Presentation on theme: "The Bureaucracy The Executive power is vested in the President."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Bureaucracy The Executive power is vested in the President. He is not constitutionally required to appoint any advisers or aids. However, the Constitution anticipates that he will – it says “he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive departments.”It also gives him the power to appoint (with Senate approval) public ministers, officers, and department heads.
2 The BureaucracyPresident George Washington created the Cabinet and with it, the bureaucracy.He appointed 4 advisers: a Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson), a Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton), a Secretary of War (Henry Knox) and an Attorney General (Edmund Randolph)Today there are 15 executive departments
3 The Bureaucracy The Executive Branch Departments in order of creation: State (1789)Defense (1789)Treasury (1789)Justice (1789)Interior (1849)Agriculture (1862)Commerce (1913)Labor (1913)Health & Human Services (1953)Housing and Urban Development (1965)Transportation (1966)Energy (1977)Education (1979)Veterans’ Affairs (1988)Homeland Security (2002)
4 The Bureaucracy Some famous Cabinets: Andrew Jackson relied on his “kitchen cabinet” of informal advisers rather than the agency headsAbraham Lincoln appointed the famous “team of rivals” to his Cabinet
5 The Bureaucracy Appointment Process Presidential nomination White House reviewPaperwork financial disclosureFBI investigationSenate confirmation hearingsSenate vote
6 The Bureaucracy Many Cabinet appointments have caused controversy: Timothy Geithner, taxes not paidGov. Richardson (Commerce) withdrew his name after scandal over selling state servicesHilda Solis (Labor), taxes not paidTom Daschle (HHS), taxes not paid
7 The Bureaucracy Features: In addition to the Cabinet, there is a large Federal bureaucracy that runs many aspects of our government.Features:1) Hierarchical authority2) Job specialization3) Formal Roles
9 The Bureaucracy Five Functions of Bureaucrats Implement the law Provide expertiseProvide research and information to the PresidentProvide research and information to CongressQuasi-judicial powers and responsibilities
10 The Bureaucracy History of the Bureaucracy The Whig Theory (1780s – 1828)The idea that public service was domain of an elite class.Families had a tradition of public service.The Spoils System (1828 – 1883)Andrew Jackson used government jobs or “patronage” to reward supporters and to remove elitists from the bureaucracy
11 The Bureaucracy History of the Bureaucracy The Civil Service System (1883 – Present)The Pendleton Act (Civil Service Reform Act of 1883) established the principle of employment on the basis of merit and created the Civil Service System to oversee the hiring and firing of government employeesCalls for “neutral” competence and expertiseUnder the New Deal, federal bureaucracy grew.Hatch Act, 1937, limited political behavior of civil servantsPost WWII - more expertise, more demands
12 The Bureaucracy Executive Office of the President 12 total agencies act as the Presidents right arm.The majority of the Presidents closest advisors work in the EOP.White House Office: President’s staff.National Security Council: Foreign affairs and national securityOffice of Management and Budget: Prepares the Federal budget.
14 The Bureaucracy Independent Agencies Some are housed in departments Administered by a presidential appointee with no fixed termResponsible for narrower set of functions than departmentSome are housed in departmentsSocial Security Administration is part of HHS, Coast Guard is part of TransportationOthers are independent of any departmentExamples include The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
16 The Bureaucracy Independent Regulatory Agencies and Commissions Independent of any department or agencyEach headed by a group of commissioners who are appointed by president to fixed terms and not subject to removal by presidentExample include the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
17 The Bureaucracy Government Corporations Permits organizations to use businesslike method and remain politically independentRun by boards of directors appointed by President to long termsExamples include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Student Loan Management Authority (SallieMae) and the U.S. Postal Service
18 The Bureaucracy Reasons for the growth of Federal Bureaucracy We have over 3 million federal bureaucrats paid for by the taxpayersIssues and problems require more expertise today because society and technology is so complexThe size of our nation in both geographic size and population leads to more bureaucratsAmericans demand more services from their government, requiring the use of more people to provide those government services
19 The Bureaucracy A few myths about Bureaucrats “They’re appointed by the President and can be fired by the President.”Only about 9,000 out of 3,000,000 civilians employees of the Federal Government are appointed by the presidentOf those, only about 3,000 – 5,000 could conceivably be fired by the President (unless they massively violate the conditions of employment – PATCO strike of August 1981)
20 The Bureaucracy “They’re just paper-pushers” Only about a half million government employees have characteristically bureaucratic positions such as clerk or general administratorThe government employs about 147,00 engineers and architects, 84,000 scientists, and 2,400 veterinarians“They all work in Washington DC”Only about 10% of government civilian employees work in Washington D.COnly about 22% of government employees work for the federal government
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