferSeat Jennifer between two other studentswritten scripts for asking for materials or help and commenting on the projectTimer for determining length of activityLocate activity materials in the center of the table, out of Jennifer’s easy reachIncrease range of interaction and participation skills within a group activity with peersJennifer will share materials, take turns and complete the activity with peersDerekReview map on school website for location s of school and Davis ParkMap and pictures of streets and intersections between home and schoolIncrease functional academic skills at the 3rd grade levelIdentify and label names of streets on his bus routeWrite an itinerary as directions from school to Davis Park
58Communication with Parents At the start of the school yearDaily or weekly communicationsSchool and classroom proceduresConferences and classroom visitsDocumentation of contactsThe foundation for a collaborative partnership with the family members of students should begin a the start of the school year.Encourage teachers to use start of the year open house to distribute material lists, go over the daily routine, share instructional materials and gather input about the child from the family’s perspective. Many teacher also use this opportunity to gather this information. Click here to print a blank copy of a family survey.As parents to provide the class with a blank notebook for communication regarding events and issues between school and home.Classroom and school procedures should be clarified with parents.Some parents may wish to observe in the classroom or talk with classroom staff directly about their child. teachers should be encouraged to clarify procedures for classroom visits, phone calls and teacher conferences.To promote accountability, teachers should also keep a record of all phone conversations or messages with family members. Click this button to print a blank copy of a classroom phone log
59Suggested Strategiesuses motivating materials incorporating child's preferencesmodifies interactive style to support student learningrefers to sequences of picture symbols to expand use of single words to multiple word utterancesadjusts learning environment to enhance attention and motivationuses appropriate waiting/pacinguses computer programs that ask “What”, “Why”, “How”, “Where” questionsuses felt board characters that student can manipulate when reading storiesutilizes typical peers as models for age appropriate communication and social interaction skillsTo promote spontaneous use of communication skills and foster communication through a variety of instructional approaches, the teacher:uses motivating materials incorporating child's preferencesmodifies interactive style to support student learningrefers to sequences of picture symbols to expand use of single words to multiple word utterancesadjusts learning environment to enhance attention and motivationuses appropriate waiting/pacinguses computer programs that ask “What”, “Why”, “How”, “Where” questionsuses felt board characters that student can manipulate when reading storiesutilizes typical peers as models for age appropriate communication and social interaction skills
60Suggested Strategiesconsistent use of visual supports such as schedules and calendars, first/then boards and social scripts, when neededaddresses students with a respectful manner and a calm tonepredictable sequences using routines and repetitionclearly defined beginning and endingstructure within and across activitiesalternate between movement and sedentary activitiesXXX Specific strategies for reducing the likelihood or behavior problems include the following:Activities are structured to provide predictable sequences using routines and repetitionActivities also have clearly defined beginning and ending pointsvisual supports are used to provide structure within and across activitiesSchedules alternate between high energy and sedentary activitiesStudents consistently rely on visual supports including schedules and calendars, , first/then boards, social scripts as indicated by the situation and their needsAdults address students with a respectful manner and a calm tone of voice and
61Suggested StrategiesFor students with individualized behavior plans, the teacher:defines target behaviorstracks students progresscan state behavioral hypothesescan provide a rationale for interventionsFor students with individualized behavior plans, the teacher:Can clearly and concisely define target behaviors in observable and measurable termstracks students progress through consistent data collection proceduresCan state hypotheses as the purpose of the targeted behaviorCan provide a rationale for interventions that is driven by these hypotheses
62Click now to advance to the next slide Suggested StrategiesMeaningful interactions with non-disabled peers and social skills instruction are supported by teachers who:Team effectively with other teachers and staff 1Model appropriate attitudes and interactions 2Share information and expertise 3Conduct lessons and activities using differentiated instructional techniques 4Click now to advance to the next slideMeaningful interactions with non-disabled peers and social skills instruction are supported by the teacher who:Team effectively with other teachers and staff around collaborative teaching activitiesModel appropriate attitudes and interactions for students and other staff membersShare information and expertise with regard to their areas of specializationConduct lessons and activities using differentiated instructional techniques
63ReferencesRainforth, Beverly and York-Barr, Jennifer (1997). Collaborative Teams for Students with Severe Disabilities, (pp. 3-13). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.Snell, Martha and Brown, Fredda (2006). Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, (pp ). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.Giangreco, Michael (1997). Quick Guides to Inclusion, (pp ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.Snell, Martha and Janney, Rachel (2000). Teacher’s guide to Inclusive Practices: Social relationships and Supports, (pp ). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.
64Suggested Strategiesconsistently uses visual supports for students’ schedules, daily class schedules, and special areasprovides picture schedule to prepare students for transition or changeutilizes sign language videos that teach simple signsgives opportunities on a daily basis to generalize the use of visual supportsTo encourage use of augmentative communication, the teacher:provides picture schedule prior to event to prepare student for transition/changeutilizes sign language videos that teach simple signsconsistently uses visual supports for students’ schedules, daily class schedules, and special areas (P.E., Music, etc.)gives opportunities on a daily basis to generalize the use of signs