Presentation on theme: "U.S. GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL"— Presentation transcript:
1 U.S. GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL andCore Concepts of the LEED Rating System
2 Outline: Why Build Green Environmental Impacts of buildings USGBC and the LEED Rating SystemLEED Core ConceptsCosts of Sustainable DesignContract Issues
3 What is Sustainable Design…? Design that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.Brundtland CommissionUnited Nations on March 20,1987This is a concept that is constantly evolving. Today’s best practices become tomorrow’s standard practices.Sustainable design strives to create a permanent shift in prevailing design, construction and operation practices toward lower-impact, more sustainable and ultimately regenerative built environments.
9 Great Pacific Trash Vortex Sustainable Design…Why?Great Pacific Trash Vortexan area of marine litter in the centralNorth Pacific Oceanat least the size of the state of Texashigh concentrations of plastics, chemical sludge, and other debris that have been trapped by the currents of the North Pacific Gyre
10 Sustainable Design…Why? De-forestationLoss of Habitat
19 They are where we spend as much as 90% of our time A high performance environment can yield valuable gains in labor productivity, retail sales, and manufacturing quality and output.A healthy indoor environment can reduce the likelihood of lawsuits and insurance claims. In Bloomquist v. Wapello (500 N.W.2d 1, Iowa, 1993), plaintiffs successfully sued employers and builders for creating an unsafe work environment due to inadequate ventilation and pesticide applications.
20 Energy efficiency buffers operating budgets from potential short- or long-term increases in energy prices.Green buildings can enhance asset value and profits.Green buildings typically sell or lease faster, and attract and retain tenants better because they combine superior amenity and comfort with lower occupancy costs and more competitive terms.Insurance companies are using climate change protection activities as a means to evaluate a company’s ability to manage risk and maintain profitability.
24 MA Green Building Initiatives: Federal Initiatives:Department of AgricultureDepartment of EnergyDepartment of Health and Human ServicesDepartment of InteriorDepartment of StateDepartment of Veterans AffairsEnvironmental Protection AgencyGeneral Services AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationSmithsonian InstitutionDepartment of Defense- U. S. Air Force- U. S. Army- U.S. NavyMA Green Building Initiatives:Art. 37: Green Buildings Boston Zoning CodeNew Energy CodeGreen Communities Act, enables Stretch Code adopted by over 100 cities and towns in MA
25 U. S. Green Building Council LEED Rating Systems Section 3U. S. Green Building Council LEED Rating Systems
29 - STAKEHOLDERS70 chapters, affiliates and organizing groups are the front door of USGBC across the U.S. Here’s where the work is delivered – in city halls, county commissions, zoning boards and permitting offices. Here’s where the network is forged that allows a single voice for green building to be shaped and used to move the transformation forward.From our rapidly growing emerging green builders network to our CEO Roundtables, Federal summits, NGO briefings, and member circles, we link common interests in ways that can advance the larger common good.Chapters: 59Affiliates: 6Organizing groups: 5
32 and Environmental Design Leadership in Energyand Environmental DesignDefines “green” by providing a uniform standard of measurementPrevents “greenwashing”Establish market value with recognizable national “brand”Raise consumer awareness and appreciationTransforms the marketplace!
33 Triple Bottom Line* PEOPLE PLANET PEOPLE – Social Equity – Health – Well beingECONOMIC PROSPERITYPLANET– Reduced environmental impact– Reduced energy consumption– Reduced carbon footprint– Reduced waste production– Reduced water consumptionPLANETENVIRONMENTALSTEWARDSHIPPEOPLERESPONSIBILITYSOCIALConsiders the performance of the project not only in terms of the investors, but in terms of the building occupants, their health and wellbeing, what they pay for utilities, how the building affects the local environment, whether it disrupts habitats, groundwater, all of these issues are considered from the point of view that this is good business.PROSPERITY– Increased return on investment– Reduced operating costs– Reduced absenteeism– Improved productivity*term coined by John Elkington, 1994
37 Five Main Categories of Credits 26Sustainable Sites (SS)10Water Efficiency (WE)35Energy and Atmosphere (EA)14Materials and Resources (MR)15Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
38 100 point scale 40+ 50+ 60+ 80+ Points projects attaining these total pointsachieve these levels of certification.Show SlidePoints3838
39 Sustainable Sites Site Selection Construction Activities Development DensityAlternative TransportationPreserve Open SpaceStorm water ManagementHeat Island EffectLight Pollution
40 Sustainable Sites Site Selection GOAL: Channel development to areas with existing infrastructure and community support, and away from virgin farm land, wildlife habitat, park land, wetlandsSo we’ve looked at all of the practices and types of sites that we want to avoid.Let’s now focus on positive selection criteria, things that are encouraged, that have a positive impact on the project.Increased DensityChoose Re-DevelopmentCommunity ConnectivityHabitat Preservation40
41 Sustainable Sites Alternative Transportation GOAL: Reduce pollution and development impacts of automobile useMass Transit AccessBicycling and WalkingCarpoolingLow Emitting and Fuel Efficient Vehicles
42 Sustainable Sites Stormwater Management GOAL: Limit the disruption of the natural hydrology, and reduce pollution due to stormwater runoffCaptured RainwaterLimit impervious coverRainwater capture, detention and re-use or re-introduction to groundRainwater harvesting provides an economical and environment friendly source of water for common activities such as flushing toilets, watering gardens and washing family cars – or any other purpose where non-potable water is sufficient. Installation of gray water systems can reduce normal water bills by up to 60%, while commercial installations may also attract tax benefits.42
43 Sustainable Sites Reduced Heat Island Effect GOAL: Minimize impacts of ‘Heat Islands’ on microclimates and human and wildlife habitatsUse light colored site materials - (high Solar Reflectance Index)Concrete or pavers rather than asphaltWhite roof, ‘green’ roof or EPA Energy Star roof rather than black roof43
44 Water Efficiency Water Use Reduction Water Efficient Landscaping Innovative Waste Water
45 Water Efficiency Water Use Reduction GOAL: Increase water efficiency to reduce the burden on municipal water infrastructureLow - flow water fixturesLavatoriesWater closetsUrinalsShower headsJanitor sinks
46 Water Efficiency Water Efficient Landscaping GOAL: Reduce or eliminate the use of potable water for landscape irrigationUse captured rainwaterIrrigation efficiencyRecycled gray waterXeriscape or native vegetation
47 Energy and Atmosphere Commissioning Refrigerant Management Energy PerformanceRenewable EnergyMeasurement & VerificationGreen Power
48 Energy and Atmosphere Commissioning GOAL: To verify that the project’s energy related systems are installed, calibrated and performing according to the owner’s project requirementsDesignate an independent Commissioning Agent early in the design processComplete commissioning process for HVAC, lighting and daylight controls, domestic hot water, and renewable energy systems
49 Energy and Atmosphere Optimizing Energy Performance GOAL: Increased level of energy performance to reduce environmental and economic impactsWhole building energy model as compared to baseline designPrescriptive Compliance path for smaller projectsANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA StandardASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guidelines
50 Energy and Atmosphere On-Site Renewable Energy GOAL: Encourage increased levels of on-site renewable energy generation to reduce the environmental and economic impacts of fossil fuel usePhoto-voltaic systemsWind Energy SystemsSolar Thermal SystemsBio-fuel SystemsGeothermal SystemsLow Impact Hydro
51 Energy and Atmosphere Green Power GOAL: Encourage development and use of grid-source, renewable energy technologies2-year renewable energy contract for 35% of the building’s electricity from renewable sources
52 Materials and Resources Collection of RecyclablesBuilding Re-UseConstruction WasteRecycled ContentRegional MaterialsRapidly RenewableCertified Wood
53 Materials and Resources Storage and Collection of RecyclablesGOAL:To reduce the amount of waste generated by building occupants that is disposed of in landfillsxxxxxxxProvide a dedicated area for the collection and storage of recyclable for the building.PaperCorrugated cardboardGlassPlasticMetals53
54 The LCA of a building is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of a building over its life. An LCA of a building includes environmental impacts due to:Extraction of materials and fuel used for energy;Manufacture of building components;Transportation of materials and components;Assembly and construction;Operation, including energy consumption, maintenance, repair, and renovations; andDemolition, disposal, recycling, and reuse of the building at the end of its functional or useful life.A full set of impacts includes land use, resource use, climate change, health effects, acidification, and toxicity.Life Cycle Analysis
55 What is life cycle analysis What is life cycle analysis? A life cycle assessment (LCA) is an environmental assessment of the life cycle of a product. An LCA looks at all aspects of a product’s life cycle—from the first stages of harvesting and extracting raw materials from nature, to transforming and processing these raw materials into a product, to using the product, and ultimately recycling it or disposing of it back into nature. The LCA of a building is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of a building over its life.An LCA of a building includes environmental impacts due to:Extraction of materials and fuel used for energy;Manufacture of building components;Transportation of materials and components;Assembly and construction;Operation, including energy consumption, maintenance, repair, and renovations; andDemolition, disposal, recycling, and reuse of the building at the end of its functional or useful life.A full set of impacts includes land use, resource use, climate change, health effects, acidification, and toxicity.Life Cycle Analysis
57 Materials and Resources Recycled ContentGOAL:Increase demand for building products that use recycled content materials, reducing the impacts of the extraction and processing of virgin materialsUse materials with recycled content at least 10% of the total value of the project materialsPre-consumer :Material left over from the manufacturing processFly ashSawdustWalnut shellsTrimmingsPost-consumer :Products salvaged at the end of their useful lifeGlass bottlesClothingCardboardPaperAluminum cansPlastic containers57
58 Materials and Resources Rapidly Renewable MaterialsGOAL:Reduce the depletion of finite raw materials by replacing them with rapidly renewable materialsAgricultural products (fiber or animal) that are grown or raised for harvest and can be rapidly replenishedFor LEED - defined as materials that can be harvested in less than 10 yearsNon- Rapidly Renewable:Oak flooringPolyester carpetPlywood sheathingVinyl flooringRapidly Renewable:Bamboo flooringWool carpetCotton insulation,Linoleum flooringWheatboard cabinetsStrawboard sheathingCork flooringBio-based paints58
59 Indoor Environmental Quality Indoor Air QualityEnvironmental Tobacco SmokeLow Emitting MaterialsLimit Chemical PollutionOccupant Control of SystemsLightingThermal ComfortDaylight and ViewsAcoustical Performance
60 Indoor Environmental Quality Productivity BenefitsImproved Occupant Performance– Potential for estimated $29 - $168 billion in national productivity gains per year.1– Student performance is better in day lit schools.2, 3Reduce Absenteeism and Turnover– Providing a healthy workplace improves employee satisfaction.Increase Retail Sales with Daylighting4– Studies have shown ~40% improvement.Footnotes:1. Fisk and Rosenfeld, 1998, “Improved Indoor Environment Could Save Billions of Dollars”2. Nicklas and Bailey, “Analysis of the Performance of Students in Daylit Schools,” Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC,3. Hathaway, Hargreaves, Thompson, and Novitsky, 1992, “A Study Into the Effects of Light on Children of Elementary School Age - A Case of Daylight Robbery,” Policy and Planning Branch, Planning and Information Services Division, Alberta Education, Canada.4. Heschong, 1999, “Skylighting and Retail Sales: An Investigation into the Relationship Between Daylighting and Human Performance,”60
61 Indoor Environmental Quality Carbon MonoxideCarbon DioxideFormaldehydeVOCsRadonPesticidesAsbestosHeavy metals In the U.S. people spend, on average, 90% or more of their time indoors*Dust and mitesPollen, SporesCleaning productsMold, MildewTobacco Smoke* EPA Green Building Workgroup,
62 Indoor Environmental Quality Environmental Tobacco Smoke ControlGOAL:Protect building occupants from undesired Tobacco smoke exposureProhibit smoking in the building or propertyorProhibit smoking except in designated areas that are designed to contain, capture and remove ETS from the building62
63 Indoor Environmental Quality Low emitting MaterialsGOAL:Reduce the quantity of indoor contaminants that are odorous, irritating and/or harmful to the comfort and wellbeing of installers and occupantsLow emitting materials standards include:Low VOC adhesives and sealants - SCAQMD VOC Limits - Jan 2007Low VOC paints and coatings - Green Seal Standard GS-11Carpets and rugs- Carpet and Rug Institute Green Label PlusHard Surface Flooring systems - Floor Score standardComposite wood and agrifiber - no added urea formaldehydeSouth Coast Air Quality Management District Rule VOCs
64 Indoor Environmental Quality Controllability of SystemsGOAL:Provide a high level of thermal comfort control by individual occupants or groups to promote their productivity, comfort and well-beingProvide occupant control of temperature and air movementThermostats, ceiling fans, operable windows, all provide some level of temperature , air movement or humidity controlsAir movement can greatly influence the temperature that is considered comfortable.
65 Indoor Environmental Quality Daylight and ViewsGOAL:Provide occupants with a visual connection to the outdoors through introduction of daylight and viewsProvide 25 fc of daylight through windows or skylights in at least 75% of regularly occupied spacesProvide a direct line of site to the outdoors for at least 90% of regularly occupied spaces
66 100 point scale 40+ 50+ 60+ 80+ Points projects attaining these total pointsachieve these levels of certification.Show SlidePoints6666
72 Sustainable Development Section 5Costs ofSustainable DevelopmentImpacts on:Fees for Design ServicesRegistration and Certification FeesConstruction CostsIncentives and long term benefits72
73 Fees for Design Services: LEED Design and Documentation ServicesEnergy Modeling ServicesCommissioning Fees73
74 Commissioning Fees: Third Party Engineering Service Costs are based on the size of the project and the complexity of energy related systemsCosts can range from $0.50-$2.00 / sf
75 Registration and Certification Fees USGBC LEED REGISTRATION FEESUSGBC Members: $900Non-Members: $1200CERTIFICATION FEESCombined Design & Construction ReviewLess than 50,000 sf , ,000 sf More Than 500,000 sfUSGBC Members $2, $0.045/sf $22,500Non-Members $2, $0.055/sf $27,50075
76 Construction Costs: Perception: Often based on the view of Sustainability as an added featureLife-cycle approach:Costs optimized over the life of the projectConsideration for the productivity of the occupants and the environmental costs.
77 Cost Analysis of Academic Buildings Analyzing the DataCost Analysis of Academic BuildingsCredit: Davis Langdon, “Cost of Green Revisited”, July 2007
78 Cost Analysis of Laboratory Buildings Analyzing the DataCost Analysis of Laboratory BuildingsCredit: Davis Langdon, “Cost of Green Revisited”, July 2007
80 Life Cycle Cost Analysis First Costs vs. Life Cycle Costs Credit: BOMA US Averages over 30 year period
81 Life Cycle Cost Analysis First Costs vs. Life Cycle Costs Credit: BOMA US Averages over 30 year period
82 Incentives and Long Term Benefits Incentives: Expedited Permitting ProcessDatabase of State Incentives for Renewables and EfficiencyUtility Rebates, Incentives and LoansState and Federal Tax Incentives, Credits and DeductionsFinancing OptionsGrant and Loan ProgramsUtility Costs SavingsProductivity BenefitsFulfillment of Corporate MissionIncreased Property ValuesReduced Cost of InfrastructureReduced taxes for all82
84 Contracting for LEED Design Services Example Green contract clauses:The LEED Rating System utilizes certain design and usability recommendations on a project in order to promote an environmentally friendly and energy efficient facility. In addressing these guidelines, the Design Professional shall perform its services consistent with the professional skill and care ordinarily provided by design professionals practicing in the same or similar locality under the same or similar circumstances.The Owner acknowledges and understands, however, that LEED is subject to various and possibly contradictory interpretations. Furthermore, compliance may involve factors beyond the control of the Design Professional including, but not limited to, the Owner’s use and operation of the completed project.It is recognized that neither the Architect nor the Owner has control over the USGBC and GBCI review and evaluation of the Project’s LEED Certification Application. Accordingly, the Architect cannot and does not warrant or represent that the LEED Certification Application will be approved by the USGBC and shall not be liable for consequential damages from the USGBC’s decision not to award Certification.
85 Energy Design Goals vs. Actual Energy Usage If the Owner’s program (Basis of Design) includes requirements for Project energy usage, the Owner MUST confirm the energy goals and usage in writing to the Design Professional.The Owner must recognize that the achievement of such goals or requirements is subject to operational, maintenance activities and other factors and decisions over which the Design Professional has no control.Therefore, the Design Professional shall use reasonable care in its design to achieve the energy usage goals or requirements but can make no warranty or guarantee regarding actual energy usage.
86 Agreements Required for LEED Registration and Certification
87 LEED 2009 Minimum Program Requirements 6. MUST COMMIT TO SHARING WHOLE-BUILDING ENERGY AND WATER USEAGE DATAAll Rating SystemsAll Certified projects must commit to sharing with USGBC and/or GBCI all available actual whole-project energy and water usage data for a period of at least 5 years. This period starts on the date that the LEED project begins typical physical occupancy….or the date that the building is awarded certification. Sharing this data includes supplying information on a regular basis in a free, accessible, and secure online tool * or, if necessary, taking any action to authorize the collection of information directly from service or utility providers. This commitment must carry forward if the building or space changes ownership or lessee.* EPA Energy Star Building Portfolio Manager