2The Changing “State” of Water Water exists in three states of matter:solid (ice)liquid (water)gas (steam/vapour).The primary factor that will ultimately determine what state water will take is the amount of energy each molecule contains.The more energy each water molecule possesses the more rapidly it can move.When molecules are moving quickly enough the chemical attraction that they have to each other is no longer sufficient to hold them together.
3The Changing “State” of Water There are several phase changes that can occur depending upon whether energy is being added or removed.Requires more energy during the phase changes to change water from one state to another than is required for almost any other type of molecule.
4The Drying PieHumidity, airflow and temperature directly affect the state in which water exists and the rate in whichthe change occurs.The process requires restorers to change liquid water into vapour (evaporation).Water vapour must be removed from the buildingDehumidificationby changing the vapour to water by cooling itAir exchangeventing the moisture laden air out of the building and bringing in air from outside.
5Air movementFacilitates evaporation by removing the boundary layer of humid air from around the wet surface.Lowering the vapour pressure at the surfaceThe more moisture a material contains the faster the water will evaporate.Greater evaporation rates require more airflow to maintain the lower vapour pressure across the surface.As materials dry less air flow is required. WHY?
6Air movementRoad block - Large amounts of air movement creates two problems.Air movement creates thermal loss (cools down).Cooler air and cooler surface materialsLess energy is transferred to the moisture moleculesNot sufficient energy to make the phase change to escape the material.Large quantities of air movers create a lot of heat energy (BTUs).In theory the heat created by the air movers aids in the drying process as the heat energy is transferred to the water moleculesBTUs created by the air movers can generate temperatures above 32 degreesoutside of the efficient operating ranges of refrigerant dehumidifiers.
7HumidityDehumidification is used to remove moisture from the air lowering the vapour pressureEquipment used to create air movement can continue to facilitate moisture evaporating from the wet structure or contents.
8HumidityRoad block – Limiting the temperature to the limitations of the dehumidifier hinders the evaporation rate.By raising the temperature, relative humidity is reduced, increasing the ability of the air to hold more moisture. (Increasing thirst).Above 32 degrees the dehumidifier does not have enough capacity to reduce the temperature of the incoming air to dew point.hence condensation on the dehumidifier coils.Large amounts of air movement equipment can create a lot of heat.
9HumidityAs the amount of water in the structure decreases and the vapour pressure becomes lower the efficiency of the dehumidifier is also reduced.Lowering the temperature of the incoming air closer to 20 degrees towards the end of the job ensures the dehumidifier can achieve the required temperature drop to achieve dew point.But it is in this phase additional energy in the form of heat accelerates the drying process.Common ways to control temperatures:use the building air conditioning systeminstall portable air conditioning systemsreduce or increase the amount of air moverstemporarily use cooler air from outside the structure (commonly called burping).use a controlled heating drying system to control heat and humidity ….. Drymatic.lower temperature cause the water to freeze condenser coils, dehumidifier goes into to defrost cycle.
10Temperature (Heat)Two main conclusions that can be drawn from researchAt the beginning of the drying process where there is a lot of free water not bound in the materials, a 10°C temperature increase causes a doubling of the evaporative rate.Equivalent to doubling the amount of air movers.Following this towards the end of the process where evaporation is decreased due to water being bound in the materials the terminal drying rate increases rapidly with increases in temperature.Heat gives the water the energy required to make the phase change from water to vapour.
11Temperature (Heat)Road block – Simply heating up the structure with heaters ensures vastly faster evaporation rates.Uncontrolled heat and fast evaporation can lead to overdying, differential drying or drying too fast.Knowledge and technology required to understand how much heat and how to control it is now available.Drymatic!
13Three Phases of Drying Phase 1 - Removal of Liquid Water - Extraction significantly affect the amount of drying equipmentthe time required to return the building and contents to equilibrium moisture content.Effective extraction will also ensure less destructive methods of restoration are required.Phase 2 - Surface DryingSurface drying of carpet underlay and surface water from building materials such as timber and concrete.Phase 3 – Drying of Structural MaterialsDrying of water bound in materials.Different methods, knowledge and tools are required to get the energy required to the bound water to ensure phase change.
15ExtractionEffective removal of standing water will significantly affectThe amount of drying equipment andthe time required to return the building and contents to equilibrium moisture content.Effective extraction will also ensure less destructive methods of restoration are required.
16ExtractionThe greater the air flow and vacuum pressure, the more effective that equipment will beTruckmounted equipment has significantly higher airflow and vacuum pressure is more effective in removal of standing water.Specialised portable flood extraction equipment that uses shorter hose lengths and larger diameter hoses (2 inch) can be effective.Portable equipment exhaust air should be vented outside of the building.Small vacuums such as shop vacs or wet vacs and domestic vacuums do not provide adequate power for effective extraction.
17Extraction ToolsA weighted compression can use heavy weights or as a stand on machine and works on the principle of extracting/pushing the water out of the underlay through the carpet and into the extraction machine.A vacuum sealed (water claw or equivalent) can be used with truckmount and portable extraction equipment.As the vacuum sealed tool requires water to create the vacuum sealRecommended to first extract with the tool to remove as much water as possible from the underlayCompleting extraction with a conventional carpet cleaning wand.
18Extraction ToolsA conventional carpet cleaning wand is not efficient at removal of water from carpet underlay.Where specialised extraction tools are not utilised it is recommended the carpet underlay is removed.A carpet cleaning wand is effective for extraction direct stick carpets.Extraction test to gauge the effectiveness of extraction on carpet
19Extraction Tools To ensure adequate extraction from hardwood flooring install wood floor panels and attach them to a truck mount or portable flood extractor for up to a hourPrior to installation of Injectidry, interair.This process ensures as much of the standing water from below and from between the boards is removed prior to beginning the process of attempting to remove the bound water.
20Air movementAir movers are used to facilitate evaporation by removing the boundary layer of humid air from around the wet surface.Air movers rapidly supply dryer air directly to the wet surface and thereby lowering the vapour pressure at the surface which facilitates faster evaporation.Secondly air movers are used to manage air movement around the structure.Air management eliminates the need to use equipment in all affected areas.Used to manage air pressure, humidity, and temperature or air quality.
21Different types of air movers Traditional carpet dryerscommonly referred to as air movers or blowers.3/4 hp motor, more static pressure.Static pressure is used by air movers to lift carpet,With accessories used to duct air into small spaces such as wall cavities and under cabinets and under hardwood flooring.
22Different types of air movers Low amp air moverssmaller than ¾ hp, lower air movement and lower static pressure.The advantage of using low amp air moversmore air movers can be used on one circuit whilst generating large volumes of CFMgenerating less heat than traditional carpet dryer air movers.Used in less destructive restoration processeswhere excess heat generation will affect the performance of dehumidifiersWhere power supplies are limited.
23Different types of air movers Low pressure axial fansused to move large volumes of air with lower amp draw.drying long surfaces and open areas and carpets.not useful for pushing air into cavities and through duct work.The advantage of using low amp air moversmore air movers can be used on one circuit whilst generating large volumes of CFMgenerating less heat than traditional carpet dryer air movers.Used in less destructive restoration processeswhere excess heat generation will affect the performance of dehumidifiersWhere power supplies are limited.
24Different types of air movers High pressure ventilating fansused with ducting to move large volumes of air.used to generate strong positive or negative air pressuresused to manage air pressure, humidity, temperature or quality.Specialty air movement equipment air mover adaptors used to inject air flow under cabinets, into wall and ceiling cavities and under hardwood flooring.
25Different types of air movers Low Volume High Pressure Air Movement systemsInterair Drying System or Intectitdryused when more pressure is needed but air volume is less important.They can be setup in either positive pressure or negative pressureused to dry cavities such as under cabinets, wall cavities and under hardwood flooring.100 CFM and produce up to 60 inches of static pressurestandard air mover typically produces inches of static pressureSince cavities have a small volume of air space the low CFM of the unit is effective in drying.Pressure is the main focus of the system.A large amount of pressure is required to push or pull air through lengths of tubing, through walls or other cavities or pull air through floor board cracks and crevices.
26Different types of air movers. Direct air drying systems and heat boostersspecialised Direct Air Drying wall and floor matt systemsconstant warm air stream can be directed at wet surfaceswarm air stream will quickly remove the boundary layer and promote fast and efficient evaporation
27To estimate the number of air movers required (conventional dehumidification) Determine the square meters and classDivide the square meters by the factors as followsClass 1:divided the square meters by 14, then divide square meters by 28Class 2 or Class 3:divide the square meters by 4.6, then divide square meters by 5.6The resulting number is the minimum and maximum range or air movers neededAdditional airflow may be required for offsets such as closets and bay windowsSpeciality air movers maybe required if sub surfaces require air flowThe number of air movers may need to be increased or decreased through out the drying process based on changes in the psychometric readings and moisture readings.
28Guidelines for placement of air movers using (conventional dehumidification) In a class 2 or class 3 water lossevery 3 – 4 meters along the wallAir mover are placed at a 15 to 45 degree angle facing the wallAir mover snout 2 – 3 cm of the wall but not touching itAll air movers in each area will face the same directionensure that air movers are creating a cyclone effect and not pushing against each otherThe positioning of air movers may need altered through out the drying process based on changes in the psychometric readings and moisture readings.
29Guidelines for number and placement of air movers (heat drying systems) Minimal air movement is requiredjust enough air movement to ensure warm air is circulated evenly around the structurehigh energy systems air movement must be enough to adequately ventilate the wet air from the building.
30DehumidificationDehumidification is used to remove moisture from the air so that the equipment, used to create air movement, can continue to facilitate moisture evaporating from the wet structure or contents.A balanced drying system is achieved when the rate of dehumidification exceeds the rate of evaporation.Conventional RefrigerantLow Grain RefrigerantDesiccant
31Conventional refrigerant dehumidifiers Air temperatures between 18 and 32 degreesMinimum specific humidity of 65 grains per pound.Used for class 1 water loss situations such as drying wet carpet and underlay.Conventional dehumidifiers perform very well for class 1 water loss situationsnot suitable for drying structural building materials.
32Low Grain Refrigerant Dehumidifiers (LGR) Low grain refrigerant dehumidifiers (LGR) achieve higher efficiency by incorporating a pre cooling stage which provides the dehumidifier with precooled air to process.work most efficiently with air temperatures between 18 and 32 degreesminimum specific humidity of 35 grains per pound.LGRs are recommend for most water loss situations including drying of some more porous structural components.all brands all makes and models performance can be improved by managing air temperatures.Higher temperature with a maximum temperature of 30 degrees is optimal at the beginning of the job where high humidity existsgradually lowering temperatures to a minimum of 20 degrees is optimal towards the end of the job where lower humidity exists.
33Low Grain Refrigerant Dehumidifiers (LGR) Common ways to control temperaturesuse the building air conditioning systeminstall portable air conditioning systemstemporarily use cooler air from outside the structure (commonly called burping)Where additional heat is required to increase temperature thermostat controlled convection heat dry systems such as Drymatic can be used.When comparing dehumidifier capacity and performance look at the AHAM rating not the total daily capacityplus look at the performance of the dehumidifier in LGR conditions of specific humidity of 35 – 65 gpp)
34Dri-Eaz LGR 7000 Easily outperformed it’s closest competitor and AHAM Under LGR conditions outperformed the competition by as much as 40%.Advanced Crossflow Technology to maximize energy utilizationPlus - Built-in sensors constantly monitor real time performance data to automatically calculate ideal operating parameters – such as fan speed and cycle duration.
35Desiccant Dehumidifiers As usually only 75% of the process air is returned to the structure negative air pressure is usually created in the structure.Care to ensure the quality of the makeup air entering the structure.achieve a very low specific humidity of 10 grains per poundefficient at drying structural components such as hard wood floors and wall cavities.Capacity of desiccant dehumidifiers is expressed in the volume of air that can be processed per hour either CFM or CMH of the process air exiting the dehumidifier.High volume desiccant dehumidifiers are very good at structural drying as they produce large volumes of warm dry air.
36To estimate the number of dehumidifiers required to start the job Determine volume of air (L x W x H)Note the capacity of the dehumidifiersAHAM litres per day rating of the refrigerant/LGRProcess air out cubic meters per hour (CMH) of the desiccant.Determine the classification of water lossClass 1, Class 2, Class 3 or Class 4
37Dehumidification Factor Table Class 1Class 2Class 3Class 4UnitsConventional Refrigerant62.41.8N/ACubic meters per litreLGR32.8Desiccant12Air exchanges per hour
38Refrigerant/LGRCubic meters ÷ Dehumidification factor = AHAM Litres requiredDivide the AHAM litres required by the AHAM litres of the units to be installed to get the minimum number of units required to start the jobround up
39DesiccantCubic meters x Dehumidification factor = CMH required to start the jobDivide the CMH required by the CMH of the process out air of the unitsround up
40Dehumidification Factors A guide for the minimum dehumidification equipment required to ensure a dehumidification exceeds evaporation.i.e. a balanced drying systemAfter initial setup dehumidification may need to be increased or decreased based on changes in the psychometric readings and moisture readings.Relative humidly should not linger above 60% for any length of time.If it does… inadequate extraction or not a closed drying chamberWith adequate extraction relative humidity of 40% or below should be achieved within the first 24 hoursIf it does… inadequate extraction, not close drying chamber, or recalculate dehumidification required
46Understanding Thirst Adding 10 degrees at the beginning 40% x 167.5% = 67% thirstincreases the thirst of the air by 167.5%Adding 20 degrees at the beginning40% x 200% = 80% thirstincreases the thirst of the air by 200%100% - 33% = 67% Thirst100% - 20% = 80% Thirst
48Understanding Thirst Adding 10 degrees at the end 60% x 126.7% = 76% thirstincreases the thirst of the air by 126.7%Adding 20 degrees at the end60% x 143.3% = 86% thirstincreases the thirst of the air by 143.3%Adding 30 degrees at the end60% x 155% = 93% thirstincreases the thirst of the air by 155%100% - 7% = 93% Thirst100% - 14% = 86% Thirst100% - 24% = 76% Thirst
49Why can’t I raise the temp of the job when using a dehumidifier? Temperature drop required by the dehumidifier to reach dew point (condensation on the coils)20 deg – 6.5deg = 13.5 degAdding 10 degrees it still below 30 deg so the dehumidifier should still work right?30 deg – 6.5deg = 23.5 degThe dehumidifier does not have enough capacity to achieve the temperature drop required to reach dew pointAbout 18 degrees does not mater which make model or brandDew Point
50Why does the dehumidifier not work efficiently below 18 degrees? Temperature drop across the coils of 18 degrees18 degrees in the room minus 18 degrees across the coils = zeroWater freezes at zeroDehumidifiers goes into defrost cycle, starts up again, minimal time goes into back into defrost cycle again… and so onWater freezes at zero degrees
51Heat Drying Equipmenttwo main conclusions that can be drawn from researchat the beginning of the drying process where there is a lot of free water not bound in the materials, a 10°C temperature increase causes a doubling of the evaporative rate.towards the end of the process where evaporation is decreased due to water being bound in the materials the terminal drying rate increases rapidly with increases in temperature.  C. Hall, W. D. Hoff M. R. Nixon, Water Movement in Porous Building Materials VI. Evaporation and Drying in Brick and Block Materials; Building and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp , 1984
52Heat Drying EquipmentThe installation of air moving and dehumidification equipment in phase 3 of the drying regime will continue to assist in the evaporation of the surface and subsurface moisture,the use of air movers and dehumidifiers alone have limited ability to decrease the drying times of structural building materials where water is bound in difficult to dry wet hardwood, concrete, tile and brickwork.Introducing heat energy and better interaction of the equipment and using target drying attachments increases the efficiency of standard drying equipment. Hence, drying times can be significantly reduced.
53High Energy SystemsUse an external source of energy which operates by heating outside air over ceramic plates or in ovensheated by using propane/butane.Hot air is driven into the building by fans which is used to create a very hot environment as the lower vapour pressure within this hot air stream generates faster evaporation within the higher vapour pressured materialsMoist warm air is continually flushed from the building.
55High Energy SystemsRequires more consistent monitoring to stop excessive drying taking placeThere can be thermal stress on the surface of delicate materials due to the low specific humidity of the air passing over the surface creating fast surface drying without transfer of energy to the moisture within the material.
56High Energy Systems Particularly good for drying subfloors. Air movement out of the sub floor area must exceed the air movement into the sub floor area to ensure negative air pressure in the space.Ensure no cross contamination of the rest of the building from air borne particulate or contaminants from within the sub floor area.To heat the inside the building the air movement used to “flush” the structure should be enough to create neutral or slightly positive air pressure.Thermostat controls to turn air movers on and off work well in this application.
57Convection SystemsConvection Systems heat air by electrical element or by heat exchange systems which usually use a heated glycol solution.Gradually increase the temperature of the room increasing the ability of the air to hold more moisture allowing faster evaporation.Gradually heat the surfaces and materials that are wet, which in turn increases the rate of evaporation.Heating elements fuelled by electricity and are less expensive to run than the high energy or heat exchange systems.
58Convection SystemsHeating up the air within the room increase the ability of that air to allow more evaporated moisture into it by reducing its relative humidityWarm air rising and cool air falling in the room creates gentle air movement across the wet surfacesWet air has to be removed and be replaced with drier airSystems use an air exchanging method, where the warm wet air in the room is periodically flushed to the outside and pre heated fresh air from outside or preconditioned drier air from unaffected areas is pumped in to replace it.
59Drying Intelligence - Drymatic The Drymatic’s unique operation is based upon it’s evaluation of the humidity and temperature of the room to be dried and then operating in the mode that provides maximum drying effect.in ‘re-circulation’ mode tales air from within the room being dried and continually re-heating it until pre-set temperature and humidity levels have been reached.These settings can either be determined by the technician or the default settings of the machine.It then switches automatically to ‘exhaust mode’ warm wet air is extracted from the from the room and replaced with an equal amount of fresh pre-heated air from an unaffected area
61Drying Intelligence - Drymatic Adding controlled heat to the environment speeds up the drying process by promoting evaporation of moisture from the wet structure and contents.Increasing the ambient temperature allows the air to take on a higher water vapour content, which is then removed out of the property.Within limits defined by the user, the Drymatic will monitor and adjust the room’s environment, constantly optimising and exchanging the moist air with warm, dry air in a controlled manner to remove odours and ensure a faster, fresher and more efficient drying environment.
62Drying Intelligence - Drymatic Sensors can be used to specify a drying goal based on a known ‘dry’ material ensuring that the property is not over-dried or under-dried.The infra-Red sensors communicate with the machine and enable the user to track the progress of specific walls/floors/ceilings within a room.Optional On-Board SMS Text Messaging Facility can communicate with a drying technician to notify them of any important events during the job.
63Drymatic Boost Box2 kilowatt heating system gradually reaches its set temperature over a set period of time depending on which setting it is ondesigned to use in line with existing air moving equipment and dehumidifiers, as a standalone heating system, as an external boost for the Drymatic or to heat up the air entering a Drymatic Floor & Wall Systemoperating dial is set with these settings:DADs System - maximum 30 degrees, (works at this temperature setting in conjunction with dehumidifiers at the beginning of the drying process)Boost for Drymatic - maximum 40 degrees,Auxiliary Heater - maximum 50 degrees.Also the 10 amp system allows the use of an airmover on standard domestic electrical circuits without causing any problems.The airmover plugs into the boost box, so that the intelligent drying system can switch the airmover on and off as required.
64Drymatic Boost Box10 amp system allows the use of an airmover on standard domestic electrical circuits without causing any problems.the airmover plugs into the boost box, so that the intelligent drying system can switch the airmover on and off as required.4 RH% sensors can be used.One of the sensor sockets is for a control measurement (dry standard)the other 3 are for sensors to be placed in the wet areas.Air mover and boost automatically turns of when dry standard is reached and maintained
65The Drymatic Floor & Wall System Allows hot air to be directed onto the surface of a wet material and this air turbulence prevents the build up of a static boundary layer and therefore increases the evaporation rate of the material.inflated by standard air-movers and using the hot air generated by the Drymatic into the intake of the air-moveror by the “Boost box” in-line with a standard air mover.The versatility of the Drymatic Floor & Wall System allows for target drying to surfaces with the addition of thermal energy (heat) being directed onto those wet areas, thus increasing evaporation.
66To estimate the number of Drymatics required to start the job As a general rule of thumbdepending on the amount of moisture present in the structure, and the potential for thermal loss.Large windows, lots of wet contentsDetermine the number of large LGR dehumidifiers required to start the job from the above table and divide by three.The calculation gives you the number of dramatic systems requiredadd boost boxes and drying mats to compensate for wetter materials and thermal loss or to target dry wetter areas.Install minimal air movers to ensure adequate circulation of warm air through the structure.The circulation of air coming in and out of the drymatic is typically enough for most rooms.
67Combination Drying Systems Can be used to enhance performance of heat drying systems.dehumidification can be used to precondition air from an unaffected area prior to heatingdehumidifiers can be used in effected areas in initial stages of drying provided the temperature of the air within the structure is controlled and does not exceed the effective operating range of the dehumidifier (maximum 32 degrees).
68Combination Drying Systems Advanced heat drying systems monitor temperature and humidity.Systems that do not have pre-set temperature or humidity controls are required to be set up with air movement to continually flush hot wet air from the buildingor air movers that are thermostatically controlled to flush warm wet air from the building.
69Combination Drying Systems Less air movement is required when using heat drying systems.Evaporation created by larger amounts of air movement directed across a wet surface causes thermal loss.Typically air movement used in heat drying is used to gently circulate warm air around the structure and heat wet surfaces.Low amp air movers set on low speed are best suited for this purpose
70Direct Fired Heating Systems Direct fired heating systems, such as direct fired LPG burners are not recommended.Heat exchanger systems ensure combustion by-products and moisture created by burning fuels are separated from the heated air used to dry the structure.
71Thermal LossSetting up heat drying systems can at times be bit more complex than traditional drying using dehumidifiers and air movers.Many water loss situations require thought about how the system should be set up to ensure maximum efficiency.Target heating a smaller area is much more efficient than attempting to heat up the whole structure.The use of tenting or containment to contain the heat to only areas that are wet will greatly improve the efficiency of the heat drying system.Particular care must be taken to evaluate where heat can be lost from the drying envelope.Large amount of wet contentsCold surfaces such as large uninsulated glass doors and windows.Tiled bathrooms that are not wet should be isolated.
72Air Filtration Devices Commonly referred to as air scrubbers, negative air machines or HEPA filters.Air movement used to create evaporation create high levels of air borne particulates and possible contaminants reducing air qualityOccupants and contractors are at risk of significant discomfort from the reduced air quality.very young, elderly, occumpanyts have respiratory illnesses such as asthma, or are immune compromised.In these cases AFDs are required.Carbon or odour adsorbing material filters can be used to reduce odours and VOCs (volatile organic compounds) or MVOCs (microbial volatile organic compounds) often found in water loss situations.AFDs can be used to manage air pressure on water loss situations where there is potential to spread possible contaminants such as mould and bacteria.Isolating areas and creating negative air pressure in areas that are potentially contaminated is required.CADR (clean air delivery rate) is expressed in CFM or CMH and is the amount of actual clean air delivered by the unit after filtration.
73Guidelines for the quality of AFDs required to be installed: Determine volume (L x W x H)Determine the number or air exchanges per hour (AEH) required4 to 10 air changes per hour depending on the level of contaminationCubic Meters x AEH = CMH/CADRround up
74AFDs and Heat Drying Equipment An additional benefit to using heat drying equipmentExchange moisture laden air with fresh air from outside the structure or preconditioned air from an unaffected area.The process of air exchanges greatly increases the quality of air within the structure
75Target DryingTenting - dry and or hot air, delivered under a polythene envelope to create a microclimate on the surface of the damp material
76Target Drying Matts use a process of impingement drying Air directed on to the surface is more effective than air blown across the surface.The main reason for the improved effectiveness is that the turbulence prevents the build up of a static boundary layer that can insulate the surface from the drying medium.
77Target DryingSide by Side - using wall drying matt, a constant hot air stream can be directed at a wet wall to which the impingement method of the air stream will quickly remove the boundary layer and promote fast and efficient evaporationWater bound in materials above and around the mat will be draw to the warm dry areas. Wet goes to dry
78Target DryingInjectidry or Interair delivers air through small holes into building voids to release trapped moistureEither force air into or suck the moisture laden air out of the voids.Useful for drying behind gyprock.When sucking from wall cavities HEPA filtration attachments on the exhaust of the equipment is required
79Drying Timber FloorsInjectidry or Interair air used in suction mode on timber floors to create very low vapour pressure at the surface of the floors boards.High pressure air movers with specialized attachment are used to push air under hardwood flooringUsed in combination with heat drying systems this equipment is very effective
92Problems with differential drying Problems can arise where wood is dried from one side only, as this can sometimes cause distortion to occur.An example is when a wooden floor or wood panelling is dried from the surface only. At first the surface becomes dry and the underside remains damp.The surface shrinks and the underside remains swollen, causing the boards to dip or “cup” in the centre.Often this will flatten when the whole board dries, but sometimes this distortion will be permanent, ruining the item and requiring replacement.This problem can be avoided by introducing dry air to both sides of the material to even up the process.
96Installation Procedure Air from outsideor preconditioned air from an unaffected areaAir to OutsideHeater Outlet Optional
97System Set-Up Step One – Connect Power Step Two – Insert Data Card (skip if not using)Step Three – Switch OnStep Four – Error Code 0000Step Five – Reset Data Card (skip if not using)Step Six – Unlock and set dialsStep Seven – Starting up
98PracticalSetting up DrymaticSetting up Injectidry