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Reality, Surrealism, and Clay Mrs. Fuller, Instructor Ionia High School 2011-12 Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali.

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Presentation on theme: "Reality, Surrealism, and Clay Mrs. Fuller, Instructor Ionia High School 2011-12 Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reality, Surrealism, and Clay Mrs. Fuller, Instructor Ionia High School 2011-12 Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali

2 I CANs: Beginning Ceramics Students Create a handbuilt vessel (Dreamhead) of slab clay construction Create two wheel-thrown bowls to donate to Empty Bowls Create one wheel-thrown cylinder shaped pot with a handles Create one wheel-thrown bowl to keep Understand and use proper ceramics vocabulary Describe ceramics in terms of principles and elements Identify and properly use clay tools and supplies Explain concept development and artistic process in writing Identify and explain Surrealism and clay tools, medium, and processes verbally and in writing Describe artistic influences (Salvador Dali and the Surrealists) and how they affect personal work Participate in Service Learning Participate in art exhibit

3 I CANs: Advanced Ceramics Students Create a handbuilt vessel (Dreamhead) of slab clay construction Create two wheel-thrown bowls to donate to Empty Bowls Create one wheel-thrown cylinder shaped pot with a handle Create one wheel-thrown bowl to keep Create a wheel-thrown mug with a handle Create an additional wheel-thrown personal piece. Can be a an additional vessel, bowl, or plate/platter. Can make a lidded piece Understand and use proper ceramics vocabulary Describe ceramics in terms of principles and elements Identify and use clay tools and supplies properly Explain concept development and artistic process in writing Identify and explain Surrealism and clay tools, medium, and processes verbally and in writing Describe artistic influences (Salvador Dali and the Surrealists) and how they affect personal work Participate in Service Learning Participate in art exhibition

4 Surrealism defined Surrealism is a cultural movement and artistic style that was founded in 1924 by André Breton. Surrealism style uses visual imagery from the subconscious mind (like dreams) to create art without the intention of being logical. The movement was begun primarily in Europe, centered in Paris. The Surrealist Movement was influenced by the psychoanalytical work of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Some of the greatest artists of the 20th century became involved in the Surrealist movement including Giorgio de Chirico, Man Ray, Marc Chagall, and René Magritte. The Surrealist movement eventually spread across the globe, and has influenced artistic endeavors from painting and sculpture to pop music and film directing. The greatest known Surrealist artist is the world famous Salvador Dali.

5 Born on May 11, 1904, Salvador Dali i Domenech would become one of the worlds most recognized surrealist artists. Raised by his lawyer/notary father and a mother who encouraged her artistic son, Dali grew up in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain. He was told by his parents that he was the reincarnation of his older brother, Salvador, who died just nine months before Dalis birth. Following the death of his mother to breast cancer in 1921, Dali moved to the student residences at the School of Fine Arts in Madrid. He spent several years studying there. Shortly before his graduation, he was expelled for declaring that no one on the faculty of the school was competent enough to examine him. By 1931, Dali had collaborated on a short film with Surrealist director Luis Bunuel; illustrated a book called The Witches of Liers, a poem written by his friend and classmate Carles Fages de Climent; met his muse and future wife Gala; and painted arguably his most famous work The Persistence of Memory. He had officially joined the Surrealist group in Paris. Dali was admired by the Surrealist community of artists. When Salvador Dali openly supported the regime of Francisco Franco following the Spanish Civil War, he showed interest in what he referred to as the Hitler phenomenon he became an outcast among his fellow artists. Many of his fellow Surrealists referred to Dali in past tense, indicating their feeling that he was dead to them. He was a prolific writer during this time, and continued producing his art. In 1940, Dali and Gala moved to the United States, and it was during this time that Dali reclaimed his Catholic faith. In 1942, Dali wrote his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dali. He asked an Italian monk to perform an exorcism on him in the late 1940s. In exchange for the exorcism, he presented the friar with a sculpture of Jesus Christ on the cross, which was not discovered until 2005. Although they had been married civilly in 1934, Dali and Gala were married in the Catholic Church in 1958.

6 In the late 1940s, Dali and Gala returned to Spain. Dali continued a prolific career in art, being one of the first artists to use holography and taking great inspiration from his Catholic faith and the events of the day, including the bombing at Hiroshima. From this time period, two of Dalis most famous works, Hallucinogenic Toreador and La Gare de Perpignan were created. Dalis work was used in advertising campaigns, most notably for Chupa Chups candy and Lanvin chocolates, and he became fascinated by DNA and the hypercube, which can be seen in some of his later work. King Juan Carlos of Spain bestowed upon Dali the title Marquis of Pubol in 1982. By this time, Dali was seriously ill, having been given unprescribed medicine by his senile wife Gala. The medications damaged Dalis nervous system and gave him Parkinsons like tremors in his hands. Gala died in 1982, leaving the stricken Dali devastated. He was brought back to Figueres in 1984 by friends who felt a deliberate dehydration of the artist and a fire in his bedroom were suicide attempts. On January 23, 1989, Salvador Dali, known for his contributions not only to Surrealism, but also to fashion, theatre, and photography, died from heart failure. He is buried in a crypt at his Teatro Museo de Figueres, just steps from his childhood home. Hallucinogenic Toreador by Salvador Dali

7 Click here to see Surrealist works by Salvador Dali and Max Ernst: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUGwqm7 Q-vo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUGwqm7 Q-vo For a different feeling Surrealist artist, go here for a glimpse into Marc Chagalls paintings: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q7- 6uECx3DE&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q7- 6uECx3DE&feature=related

8 Clay : particles of decomposed rock combined with water to create a flexible body which is then fired in a kiln to fuse the particles back into a stone-like state. STAGES OF CLAY Slip : A thick and creamy mixture of clay and water used to join clay parts together or to decorate the surface. It is applied before firing, when the clay is still wet. Leather-hard : Clay that has been allowed to dry slightly, making it stiffer and able to support its weight, but can still be worked on and have parts attached. Greenware: Formed clay that has not yet been fired. This is the stage just before it goes into the kiln for the first time. Bisque : The first firing for the clay, removes all of the water, (both actual and chemical) and carbon, The fusing of the particles has begun, yet the clay is still porous to allow for glaze absorption. It can no longer be recycled. Glazeware : The second firing of the clay with a coating of glaze upon its surface, it is fired to a higher temperature than bisque and therefore fuses the particles into a solid, non-porous state called vitrtification. CERAMIC DECORATION Glaze: A mixture of powdered ceramic materials clay, glass, and colorants in suspension with water. It is applied to bisqueware and then re-fired to a higher temperature (usually). Glaze is used to decorate, protect and make the ware food-safe. Do Not apply glaze to the bottom surface of the work or the any part that may rest upon or touch the kiln shelf. HANDFORMING TECHNIQUES Coil: A building technique utilizing long "ropes" of clay stacked in layers upon one another to create a vessel or form. Pinch: The process of starting with a ball of clay, inserting your thumb and "pinching" the clay between your thumb and fingers, gradually expanding and thinning into a form. Slab: Using thin sheets of clay to build a structure, the sheets can be either rolled or stretched out. They can be manipulated while plastic and formed around molds (Soft Slab) or when used leather-hard and have the form constructed from shapes cut from the sheet (Hard slab). Mold : A form used for support and shaping of the clay, usually made of paper, clay or plaster. Soft slabs are draped on top or slumped inside and allowed to get leather hard and then built upon or cut and shaped further. Clay can be pressed into plaster molds with a design carved or cast into a negative space and then popped out and attached. CLAY WORKING TERMINOLOGY Score: Scoring clay is also a method potters use to adhere two pieces of clay together. Simply use any pointed utensils, like a pen, pencil, toothpick, or clay tools to make X shaped marks into the clay where you will be adhering another piece. This helps hold the two pieces of clay together while you work. It breaks up the surface area of the clay, which is needed for a good adhesion between the two pieces. Slip: Slip is another name for clay glue. Potters create their own slip by adding water to clay. Simply painting on some water with a brush or their finger helps glue pieces of clay together. You do not want to make a watery product, simply add a thin small amount of water to the surface of the clay. Repeat on the second piece of clay and work them together.paintingwork Weld: Joining two pieces of clay together by scoring, slipping, and blending the edges until they become one for life. Vessel: A hollow container such as a bowl or vase.

9 KILNS AND FIRING TECHNIQUES Kiln: A furnace made of refractory (non-melting) materials constructed to fire clay. They are usually fueled by electricity, gas or wood, but may also be fired using coal, oil, manure or even old tires. Cone: A pyrometric cone is a triangular shaped piece of ceramic materials carefully formulated to melt at a specific temperature. They are placed in the kiln t monitor and determine kiln temperature. Oxidation: A kiln atmosphere which contains oxygen; electric kilns are always an oxidation firing. PARTS OF A CLAY VESSEL Mouth: the opening Neck: Usually narrower part of the vessel that leads from the mouth to the body Body: Main part of vessel. Usually the largest part Foot: The part of the vessel that rests on a stable surface. Supports the rest of the vessel.

10 Clay Tools 1. 2. 3. 7. 6. 5. 4. 1.Sponge 2.Rib 3.Wide Ribbon Tool 4.Narrow Ribbon Tool 5.Needle Tool 6.Wooden Shaping Tool 7.Wire Tool to remove pots

11 DREAMHEAD CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENTS 1. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT: Though its exciting to get your hands in the clay and start building, the CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT stage is very important. Your IDEA is what LEADS your design. Spend time developing your concept. Look at works by Surrealist artists for inspiration. Your work should be designed around an ACTUAL DREAM you have had while sleeping, or a fantasy or goal you can clearly visualize and conceptualize. 2. WRITE your dream in words. You may discover hidden elements that will enhance your concept and design. Try to put your dream into VISUAL LANGUAGE. Try to make it come to life by describing in terms of COLOR, SMELL, SOUND, TASTE, and TEXTURE. In other words, use your senses. 3. Try to incorporate FEELING or EMOTION in your concept development. Explore how the dream makes you feel. Even if you can break it down to the basic four: Glad (Happy), Mad (Angry,) Sad, Bad (Anxious, Guilty) DRAW sketches of your concept after you have written your dream in words. Even if you think your drawing skills arent great, you can develop your concept in drawings. Simple is actually better than complex at this stage. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT POINTS: UP TO 20 (REQUIRED BEFORE MOVING TO NEXT STAGE) Must include: 1. Written description of your dream using visual language (use five senses and emotion) 2. Descriptive sketch.

12 HANDBUILT DREAMHEAD CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS DREAMHEAD MUST: Be constructed using slabs Must have part of the façade (surface of the vessel) be made from a slab shaped using your PLASTER FACE CASTING as a drape mold Must include at least three dream ELEMENTS (physical objects from the dream) suspended above the vessel itself. These Dreamhead elements must be lightweight enough to be suspended on wire without falling over Suspension above the DREAMHEAD must be by wire and must have holes or devices that are easily accessible on the inside of the vessel large enough to accommodate shrinking of the clay and the size of the wire All parts must be scored, slipped, and welded securely so they are a permanent part of the vessel Must include at least two textures If your Dreamhead is a wall hanging, it must have a means of hanging built into the structure. (Place to thread a lace or wire) Your name must be incised (written into) the clay surface in an unobtrusive area that is visible to anyone who sees it, but it does not distract from the design CONSTRUCTION POINTS: UP TO 100 MUST INCLUDE ALL OF THE ABOVE REQUIREMENTS

13 HOW TO MAKE THE PLASTER CAST OF YOUR FACE Materials: bucket of warm water, Vaseline, 1 wide plaster gauze cut into strips, plastic clothing covers, pencil. INSTRUCTIONS Gather materials Work in partners or teams of three Move as much hair out of the way as you can Apply Vaseline to all of face, especially eyebrows and any facial hair Begin with an X with wet strips across the bridge of the nose-do three layers Smooth all plaster by moving your fingers along the wet areasthis will help the cast to dry more quickly Apply three layers around perimeter of facedo not wrap gauze around curve of chinkeep it on the front planes of the face Fill in all areas of the facethree layers everywhere Avoid eyes and nostrils Fold over strip to do the part of the nose between nostrilsdo at least three layers Smooth all areas, then wait until dry enough to remove Have Mrs. Fuller help you remove the mask Write name on inside of mask with pencil

14 DREAMHEAD POLISHED WRITING COMPONENT Each Dreamhead must be submitted with a polished written version of your Dream. Here is an example: Chaotic Breakfast By Corey Shotwell One morning I awoke to find myself very hungry. I got out of bed and went to the kitchen expecting my parents to be making breakfast, but they werent. I decided I was hungry enough to attempt to make my own meal. I got the frying pan out and sat it on the counter. I did the same with the waffles and bacon. I started to get cold so I went to my room to get a blanket. I returned to find the items I had put on the counter going berserk and ruining the kitchen. I ran toward them and attempted to settle them down. My attempt failed, and the frying pan hit me in the eye. I ran from the kitchen and out the door to see if there was anything in the garage that I could use to stop them. I got a shovel, but when I tried to open the door I found that it was locked! It was very cold outside. I felt my lips turning blue. I went in throught the back door to find everything in place and back to normal. I wondered if I was going crazy. You will receive a form upon which you will write your final polished Dream. You will submit this with your finished ceramic piece. POLISHED WRITING COMPONENT POINTS: UP TO 25 POINTS MUST HAVE THE FOLLOWING: A Title A beginning, middle, and end Your name Complete sentences Correct spelling

15 WHEEL THROWING CORRECT WHEEL THROWING METHOD FOR BASIC CYLINDER THAT CAN BECOME A POT, BOWL, OR MUG Clay is well prepared: Wedged and cared for using plastic bags when needed. Stored properly in the wet cabinets. Take the mound of clay up and down until it is uniform. Center the clay. Open the clay. Pull open to the size you want. Pull up. Repeat pulls for uniform thickness from bottom to top. Create your shape by pulling out or in, depending on desired outcome. Smooth the edges. Trim and design collar. Clean the bottom edge. Pull wire across the bat to remove the pot. Flood bat for hydroplane. Remove pot. How to throw a basic bowl: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6IaAFfADDV4&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6IaAFfADDV4&feature=related

16 WHEEL THROWN REQUIREMENTS ALL ARTISTS Each piece MUST have constructed foot Each piece MUST have artists name incised on the bottom Each EMPTY BOWLS piece MUST be stamped with the Empty Bowls STAMP BEGINNER ARTISTS up to 100 points possible Create two wheel-thrown bowls to donate to Empty Bowls Create one wheel-thrown cylinder shaped pot with a handles Create one wheel-thrown bowl to keep ADVANCED ARTISTS up to 100 points possible Create two wheel-thrown bowls to donate to Empty Bowls Create one wheel-thrown cylinder shaped pot with a handle Create your choice of two of the following: Wheel-thrown bowl to keep Create a wheel-thrown mug with a handle Create an additional wheel-thrown personal piece. Can be a an additional vessel, bowl, or plate/platter. Can make a lidded piece

17 GLAZING REQUIREMENTS All pieces, both handbuilt and wheel-thrown, must be properly glazed Proper glazing includes: At least two coats of each color Glaze applied in smooth, even layers Leave bottom free of glaze Use appropriately sized brush for application HIGH QUALITY GLAZING CAN ADD UP TO 25 POINTS TO OVERALL SCORE

18 About Surrealism http://www.surrealism.org/ About Salvador Dali http://www.surrealism.org/dali.html Visual Inspiration-Dali and Ernst http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUGwqm7Q-vo Marc Chagall http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q7- 6uECx3DE&feature=related More about Dali http://greensurrealism.pbworks.com/w/page/158772 49/Salvador%20Dali Throwing a bowl http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6IaAFfADDV4&featu re=related

19 Visual Arts Standards Content Standard 1: All students will apply skills and knowledge to perform in the arts. ART.I.VA.HS.1 Apply materials, techniques, media technology, and processes with sufficient skill, confidence, and sensitivity that personal intentions are carried out in artworks. ART.I.VA.HS.2 Intentionally use art material and tools effectively to communicate ideas. ART.I.VA.HS.3 Apply organizational principles and functions to solve specific visual arts problems. ART.I.VA.HS.4 Be involved in the process and presentation of a final product or exhibit. Content Standard 2: All students will apply skills and knowledge to create in the arts. ART.II.VA.HS.1 Apply materials, techniques, and processes with sufficient skill, confidence, and sensitivity that personal intentions are carried out in artworks. ART.II.VA.HS.2 Create artworks that use organizational principles and functions to solve specific visual arts problems. ART.II.VA.HS.3 Describe the origins of specific images and ideas and explain why they are of value in their artwork and in the work of others. ART.II.VA.HS.4Apply and adapt subjects, symbols, and creative ideas in artworks and use the skills gained to solve problems in daily life. ART.II.VA.HS.6 Create media productions that demonstrate knowledge, contexts, values, and aesthetics.

20 Content Standard 3: All students will analyze, describe and evaluate works of art. ART.III.VA.HS.1 Analyze the effectiveness of selections in communicating ideas and reflect upon the effectiveness of choices. ART.III.VA.HS.2 Identify intentions of artists, explore the implications of various purposes, and justify analyses of purposes in particular works. ART.III.VA.HS.3 Describe how expressive features and organizational principles cause responses. ART.III.VA.HS.4 Reflect upon the characteristics and assess the merits of ones personal artwork. ART.III.VA.HS.5 Reflect and analyze the personal experiences that influence the development of personal artwork. Content Standard 4: All students will understand, analyze, and describe the arts in their historical, social, and cultural contexts. ART.IV.VA.HS.1 Reflect on how the subjects, ideas, and symbols of artworks differ visually, spatially, temporally, and functionally with respect to history and culture. ART.IV.VA.HS.2 Describe the functions and explore the meaning of specific art objects within varied cultures, times, and places. ART.IV.VA.HS.3 Analyze relationships of works of art to one another in terms of history, aesthetics, and culture, justifying conclusions made in the analysis and using conclusions to inform personal artwork.


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