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Presentation on theme: "U.S. GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL"— Presentation transcript:

and Core Concepts of the LEED Rating System

2 Outline: Why Build Green Environmental Impacts of buildings
USGBC and the LEED Rating System LEED Core Concepts Costs of Sustainable Design Contract Issues

3 What is Sustainable Design…?
Design that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Brundtland Commission United Nations on March 20,1987 This is a concept that is constantly evolving. Today’s best practices become tomorrow’s standard practices. Sustainable design strives to create a permanent shift in prevailing design, construction and operation practices toward lower-impact, more sustainable and ultimately regenerative built environments.

4 Sustainable Design…Why?
Section 1 Sustainable Design…Why?

5 Sustainable Design…Why?

6 Sustainable Design…Why?
Global Warming

7 Sustainable Design…Why?
Peak Oil World Crude Oil Production Energy Fuels 2010, 24, 1788–1800 : DOI: /ef901240p

8 Sustainable Design…Why?

9 Great Pacific Trash Vortex
Sustainable Design…Why? Great Pacific Trash Vortex an area of marine litter in the central North Pacific Ocean at least the size of the state of Texas high concentrations of plastics, chemical sludge, and other debris that have been trapped by the currents of the North Pacific Gyre

10 Sustainable Design…Why?
De-forestation Loss of Habitat

11 Sustainable Design…Why?
Transportation Issues © The British Library Board

12 What do buildings have to do with these issues?

13 Environmental Impacts of Buildings
Section 2 Environmental Impacts of Buildings Comparative Impacts Potential Savings with Green Design




17 It’s an important topic because buildings have a huge impact on the environment. They tax our resources, they contribute to global warming,


19 They are where we spend as much as 90% of our time
A high performance environment can yield valuable gains in labor productivity, retail sales, and manufacturing quality and output. A healthy indoor environment can reduce the likelihood of lawsuits and insurance claims. In Bloomquist v. Wapello (500 N.W.2d 1, Iowa, 1993), plaintiffs successfully sued employers and builders for creating an unsafe work environment due to inadequate ventilation and pesticide applications.

20 Energy efficiency buffers operating budgets from potential short- or long-term increases in energy prices. Green buildings can enhance asset value and profits. Green buildings typically sell or lease faster, and attract and retain tenants better because they combine superior amenity and comfort with lower occupancy costs and more competitive terms. Insurance companies are using climate change protection activities as a means to evaluate a company’s ability to manage risk and maintain profitability.




24 MA Green Building Initiatives:
Federal Initiatives: Department of Agriculture Department of Energy Department of Health and Human Services Department of Interior Department of State Department of Veterans Affairs Environmental Protection Agency General Services Administration National Aeronautics and Space Administration Smithsonian Institution Department of Defense - U. S. Air Force - U. S. Army - U.S. Navy MA Green Building Initiatives: Art. 37: Green Buildings Boston Zoning Code New Energy Code Green Communities Act, enables Stretch Code adopted by over 100 cities and towns in MA

25 U. S. Green Building Council LEED Rating Systems
Section 3 U. S. Green Building Council LEED Rating Systems




29 - STAKEHOLDERS 70 chapters, affiliates and organizing groups are the front door of USGBC across the U.S. Here’s where the work is delivered – in city halls, county commissions, zoning boards and permitting offices. Here’s where the network is forged that allows a single voice for green building to be shaped and used to move the transformation forward. From our rapidly growing emerging green builders network to our CEO Roundtables, Federal summits, NGO briefings, and member circles, we link common interests in ways that can advance the larger common good. Chapters:  59 Affiliates:  6 Organizing groups:  5



32 and Environmental Design
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Defines “green” by providing a uniform standard of measurement Prevents “greenwashing” Establish market value with recognizable national “brand” Raise consumer awareness and appreciation Transforms the marketplace!

33 Triple Bottom Line* PEOPLE PLANET PEOPLE – Social Equity – Health
– Well being ECONOMIC PROSPERITY PLANET – Reduced environmental impact – Reduced energy consumption – Reduced carbon footprint – Reduced waste production – Reduced water consumption PLANET ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP PEOPLE RESPONSIBILITY SOCIAL Considers the performance of the project not only in terms of the investors, but in terms of the building occupants, their health and wellbeing, what they pay for utilities, how the building affects the local environment, whether it disrupts habitats, groundwater, all of these issues are considered from the point of view that this is good business. PROSPERITY – Increased return on investment – Reduced operating costs – Reduced absenteeism – Improved productivity *term coined by John Elkington, 1994

34 Section 4 LEED Core Concepts



37 Five Main Categories of Credits
26 Sustainable Sites (SS) 10 Water Efficiency (WE) 35 Energy and Atmosphere (EA) 14 Materials and Resources (MR) 15 Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)

38 100 point scale 40+ 50+ 60+ 80+ Points
projects attaining these total points achieve these levels of certification. Show Slide Points 38 38

39 Sustainable Sites Site Selection Construction Activities
Development Density Alternative Transportation Preserve Open Space Storm water Management Heat Island Effect Light Pollution

40 Sustainable Sites Site Selection GOAL:
Channel development to areas with existing infrastructure and community support, and away from virgin farm land, wildlife habitat, park land, wetlands So we’ve looked at all of the practices and types of sites that we want to avoid. Let’s now focus on positive selection criteria, things that are encouraged, that have a positive impact on the project. Increased Density Choose Re-Development Community Connectivity Habitat Preservation 40

41 Sustainable Sites Alternative Transportation GOAL:
Reduce pollution and development impacts of automobile use Mass Transit Access Bicycling and Walking Carpooling Low Emitting and Fuel Efficient Vehicles

42 Sustainable Sites Stormwater Management GOAL:
Limit the disruption of the natural hydrology, and reduce pollution due to stormwater runoff Captured Rainwater Limit impervious cover Rainwater capture, detention and re-use or re-introduction to ground Rainwater harvesting provides an economical and environment friendly source of water for common activities such as flushing toilets, watering gardens and washing family cars – or any other purpose where non-potable water is sufficient. Installation of gray water systems can reduce normal water bills by up to 60%, while commercial installations may also attract tax benefits. 42

43 Sustainable Sites Reduced Heat Island Effect GOAL:
Minimize impacts of ‘Heat Islands’ on microclimates and human and wildlife habitats Use light colored site materials - (high Solar Reflectance Index) Concrete or pavers rather than asphalt White roof, ‘green’ roof or EPA Energy Star roof rather than black roof 43

44 Water Efficiency Water Use Reduction Water Efficient Landscaping
Innovative Waste Water

45 Water Efficiency Water Use Reduction GOAL:
Increase water efficiency to reduce the burden on municipal water infrastructure Low - flow water fixtures Lavatories Water closets Urinals Shower heads Janitor sinks

46 Water Efficiency Water Efficient Landscaping GOAL:
Reduce or eliminate the use of potable water for landscape irrigation Use captured rainwater Irrigation efficiency Recycled gray water Xeriscape or native vegetation

47 Energy and Atmosphere Commissioning Refrigerant Management
Energy Performance Renewable Energy Measurement & Verification Green Power

48 Energy and Atmosphere Commissioning
GOAL: To verify that the project’s energy related systems are installed, calibrated and performing according to the owner’s project requirements Designate an independent Commissioning Agent early in the design process Complete commissioning process for HVAC, lighting and daylight controls, domestic hot water, and renewable energy systems

49 Energy and Atmosphere Optimizing Energy Performance
GOAL: Increased level of energy performance to reduce environmental and economic impacts Whole building energy model as compared to baseline design Prescriptive Compliance path for smaller projects ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guidelines

50 Energy and Atmosphere On-Site Renewable Energy GOAL:
Encourage increased levels of on-site renewable energy generation to reduce the environmental and economic impacts of fossil fuel use Photo-voltaic systems Wind Energy Systems Solar Thermal Systems Bio-fuel Systems Geothermal Systems Low Impact Hydro

51 Energy and Atmosphere Green Power GOAL:
Encourage development and use of grid-source, renewable energy technologies 2-year renewable energy contract for 35% of the building’s electricity from renewable sources

52 Materials and Resources
Collection of Recyclables Building Re-Use Construction Waste Recycled Content Regional Materials Rapidly Renewable Certified Wood

53 Materials and Resources
Storage and Collection of Recyclables GOAL: To reduce the amount of waste generated by building occupants that is disposed of in landfills xxxx xxx Provide a dedicated area for the collection and storage of recyclable for the building. Paper Corrugated cardboard Glass Plastic Metals 53

54 The LCA of a building is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of a building over its life.
An LCA of a building includes environmental impacts due to: Extraction of materials and fuel used for energy; Manufacture of building components; Transportation of materials and components; Assembly and construction; Operation, including energy consumption, maintenance, repair, and renovations; and Demolition, disposal, recycling, and reuse of the building at the end of its functional or useful life. A full set of impacts includes land use, resource use, climate change, health effects, acidification, and toxicity. Life Cycle Analysis

55 What is life cycle analysis
What is life cycle analysis? A life cycle assessment (LCA) is an environmental assessment of the life cycle of a product. An LCA looks at all aspects of a product’s life cycle—from the first stages of harvesting and extracting raw materials from nature, to transforming and processing these raw materials into a product, to using the product, and ultimately recycling it or disposing of it back into nature. The LCA of a building is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of a building over its life. An LCA of a building includes environmental impacts due to: Extraction of materials and fuel used for energy; Manufacture of building components; Transportation of materials and components; Assembly and construction; Operation, including energy consumption, maintenance, repair, and renovations; and Demolition, disposal, recycling, and reuse of the building at the end of its functional or useful life. A full set of impacts includes land use, resource use, climate change, health effects, acidification, and toxicity. Life Cycle Analysis

56 Life Cycle Analysis

57 Materials and Resources
Recycled Content GOAL: Increase demand for building products that use recycled content materials, reducing the impacts of the extraction and processing of virgin materials Use materials with recycled content at least 10% of the total value of the project materials Pre-consumer : Material left over from the manufacturing process Fly ash Sawdust Walnut shells Trimmings Post-consumer : Products salvaged at the end of their useful life Glass bottles Clothing Cardboard Paper Aluminum cans Plastic containers 57

58 Materials and Resources
Rapidly Renewable Materials GOAL: Reduce the depletion of finite raw materials by replacing them with rapidly renewable materials Agricultural products (fiber or animal) that are grown or raised for harvest and can be rapidly replenished For LEED - defined as materials that can be harvested in less than 10 years Non- Rapidly Renewable: Oak flooring Polyester carpet Plywood sheathing Vinyl flooring Rapidly Renewable: Bamboo flooring Wool carpet Cotton insulation, Linoleum flooring Wheatboard cabinets Strawboard sheathing Cork flooring Bio-based paints 58

59 Indoor Environmental Quality
Indoor Air Quality Environmental Tobacco Smoke Low Emitting Materials Limit Chemical Pollution Occupant Control of Systems Lighting Thermal Comfort Daylight and Views Acoustical Performance

60 Indoor Environmental Quality
Productivity Benefits Improved Occupant Performance – Potential for estimated $29 - $168 billion in national productivity gains per year.1 – Student performance is better in day lit schools.2, 3 Reduce Absenteeism and Turnover – Providing a healthy workplace improves employee satisfaction. Increase Retail Sales with Daylighting4 – Studies have shown ~40% improvement. Footnotes: 1. Fisk and Rosenfeld, 1998, “Improved Indoor Environment Could Save Billions of Dollars” 2. Nicklas and Bailey, “Analysis of the Performance of Students in Daylit Schools,” Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC, 3. Hathaway, Hargreaves, Thompson, and Novitsky, 1992, “A Study Into the Effects of Light on Children of Elementary School Age - A Case of Daylight Robbery,” Policy and Planning Branch, Planning and Information Services Division, Alberta Education, Canada. 4. Heschong, 1999, “Skylighting and Retail Sales: An Investigation into the Relationship Between Daylighting and Human Performance,” 60

61 Indoor Environmental Quality
Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Formaldehyde VOCs Radon Pesticides Asbestos Heavy metals  In the U.S. people spend, on average, 90% or more of their time indoors* Dust and mites Pollen, Spores Cleaning products Mold, Mildew Tobacco Smoke * EPA Green Building Workgroup,

62 Indoor Environmental Quality
Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control GOAL: Protect building occupants from undesired Tobacco smoke exposure Prohibit smoking in the building or property or Prohibit smoking except in designated areas that are designed to contain, capture and remove ETS from the building 62

63 Indoor Environmental Quality
Low emitting Materials GOAL: Reduce the quantity of indoor contaminants that are odorous, irritating and/or harmful to the comfort and wellbeing of installers and occupants Low emitting materials standards include: Low VOC adhesives and sealants - SCAQMD VOC Limits - Jan 2007 Low VOC paints and coatings - Green Seal Standard GS-11 Carpets and rugs - Carpet and Rug Institute Green Label Plus Hard Surface Flooring systems - Floor Score standard Composite wood and agrifiber - no added urea formaldehyde South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule VOCs

64 Indoor Environmental Quality
Controllability of Systems GOAL: Provide a high level of thermal comfort control by individual occupants or groups to promote their productivity, comfort and well-being Provide occupant control of temperature and air movement Thermostats, ceiling fans, operable windows, all provide some level of temperature , air movement or humidity controls Air movement can greatly influence the temperature that is considered comfortable.

65 Indoor Environmental Quality
Daylight and Views GOAL: Provide occupants with a visual connection to the outdoors through introduction of daylight and views Provide 25 fc of daylight through windows or skylights in at least 75% of regularly occupied spaces Provide a direct line of site to the outdoors for at least 90% of regularly occupied spaces

66 100 point scale 40+ 50+ 60+ 80+ Points
projects attaining these total points achieve these levels of certification. Show Slide Points 66 66






72 Sustainable Development
Section 5 Costs of Sustainable Development Impacts on: Fees for Design Services Registration and Certification Fees Construction Costs Incentives and long term benefits 72

73 Fees for Design Services:
LEED Design and Documentation Services Energy Modeling Services Commissioning Fees 73

74 Commissioning Fees: Third Party Engineering Service
Costs are based on the size of the project and the complexity of energy related systems Costs can range from $0.50-$2.00 / sf

75 Registration and Certification Fees
USGBC LEED REGISTRATION FEES USGBC Members: $900 Non-Members: $1200 CERTIFICATION FEES Combined Design & Construction Review Less than 50,000 sf , ,000 sf More Than 500,000 sf USGBC Members $2, $0.045/sf $22,500 Non-Members $2, $0.055/sf $27,500 75

76 Construction Costs: Perception:
Often based on the view of Sustainability as an added feature Life-cycle approach: Costs optimized over the life of the project Consideration for the productivity of the occupants and the environmental costs.

77 Cost Analysis of Academic Buildings
Analyzing the Data Cost Analysis of Academic Buildings Credit: Davis Langdon, “Cost of Green Revisited”, July 2007

78 Cost Analysis of Laboratory Buildings
Analyzing the Data Cost Analysis of Laboratory Buildings Credit: Davis Langdon, “Cost of Green Revisited”, July 2007

79 Lifecycle of Built Environments

80 Life Cycle Cost Analysis First Costs vs. Life Cycle Costs
Credit: BOMA US Averages over 30 year period

81 Life Cycle Cost Analysis First Costs vs. Life Cycle Costs
Credit: BOMA US Averages over 30 year period

82 Incentives and Long Term Benefits Incentives:
Expedited Permitting Process Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency Utility Rebates, Incentives and Loans State and Federal Tax Incentives, Credits and Deductions Financing Options Grant and Loan Programs Utility Costs Savings Productivity Benefits Fulfillment of Corporate Mission Increased Property Values Reduced Cost of Infrastructure Reduced taxes for all 82

83 Section 6 Contracts and LEED 83

84 Contracting for LEED Design Services
Example Green contract clauses: The LEED Rating System utilizes certain design and usability recommendations on a project in order to promote an environmentally friendly and energy efficient facility. In addressing these guidelines, the Design Professional shall perform its services consistent with the professional skill and care ordinarily provided by design professionals practicing in the same or similar locality under the same or similar circumstances. The Owner acknowledges and understands, however, that LEED is subject to various and possibly contradictory interpretations. Furthermore, compliance may involve factors beyond the control of the Design Professional including, but not limited to, the Owner’s use and operation of the completed project. It is recognized that neither the Architect nor the Owner has control over the USGBC and GBCI review and evaluation of the Project’s LEED Certification Application. Accordingly, the Architect cannot and does not warrant or represent that the LEED Certification Application will be approved by the USGBC and shall not be liable for consequential damages from the USGBC’s decision not to award Certification.

85 Energy Design Goals vs. Actual Energy Usage
If the Owner’s program (Basis of Design) includes requirements for Project energy usage, the Owner MUST confirm the energy goals and usage in writing to the Design Professional. The Owner must recognize that the achievement of such goals or requirements is subject to operational, maintenance activities and other factors and decisions over which the Design Professional has no control. Therefore, the Design Professional shall use reasonable care in its design to achieve the energy usage goals or requirements but can make no warranty or guarantee regarding actual energy usage.

86 Agreements Required for LEED Registration and Certification

87 LEED 2009 Minimum Program Requirements
6. MUST COMMIT TO SHARING WHOLE-BUILDING ENERGY AND WATER USEAGE DATA All Rating Systems All Certified projects must commit to sharing with USGBC and/or GBCI all available actual whole-project energy and water usage data for a period of at least 5 years. This period starts on the date that the LEED project begins typical physical occupancy….or the date that the building is awarded certification. Sharing this data includes supplying information on a regular basis in a free, accessible, and secure online tool * or, if necessary, taking any action to authorize the collection of information directly from service or utility providers. This commitment must carry forward if the building or space changes ownership or lessee. * EPA Energy Star Building Portfolio Manager



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