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Chapter 9 Review. Bureaucracies split up the executive duties of the government. For instance, the Department of Defense manages war-related issues while.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Review. Bureaucracies split up the executive duties of the government. For instance, the Department of Defense manages war-related issues while."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Review

2 Bureaucracies split up the executive duties of the government. For instance, the Department of Defense manages war-related issues while the Department of the Treasury keeps track of our debt. In the 1880s, the bureaucracy was smallcomposed of a mere three departments. Back then, employees of these departments (also known as bureaucrats) were chosen by elected officials as political favors in a scheme known as the spoils system. However, President Garfield changed this by pushing for the Pendleton Act which required public officials to pass exams in order to be hired. This gave birth to a new system known as the merit system. WHATS A BUREAUCRACY?

3 Any branch of the Federal Bureaucracy can be divided into one of four categories: POWER SPLITTING A cabinet department Independent regulatory agency Government corporation Independent regulatory commission

4 In the 1930s, people became worried about the effect government workers could have on elections. So in 1939 the Hatch Act was passed which barred all government workers (from Post Office employees to bureaucrats in the White House) from participating in political campaigns. It wasnt until 1993 that the Federal Employees Activities Act lifted these restrictions. Today, federal employees are only prohibited from campaigning while on the job. GOVERNMENT WORKERS

5 There are fifteen cabinet departments. Examples: Department of the State, Department of the Treasury, Department of Defense, Department of Justice, Department of the Interior, Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Labor, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Department of Transportation, Department, Department of Education, Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Homeland Security. CABINET DEPARTMENTS

6 Government corporations (as the name implies) are businesses established by the federal government. They function as any private business would, only their revenue goes on to fund other areas of the government. Government corporations are usually made in response to a failing or much needed sector of the economy. For instance, Amtrak was created in response to the sustained decline of private passenger rail services in the United States from about 1920 to Other examples of government corporations include, FDIC and the Tennessee Valley Authority or TVA. GOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS

7 Independent executive agencies are much like cabinets but have a narrower focus and usually provide services instead of regulatory functions. Examples include the Central Intelligence Agency and the Environmental Protection Agency. NASA used to be an independent executive agency until it was privatized in INDEPENDENT EXECUTIVE AGENCIES

8 These commissions were created by Congress to exist outside of the Cabinets to regulate specific aspects of the economy. These commissions include The Federal Reserve, The National Reserve Relations Board, and the Federal Communications Commission. INDEPENDENT REGULATORY COMMISSIONS Advertising regulation Bank regulation Consumer protection Cyber-security regulation Financial regulation Food safety and food security Noise regulation Nuclear safety Minerals Occupational safety and health Public health Regulation and monitoring of pollution Regulation of acupuncture Regulation of nanotechnology Regulation of sport Regulation of therapeutic goods Regulation through litigation Telecommunication Vehicle regulation Regulation of ship pollution in the United States Regulation and prevalence of homeopathy Regulation of science Wage regulation Areas

9 To understand how bureaucracies function in context, heres an iron triangle. The iron triangle displays the relationship between Congress, Bureaucracies, and Interest Groups. Bureaucracies are supported by the money allotted to them by Congress, Interest Group lobbyists. In turn, the bureaucracies support lobbyists through favors and Congress by executing their policies. THE IRON TRIANGLE


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