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United Nations The United Nations is an international organisation of countries.

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Presentation on theme: "United Nations The United Nations is an international organisation of countries."— Presentation transcript:

1 United Nations The United Nations is an international organisation of countries.

2 Aims of United Nations It was created for the following reasons: There should be peace and security in the world after the Second World WarSecond World War Countries should be friendly with each other Countries should help each other solve problems Human rights should be respected everywhere in the world.

3 History After the Second World War the allied countries got together to discuss in which ways such an organization could be created. In 1945, 50 countries got together in San Francisco and signed an agreement that created the United Nations. The United States invited the new UN to set up its headquarters in New York. The building was finished in 1952 and has been the permanent seat of the UN until today.San FranciscoNew York

4 Membership Membership is open to all peace - loving nations. Today there are about 200 countries in the UN - only very few have not become members. Switzerland joined the UN in 2002 because the Swiss always wanted to be neutral.

5 The main parts of the UN The General Assembly The Security Council The Economic and Social Council The International Court of Justice The Secretariat

6 The main parts of the UN

7 United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moonTrygve Lie PresentFirst

8 Model United Nations Presentation by Shreyas Bindal Guidance by : Ms Priti Sable Source: CSIA

9 What is MUN? Model United Nations is an international relations simulation for students. At an MUN, delegates gain insight into the workings of the United Nations and understand the dynamics of international relations. They assume the roles of UN representatives and members of other international bodies and national cabinets. They mainly represent nations other than their own. They are given their committees and the agenda with the issues to be debated.

10 What is MUN? MUN is an exciting opportunity for students to debate issues that confront world leaders and to draft resolutions in response to these global issues. The students learn about the different problems faced by the other countries and develop ways and means to find a solution that would be acceptable to a majority of nations. This helps them to understand the importance of global unity and to work towards global peace.

11 Duties of Delegation Delegates should be prepared to represent their nation and have specific knowledge connectg to their committees agenda Respect chairs and other delegates Obtain the floor when they have been recognized by chair Yield the floor to chair when required to do so by chair

12 Typical use of vocabulary in MUN Delegate: The representative of a nation The Floor: The floor is the podium where delegates make speeches and answer questions The House: The committee is called the house To second: To agree with something Open debate: A debate where delegates may freely speak for or against a resolution Closed debate: A debate where the chair specifically designates time for or against a topic. This type of debate will usually be regarding an amendment.

13 Committee Session Roll Call All sessions start with a role call Delegates raise their placards and say present and voting If they miss the role call, they send a note to the chair to notify that they are present Opening Speech On the first day of session, each delegation is required to speak for one minute on its stance regarding one or more of the agendas

14 Things to do Once a nation and an agenda has been given, the delegate should research the nation and the issue. He/she should draft a policy statement which clearly puts forward the stance of the nation and its stand on the issue being debated. The next step is to draft a resolution.

15 Header on the Draft Resolution FORUM: (your committee) QUESTION OF: (the issue debated on) SUBMITTED BY: (the main submitter) CO-SUBMITTED BY: (the co-submitters) [you write all the preambulatory clauses here] [you write the operative clauses here] For a sample resolution

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17 Tips for writing resolutions A resolution should consist of long clauses and sub clauses if needed. It must be divided with preambulatory and operative clauses. Preambulatory clauses explain the background of the issues and arguments. Operative clauses tell the possible solutions for the issue. Each resolution must have operative clauses.

18 What do they look like? 1. You write a big idea (operative clause) a) Then you divide that idea into smaller units (sub-clause) i) and into even smaller units (sub sub clause)

19 Lobbying/Negotiation/Resolution Lobbying is trying to win as many nations as possible on your side to help your resolution to pass. This offers delegates an opportunity to merge, compromise and negotiate. A few number of co-submitters are required in order for a resolution to be debated. Co-submitting a resolution does not necessarily mean that you agree to the content of the resolution but that you agree to debate on it. After writing resolutions, submit them to the chairs and they will fix the format and grammar of the resolution. The resolution will then go to the approval panel for a final check.

20 Written Communication Delegates may communicate during the debate through note paper. Chairs and admin staff have the right to screen and confiscate any notes if necessary. No note passing regarding personal matters that are irrelevant to debate. DO NOT use any other language than English to communicate.

21 How a notepaper looks

22 Beginning of Debate The chair declares a new debate The main submitter then reads out his operative clauses The chair will entertain points of clarification and set the debate time The main submitter will then make a speech The chair will entertain points of information The speaker may yield the floor to the chair or to another delegate (yielding is only allowed once between delegates) Continue with open debate

23 Speech/Points of Information Only the delegates who have been recognized by the chair have the right to take the floor and speak. The chair may limit the speaking time if necessary. The chair may also limit the number of points of information to be entertained if necessary. If the delegate is recognized by the chair to make points of information, they should stand up and ask in a question form.

24 Speech/Points of Information The speaker or the delegate asking the point of information may ask the chair to ask the delegate to rephrase his/her answer or question if unclear. If the delegate wants to ask a second question, he/she may ask the chair for a follow up. The chair may choose to grant the follow up or not depending on the time and necessity. Follow ups are allowed only once.

25 Motions/Points During the debate, delegates may suggest points or motions For a point to be recognized, the delegate has to be identified by the chair. A motion needs seconds to be entertained. If there is even one objection, it will be ignored. However, under all circumstances the chair can overrule any motion Motions and points cannot interrupt the speaker except for point of personal privilege regarding audibility.

26 Motions/Points Point of Clarification: directed at the delegate requesting information from the speaker regarding specific or unclear terminology used in the resolution, NOT regarding the content. Point of Information: directed to the speaker, pertaining to the content of the resolution. Only accepted if the speaker allows. May not interrupt the speaker.

27 Motions/Points Point of information to the chair: Question referring to anything that does not fall under the category of Point of Parliamentary Enquiry, Point of Order or Point of Personal Privilege. It is also a question asking for a statement by the Chair or clarification on an issue. May not interrupt the speaker.

28 Motions/Points Point of order: directed at the chair, regarding rules of procedure. May not interrupt the delegate. Point of Parliamentary Inquiry: directed at the chair, regarding rules of procedure. May not interrupt the speaker. Point of Personal Privilege: Directed at the chair, regarding personal comfort of the delegate. May interrupt only if the speaker is not audible.

29 Motions/Points Motion to extend debate time: asks to extend the debate time on a resolution Motion to move into previous question: asks to move into next procedure - When debating the resolution Voting procedure - When debating for an amendment Time against the amendment - When debating against the amendment Voting procedure on the amendment

30 Amendments Delegates must fill in an amendment sheet and submit it through admin staff for the chairs approval. An amendment can only be entertained after the approval of the chair when the submitter has obtained the floor Amendments help the resolution to pass by striking, adding or changing the operative/sub clauses Each amendment should modify only one clause.

31 Amendments Delegates may submit an amendment to the second degree which modifies the amendment submitted to the first degree. If the amendment to the second degree passes, the first will automatically pass. However, if it fails, the house will resume debate on the amendment to the first degree without any changes.

32 Voting Voting occurs to pass an amendment or a resolution Delegates should raise their placards to vote They may vote for, against, or abstain (remain neutral) Admin staff will count the number of votes.

33 Misc. Rules Please refrain from using unparliamentary or offensive language. Please refrain from using personal pronouns; refer to yourself and other delegates as delegate No sleeping or eating within the session If you need to use the bathroom, tell the chair by passing a note.

34 Some useful websites


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