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Major Earthquake in California By: Travis Holm. I believe a major earthquake in California will have the biggest impact on society within my lifetime.

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Presentation on theme: "Major Earthquake in California By: Travis Holm. I believe a major earthquake in California will have the biggest impact on society within my lifetime."— Presentation transcript:

1 Major Earthquake in California By: Travis Holm

2 I believe a major earthquake in California will have the biggest impact on society within my lifetime. –Travis Holm Figure 1. California earthquake introduction. Source: qJtw6ek/s400/california+earthquakes.jpg What is an earthquake? -- By definition an earthquake is a sudden movement of the earth's crust caused by the release of stress accumulated along geologic faults or by volcanic activity. ("Earthquake - definition,")

3 Epicenter located within about 100 miles of California Earthquakes with a 6.5 or larger magnitude Causes at least 1 loss of life Damages of more than $200,000 Major California Earthquake Definition: Using the above statistics: From the years 1700 – 2003 California has had 77 major earthquakes ("California geological survey," 2004) Of those 77 major earthquakes one stands out more than the rest: The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Figure 2. The 1906 Great San Francisco Earthquake. Source:

4 Said to be one of the more significant earthquakes of all time ("The Great 1906,") Occurred on 5:12 am - April 18, 1906 ("The Great 1906,") Ruptured the northernmost 296 miles of the San Andreas fault from northwest of San Juan Bautista to the triple junction at Cape Mendocino ("The Great 1906,") Epicenter near San Francisco ("The Great 1906,") The strong shaking lasted about 45 to 60 seconds ("The Great 1906,") The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Introduction: The quake was felt from southern Oregon to south of Los Angeles and inland as far as central Nevada ("The Great 1906,") The public mostly remembers the fires it created ("The Great 1906,") Magnitude of a 7.8 was registered ("California geological survey," 2004) Figure , Sacramento Street and approaching fire. Source:

5 San Franciscos population was around 400,000 ("Casualties and damage,") Estimated death total was over 3,000 ("Casualties and damage,") After the quake around 225,000 people were homeless ("Casualties and damage,") The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Casualties and Damage: Figure , Relief camp established by US Army. Source: Figure , Relief camp established by US Army. Source:

6 3 days after the earthquake caused more damage than the actual earthquake itself because of the numerous fires ("Casualties and damage,") The fires covered an area of 4.7 square miles ("Casualties and damage,") Total buildings lost = 28,188 ("Casualties and damage,") The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Casualties and Damage: Figure , Wreckage of buildings. Source: Figure , San Francisco Financial District. Source:

7 Estimated property damage from earthquake and fires of $400 million in 1906 dollars ("Casualties and damage,") $80 million damage from the earthquake alone ("Casualties and damage,") The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Casualties and Damage: Figure , Sacramento Street. Source: Figure , Grove Street. Source:

8 Scientists cannot predict when an earthquake will happen because earthquakes do not produce known warning signs, so estimates are imprecise and are based on models ("When will it,") Here are a few examples: For a repeat of the 1906 earthquake, the best models consist of two parts: Theory of plate motion and the accumulation of stress along a locked fault ("When will it,") Observations of past earthquakes on that fault and the rate the plates are now moving ("When will it,") Those models suggest it might take 200 years or more (starting 1906) for enough stress to accumulate for another great quake ("When will it,") Models for Hayward fault, Rogers Creek fault and the Peninsula section of the San Andreas fault suggest that smaller earthquakes (

9 Richter Magnitudes:Earthquake Effects: Less than 3.5Generally not felt, but recorded. 3.5 – 5.4Often felt, but rarely cause damage. Under 6.0At most, slight damage to well designed buildings. Can cause major damage to poorly constructed buildings over small regions. 6.1 – 6.9Can be destructive in areas up to about 100 kilometers across where people live. 7.0 – 7.9Major earthquake. Can cause serious damage over larger areas. 8 or greaterGreat earthquake. Can cause serious damage in areas several hundred kilometers across. Type and extent of damage estimated if a major earthquake happened again in California: Figure 10. Richter magnitudes and effects. Source:

10 A repeat of the famous 1906 earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area could result in 3,000 to 8,000 deaths, 8,000 to 18,000 serious injuries, and a total economic loss of $170 billion to $225 billion ("Casualty, damage estimates," 1996) A magnitude 7.0 earthquake on the Newport-Inglewood fault in the Los Angeles basin could result in 3,000 to 8,000 deaths, 11,000 to 20,000 serious injuries, and a total economic loss of $175 billion to $220 billion ("Casualty, damage estimates," 1996) Type and extent of damage estimated if a major earthquake happened again in California: A 1996 study showed: Figure 11. San Andreas Fault. Source: content/uploads/2010/04/san-andreas-fault-map1.jpg

11 Landslides and aftershocks can affect farming land, water sources, and sewage systems (Adams) Debris and waste disposal in the aftermath of a quake can cause another concern for human health and the overall environment (Adams) Human casualties and injuries as a result of a buildings infrastructure collapsing are concerns after a devastating earthquake (Adams) The earthquake impact on human life: Figure 12. Earthquake devastation. Source: Prieta2.jpg

12 Animal habitat and life is lost (Adams) An example was the Sichuan earthquake of 1976 in China of which 23% of the giant panda bear habitat was destroyed (Adams) Another example was an Alaskan earthquake in 1964 which uplifted the sea floor 33 feet destroying many marine organisms (Adams) Tsunamis can be triggered during a earthquake resulting in fish and other sea life habitats disturbed and possibly even killed (Adams) The earthquake impact on animal life: Figure , Giant Panda Reserve destroyed. Source: earthquake-china-sichuan-wolong-reserve.jpg

13 In northern California scientists fear that if a devastating earthquake happened, Redwood trees may be lost in huge numbers (Adams) Mudslides wipe away plants and topsoil, depleting the soil of nutrients for plant growth and burying vegetation ("Wenchuan earthquake mudslides," 2009) The earthquake impact on plant life: Figure 14. Redwood trees. Source: content/uploads/2009/10/Redwood-Tree.jpg Figure 15. Mudslide in Brazil buries a hotel. Source: reuters.jpg

14 State of the art earthquake warning systems give only a few seconds warning before a quake strikes in which these systems detect P-waves, the fastest moving seismic waves released during a quake ("Early warning system," 2008) QuakeGuard is a proven earthquake early warning system from Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (based in Scotts Valley, CA) that provides an early warning through advanced, patented P-wave technology ("Earthquake early warning,") It detects the early signs of an earthquake, provides an automated, programmable response through alerts, alarms or automated system controls ("Earthquake early warning,") Provided to commercial, industrial and government markets for seismic risk mitigation projects, new builds and seismic retrofits ("Earthquake early warning) In Japan, the earthquake warning systems are more highly developed because the government spends a significant amount of money to build them (Weiss, 2007) Mexico, like Japan have large offshore earthquakes that allow for longer warning times (Weiss, 2007) Earthquake warning/emergency systems: An earthquake warning system is a system of accelerometers, communication, computers, and alarms that is devised for regional notification of a substantial earthquake while it is in progress. ("Earthquake warning system,")

15 In 2007, the Japan Meteorological Agency launched the most advanced early warning system to date, which provides alerts through media outlets and Internet applications when an earthquake is detected (Pittman, 2010) Such systems are also established in Turkey, Mexico City, Romania, and Taiwan (Pittman, 2010) There are more than 3,000 seismic instruments located in California (Pittman, 2010) The system currently being developed and tested in California called the California Integrated Seismic Network ShakeAlert System needs about 100 more additional seismic detection stations to fully utilize this new early warning system (Pittman, 2010) It will cost around $80 million to install additional seismic stations, create a control center and run the entire operation for five years (Pittman, 2010) This prototype period will be over in 2013, and then the delivery methods will be thought of, possibly like the systems used in Japan (Pittman, 2010) Although I believe there needs to be more done as far as developing emergency/warning systems for earthquakes, cost is a major factor and even the best warning systems cannot prevent the damage that will occur Earthquake warning/emergency systems:

16 In Port-au-Prince, Haiti the poor state of construction indicates that when the next large earthquake strikes, it will be a catastrophe (Yeats, 2010) Construction practices can help deal with many concerns, such as fault rupture, ground shaking, liquefaction, landslides and potential tsunamis and in combination with education and an effective social response network make an enormous difference in saving lives (Ashford, 2010) Earthquake resistant design requires good materials and attention to detail, like hooking rebar to prevent columns from buckling or installing shear walls (Ashford, 2010) As the science of earthquakes, fault behavior, and construction techniques continue to improve, its apparent that many cities face enormous risks they are probably not prepared for (Ashford, Strauth, & Yeats, 2010) Are we adequately prepared to cope with a major earthquake? There is a tremendous difference in the effects of an earthquake in a developed country and in the developing world. (Yeats, 2010)

17 Kabul, Afghanistan: sits near the active Chaman fault; little attention is paid to earthquake risks; millions of people living in ruins that would collapse during a major earthquake potentially killing more than 100,000 (Ashford, Strauth, & Yeats, 2010) Karachi, Pakistan: lies in an area where 3 tectonic plates meet; population of more than 15 million; large areas of poorly constructed buildings; government assessment of earthquake risk is moderate (Ashford, Strauth, & Yeats, 2010) Caracas, Venezuela: several major cities are located on or near active faults in Venezuela; building practices are poor (Ashford, Strauth, & Yeats, 2010) Kingston, Jamaica: located astride a tectonic plate boundary; suffers repeated earthquakes; more than 1/3 of the Jamaican population; the death toll from a major earthquake could be huge (Ashford, Strauth, & Yeats, 2010) Are we adequately prepared to cope with a major earthquake? Definite areas of major concern: In the developed world, we have to reach out to people in these nations, help them to better understand and accept the risks they face, and prepare for them. (Yeats, 2010) In the U.S. weve made progress, but in the Pacific Northwest were still not adequately prepared for the major earthquake we expect on the Cascadia Subduction Zone. (Yeats, 2010)

18 Federal disaster relief programs are designed to help people get partly back on their feet but not replace everything you lose ("Putting down roots," 2005) FEMAs responsibility is to respond to, plan for, and mitigate disasters ("Putting down roots," 2005) The primary form of disaster relief is low-interest loans to eligible individuals, homeowners, and businesses made available through the Small Business Administration (SBA) to repair or replace damaged property and personal belongings not covered by insurance ("Putting down roots," 2005) The maximum SBA personal-property loan is $40,000, and the maximum SBA real- property loan for primary home repair is $200,000 ("Putting down roots," 2005) FEMA disaster grants for emergency home repairs and temporary rental assistance are only available to individuals and households who do not qualify for loans ("Putting down roots," 2005) The average FEMA grant is less than $15,000, the maximum is $26,200 ("Putting down roots," 2005) The Farm Service Agency (FSA) offers loans to assist agricultural businesses ("Putting down roots," 2005) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA):

19 The American Red Cross has been the nation's premier emergency response organization founded in 1881 ("About Us -,") The American Red Cross distinguishes itself by aiding victims of devastating natural disasters among many other things ("About Us -,") The American Red Cross has more than half a million volunteers and 35,000 employees ("About Us -,") Some four million people give blood annually through the Red Cross, making it the largest supplier of blood and blood products in the United States ("About Us -,") The American Red Cross: *click image for more information on the American Red Cross Figure 16. American Red Cross. Source: content/uploads/2010/01/american-red-cross.jpg

20 Californias population is around 37 million, more than 12% of the US population (McIntyre, 2010) Californias GDP is nearly 14% of the nation (McIntyre, 2010) A major quake in Los Angeles or San Francisco could cost tens of thousands of lives and shut down a large part of the U.S. economy (McIntyre, 2010) A blow to the nations GDP during this fragile state of recovery could drive the country back into recession (McIntyre, 2010) A major catastrophe would certainly stunt Californias economic activity which is over $2 trillion each year (McIntyre, 2010) A number of sources determined that the costs of an earthquake in San Francisco measuring the same size and hitting the site of the famous 1906 disaster would reach $390 billion (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Thats nearly 25% of the U.S. governments deficit for the current fiscal year (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Insurance consultant RMS estimates that the value of exposed property in the area prone to a major quake is nearly $2 trillion dollars (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Perhaps the most expensive and problematic type of destruction would be the city's utility network, which includes the power grid, telephone lines, sewer systems, and broadband connections to almost every resident and office building in the 19 county region (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Financial and other implications of a major earthquake in California:

21 More potential losses in a major quake include business opportunity costs from closed offices and reduced patronage and tourism, relocation expenses, and wage losses (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Homeowners and renters insurance policies do not cover losses related to earthquakes ("Putting down roots," 2005) A separate earthquake insurance policy is a way to help protect your home ("Putting down roots," 2005) Earthquake insurance helps with additional living expenses in the days and weeks after earthquakes ("Putting down roots," 2005) Only 12% of California homeowners carry earthquake insurance (Wedner, 2010) Water may be in short supply ("Putting down roots," 2005) Natural gas and electric power may be out for days or weeks ("Putting down roots," 2005) Telephone, Internet, cell phone, and wireless communications may be overloaded or unavailable ("Putting down roots," 2005) Bank operations may be disrupted, limiting access to cash or ATMs ("Putting down roots," 2005) Grocery, drug, and other retail stores may be closed ("Putting down roots," 2005) Financial and other implications of a major earthquake in California: Just some of many situations you may face when an earthquake strikes….. WILL YOU BE PREPARED?

22 There is no consistency in the rhythm of the stock market after tragedies (Obourn, 2010) After the 2004 Tsunami, the Dow made no major changes (Obourn, 2010) The Stock Market: Dow Jones Performance After Major U.S. National Security Events: Event & Date:% Change for the Day: Terrorist Attack 9/11/ % Oklahoma Bombing 04/19/ % WTC Bombing 02/26/ % Operation Desert Storm 01/16/914.57% Panama & Noriega 12/15/ % Reagan Shot 03/30/ % Vietnam Conflict 02/26/ % Kennedy Assassination 11/22/ % Pearl Harbor 12/07/ % Figure 17. Dow Jones Performance. Source:

23 Army Corps of Engineers for inspecting and repairing the many bridges in the California area (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Estimates of this are around $60 billion (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Telephone, electrical, gas, and waste management companies would benefit from such an event because almost all of it would have to be rebuilt from the ground up (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Estimates of this are around $30 billion (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Any other companies that repair airports, levee, and reservoir systems (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Estimates of this are around $60 billion (Mcintyre & Sauter, 2010) Road and housing construction, plumbers, engineers, carpenters, and skilled laborers contracted for the rebuilding phase would certainly profit from a major earthquake Industries that might profit from a major earthquake:

24 Check for hazards in the home ("Fema: what to,") Fasten shelves securely to walls ("Fema: what to,") Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections ("Fema: what to,") Identify Safe Places Indoors and Outdoors ("Fema: what to,") Under sturdy furniture such as a heavy desk or table ("Fema: what to,") Against an inside wall ("Fema: what to,") Educate Yourself and Family Members ("Fema: what to,") Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas, electricity, and water ("Fema: what to,") Have Disaster Supplies on Hand ("Fema: what to,") Flashlight and extra batteries, sturdy shoes, essential medicines ("Fema: what to,") First aid kit, food, water, non-electric can opener, cash and credit cards ("Fema: what to,") Develop an Emergency Communication Plan ("Fema: what to,") Help Your Community Get Ready ("Fema: what to,") Provide tips on conducting earthquake drills in the home ("Fema: what to,") What to do before an earthquake: Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently and without warning. Identifying potential hazards ahead of time and advance planning can reduce the dangers of serious injury or loss of life from an earthquake. Repairing deep plaster cracks in ceilings and foundations, anchoring overhead lighting fixtures to the ceiling, and following local seismic building standards, will help reduce the impact of earthquakes. ("Fema: what to,")

25 While Indoors: Drop to the ground, take cover, hold on and stay inside until shaking stops ("Fema: what to,") Stay away from glass windows, outside doors and walls and anything that could fall ("Fema: what to,") Stay in bed if you are already there, protect your head with a pillow ("Fema: what to,") While Outdoors: Stay there, move away from buildings, streetlights and utility wires ("Fema: what to,") Once in the open, stay there until shaking stops ("Fema: what to,") While in a moving vehicle: Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle ("Fema: what to,") Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires ("Fema: what to,") While trapped under debris: Do not light a match, move about, or kick up dust ("Fema: what to,") Cover your mouth with clothing and tap on a pipe or wall to alert others ("Fema: what to,") Shout only as a last resort as you may inhale dangerous amounts of dust ("Fema: what to,") What to do during an earthquake: Stay as safe as possible during an earthquake. Be aware that some earthquakes are actually foreshocks and a larger earthquake might occur. Minimize your movements to a few steps to a nearby safe place and if you are indoors, stay there until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe. ("Fema: what to,")

26 Expect aftershocks ("Fema: what to,") These secondary shockwaves are usually less violent than the main quake but can be strong enough to do additional damage to weakened structures and can occur in the first hours, days, weeks, or even months after the quake ("Fema: what to,") Listen to a battery operated radio or television ("Fema: what to,") Open cabinets cautiously ("Fema: what to,") Stay away from damaged areas ("Fema: what to,") Be aware of possible tsunamis if you live in coastal areas ("Fema: what to,") Help injured or trapped people ("Fema: what to,") Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline or other flammable liquids immediately ("Fema: what to,") Inspect utilities ("Fema: what to,") Check for gas leaks ("Fema: what to,") Look for electrical system damage ("Fema: what to,") Check for sewage and water lines damage ("Fema: what to,") What to do after an earthquake:

27 Bibliography 1906 san francisco earthquake. (n.d.). Retrieved from About Us - american red cross. (n.d.). Retrieved from 0030f3870aRCRD&vgnextfmt=default Adams, A. (n.d.). The Environmental impacts of earthquakes. Retrieved from environmental-impact-of-earthquakes/ Ashford, S., Strauth, D., & Yeats, R. (2010, March 8). Tale of two earthquakes offers lessons for other major cities. Retrieved from California geological survey - regional geologic mapping program. (2004, March). Retrieved from Casualties and damage after the 1906 earthquake. (n.d.). Retrieved from Casualty, damage estimates of great quakes revised upward. (1996, January 10). Retrieved from Early warning system for earthquakes: seismic 'stress meter' warned of earthquake 10 hours in advance. (2008, July 10). Retrieved from Earthquake - definition of earthquake. (n.d.). Retrieved from Earthquake early warning from seismic warning systems. (n.d.). Retrieved from Earthquake warning system. (n.d.). Retrieved from Fema: what to do after an earthquake. (2010, February 24). Retrieved from

28 Bibliography Fema: what to do before an earthquake. (2010, February 24). Retrieved from Fema: what to do during an earthquake. (2010, February 24). Retrieved from McIntyre, D.A. (2010, February 27). How much would a California earthquake hurt the economy?. Retrieved from Mcintyre, D.A., & Sauter, M.B. (2010, April 19). The $390 billion san francisco earthquake. Retrieved from Obourn, N. (2010, January 15). The Stock market rises after haiti earthquake. Retrieved from Pittman, E. (2010, April 12). Earthquake early warning systems coming to california. Retrieved from Putting down roots in earthquake country. (2005). Retrieved from Richter magnitude. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Great 1906 san francisco earthquake. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wedner, D. (2010, January 27). Earthquake insurance: is it worth it?. Retrieved from Weiss, T.R. (2007, April 20). Researchers look to devise earthquake-warning system. Retrieved from Wenchuan earthquake mudslides emit greenhouse gas. (2009, March 3). Retrieved from

29 Photographs (Figure 1). [California earthquake introduction]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 10, 2010, from (1906, Figure 2). [The 1906 Great San Francisco Earthquake]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 10, 2010, from (1906, Figure 3). [Sacramento Street and approaching fire]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 10, 2010, from (1906, Figure 4). [Relief camp established by US Army]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 10, 2010, from (1906, Figure 5). [Relief camp established by US Army]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 10, 2010, from (1906, Figure 6). [Wreckage of buildings]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 10, 2010, from (1906, Figure 7). [San Francisco Financial District]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 11, 2010, from (1906, Figure 8). [Sacramento Street]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 11, 2010, from (1906, Figure 9). [Grove Street]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 12, 2010, from (Figure 10). [Richter magnitudes and effects]. Retrieved May 15, 2010, from (Figure 11). [Californias San Andreas Fault]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 15, 2010, from content/uploads/2010/04/san-andreas-fault-map1.jpg

30 Photographs (Figure 12). [Earthquake devastation]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from (2008, Figure 13). [Giant Panda Reserve destroyed]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from (Figure 14). [Redwood trees]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from content/uploads/2009/10/Redwood-Tree.jpg (Figure 15). [Mudslide in Brazil buries a hotel]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from (Figure 16). [American Red Cross]. [Online Image]. Retrieved May 23, 2010, from content/uploads/2010/01/american-red-cross.jpg (Figure 17). [Dow Jones Performance]. Retrieved May 23, 2010, from rises-after-haiti/

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