2File ManagementFile management is the activity we perform to manage our workspace to ensure that we can find the necessary data or information when we need it.Typical file management tasks include:Creating and saving filesCreating folders (also called directories)Renaming folders and filesCopying or moving folders and filesDeleting folders and filesCompleting the above tasks between different drives (i.e. creating a back-up on a diskette)Creating read only filesKeyboard Shortcuts can be used in all Microsoft programsCtrl-C “Copy”, Ctrl-V “Paste”, Ctrl-X “Cut”, Ctrl-Z “Undo”, Ctrl-A “Select all”
3File Management (cont'd) When you start to organize your workspace you need to determine the type of information you will be creating and saving (i.e. Science notes, history projects, personal letters) and creating your folders or directories accordingly.Type of Information Suggested Folder NameEg: Science notes and labs scienceHistory notes and reports historyPersonal letters personal
4File Management (cont'd) Rules for Naming files and folders:Files and folders can have names up to 255 characters including spaces.Special characters such as \ / : * ? ” < > | are not allowed.
5File Management (cont'd) File NamingFiles have 2 parts in their name:Name indicating content (up to 255 characters long)Extension: characters after the “.”The extension determines the type of file, and which program will best open the filei.e. .docx indicates an MS Word file.mp3 indicates an audio file.html indicates a web page* Most programs automatically add the extension for you when you save the file.
6File Management (cont'd) COPYING AND MOVING FILES AND FOLDERS (2 METHODS) Using Windows ExplorerRIGHT mouse buttonUsing the right mouse button, drag the file/folder to the new destination and release and click MOVE HERE or COPY HERE.Drag & Drop (Left mouse button)Within The Same Drive: To MOVE: Drag the file/folder to the new destination and release (drop it). Only works when you are moving within the same drive. To COPY: Hold down the Ctrl- key to copy it when dragging to the other folder.Across Drives: To COPY: Drag the file/folder to the new destination and release (drop it). Automatically works when you are copying from one drive to the other (g: to removable). To MOVE: Use Ctrl-X and Ctrl-V or right mouse button technique
7Issues in Information Technology Ergonomics/Health & SafetySecurityEthicsLegal IssuesEnvironmental Issues
8ErgonomicsThe term ergonomics refers to the relationship between workers and their working environment.To ensure a suitable working environment, consider the following:adequate lightingadequate ventilationmonitors with screens free from flicker, interference and glarean adjustable chairsuitably positioned keyboardprovision for frequent breaks away from the computer
9Ergonomics (cont'd) Why worry about ergonomics? Modifying your: technique andyour work environmentcan be helpful in reducing Repetitive Stress Injuries like carpal tunnel syndrome—which is a wrist or hand injury caused by extended periods of keyboarding—and Eye Strain.
10Ergonomics: Proper Keyboarding Technique: Eyes stay focused on copy material not on keyboard or screen.Correct fingering used consistently on alphabetic keys. Fingers rest lightly on home rowWrists are elevated, not resting on anythingSteady rhythmGood posture: sitting back in chair, back straight, feet flat on floorChair height: allows you to create a 90º angle with your forearm and upper arm when fingers are placed over the home row
11Ergonomics: Good Ergonomic Strategies Choose a good chair and computer desk.Chair should have adjustable height, lower back support, and arm rests.Desk should have a keyboard shelf at the proper height - this will avoid reaching up for the keyboard.Position your monitor correctly.The monitor should be 2 to 2½ feet away, and a little below eye level.Position your monitor so that bright lights/sunlight do not reflect off of the screen.Tilt the monitor face upwards (approx. 10°)Keep your screen clean.
12Ergonomics (cont'd)Sit up straight and keep your feet flat on the floor in front of you.Forearms and thighs are parallel to the floor.Keep your wrists straight.Hands should be in a straight line with your forearms as you type.Do not rest your wrists on anything as you type.Resting the wrist puts excessive strain on the hands and fingers.Rest your eyes occasionally to avoid eyestrain.Avoid pounding the keys or gripping the mouse.
13Ergonomics (cont'd)An example of an ergonomically correct computer setup:The forearms and thighs are parallel to the floor,the keyboard is in easy reach without bending or flexing the wrists,the monitor is positioned to reduce eye and neck strain.
14Ergonomics (cont'd) Set your GUI for healthy viewing. Use quiet color settings (neutral or cool shades). Avoid staring at bright colours for long periods of time.Choose the large icon setting if it is easier for you to see the interface.Take a break when sitting for long periods of time10 minutes after every 50 minutes
15Security Issues Saving Save frequently, a PC’s memory is temporary Even saved files can be vulnerable to destruction from hardware failure or fireEssential that organizations keep back-ups of valuable information, in another physical location if possible
16Security Issues (cont'd) Passwords & User IDsUsed to gain access to the computer system in an organizationChosen by user and never divulgedChanged frequentlyNot too obvious
17Security Issues (cont'd) FirewallThe purpose of a firewall:Track and restrict unauthorized outside userControl access to authorized network users
18Security Issues (cont'd) Anti-Virus programA virus is a program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes.Use McAfee, Norton Security or AVG to scan and eliminate viruses. AVG is free to download and use.Virus CharacteristicsAll computer viruses are manmadeA simple virus that copies itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce.Quickly uses all available memory and brings the system to a haltAn even more dangerous type of virus is one capable of transmitting itself by attaching to a legitimate programThrough s or executable files on web sitesA virus can be harmless or it can destroy data files, erase an entire hard disk or even make your computer inoperable
19Ethical Issues Ethical Use of Computers Ethics are the standards of honesty, morality and fairness. These standards relate to using computers. It is your responsibly to respect the property, rights and privacy of others in the way you use computers at home and at school.
20Ethical Issues (cont'd) Acceptable Use AgreementsA good policy guides the desirable use of the computer system by:protecting school resources,limiting liability,Promoting safe behaviour by clarifying rights and expectations of both students and staff members.
21Ethical Issues (cont'd) Pick 5 points to record in your notes:Acceptable Use Agreement at St. BenedictDo NOT share your login, password, or workspace with anyone.Do NOT use another person’s account.Login and Logoff appropriately.Virus scan all media before use on the school network. You will be held responsible for any viruses introduced to the network through your workspace.Do NOT install personal software in your workspace or on the network. This specifically includes graphic files, games or other executable files unless you have written permission from the school’s software technician, information systems facilitator, or from the teacher of the course where these files have been created.Name the files you have created appropriately. Profanity or rude comments are not acceptable filenames.Do NOT access, distribute or post offensive material on the network.Do NOT use the computer to annoy or harass another person.The school has purchased various software to use on the network. This software is protected by copyright and therefore cannot be copied in any form by anyone.Unauthorized access to either system files or other student files is not permitted.Report any damage or problems to the teacher immediately. Abuse of the hardware or software is called vandalism and will be dealt with appropriately. Failure to report any damages or problems may result in the student using the computer being held responsible for the damage.No food or drink is permitted near the computers or in the computer rooms.Internet access will be available at St. Benedict based on course requirements, students need, and the system availability. Use of the Internet involves increased responsibilities and expectations. A separate Internet agreement is provided.Students using a computer in individual classrooms must be supervised by a teacher at all times.
22Ethical Issues (cont'd) Spam is generally advertising for some product sent to a mailing list or newsgroup.In addition to wasting people's time with unwanted , spam also eats up a lot of network bandwidth
23Ethical Issues (cont'd) Hate & Discrimination PromotionThe evolution of the Internet into the World Wide Web, with its easily accessible and inviting graphic interface, has provided people, including extremists, with new ways to communicate with each other and with a vast new potential audience, using not only words, but also pictures, graphics, sound, and animation.
24Ethical Issues (cont'd) Technology Access and Equityaccess to technology and being proficient in its use is an important key to one's economic statusDigital divide refers to the gap between those with regular, effective access to digital and information technology, and those without this accessIt encompasses both physical access to technology hardware and, more broadly, skills and resources which allow for its useGroups of people who are divided by this issue are (rich/poor), (white/minority), (able/disabled) or (urban/rural)
25And now for a little fun!Go to the internet, use a stock information site:finance.google.catmxmoney.comca.finance.yahoo.comPick up to three stocks“buy” up to $10,000 in stockstrack in Word document (Mr. M will demonstrate)
26Legal IssuesIntellectual Property is a product someone creates based upon his or her thought or ideas. Some examples:● a picture or clip art collection ● computer animations● computer games ● software ● musicPlagiarism isstealing and passing off the ideas or words of another as your ownusing another's production without crediting the sourceCopyright laws exist to protect those who create an idea or product. Most copyrighted material may not be copied without consent of the owner.If you copy software without permission and then distribute it, you’re committing software piracy. Some programs have built-in security codes to protect against illegal use.
27Legal Issues (cont'd)Software Agreements have been established to protect copyrighted material. When you purchase software you are subject to the terms of the agreement established by the owner.You are legally bound to honour software license agreementsTypes of agreements:Freeware, shareware, single machine, site and network licenses
28Legal Issues (cont'd)Hacking is the unauthorized use of a computer system or program.Hackers may breaking into a system just for fun, others may be trying to unlawfully access a computer program to change or steal data.Hacking is an invasion of privacy which is against the law and is punishable by the law
29Environmental Issues Digital Dumping: Disposal of Obsolete Equipment What to do with old electronic equipment?Most charitable groups won’t take it – it’s too old.The city dump won’t take it –your old machine is full of toxic substances.You don’t want it sitting in the closet for eternity.If you’re lucky, you may have an program in your area that will take it for “ecycling,” removing toxic chemicals for proper disposal and valuable metals for reuse.
30Environmental Issues (cont'd) What really happens to your old computer or broken printer or fried cell phone?tons of these and other electronic items are loaded onto barges and shipped off to developing countries, where the recycling processes are so substandard that they actually contribute to air and water pollution.Whatever isn’t salvageable ends up in their landfills.North American recyclers say it’s not cost efficient to fix broken items, so they often donate these goods to developing nations to help “bridge the digital divide.”Many countries, though, report that up to 75% of this equipment is not usable, nor do they have the technology to repair or recycle it properly.
31Digital Literacy What is a computer? What is a computer system? SoftwareDataHardware & PowerPoint presentationNetworking
32SoftwareSoftware is the set of electronic instructions that tells the computer what to do. It is also referred to as a program.Two General Types:Application SoftwareSystem SoftwareApplication software and system software work together to provide useful output.
33Application SoftwareSoftware tells the computer how to accomplish specific tasks selected by the user.Examples of Application Software:Word ProcessingSpreadsheetsDatabasesDesktop PublishingGraphicsEntertainment (games)EducationalCommunicationPresentation
35Operating System Software The operating system tells the computer how to:interact with the useruse all the attached devices (disk drive, keyboard, mouse, monitor, USB devices, camera, etc.)run other software, andmanage all the files/folders.Examples: Windows 7, Blackberry OS, Apple/Mac OS
36System ToolsFile Defragmentation: Re-organizes files on a disk to speed up processingData Clean up: Compresses (and cleans up) dataSystem Restore: Undo harmful changes to your computer and restore settings and performance it to an earlier version before the trouble beganData Recovery: Recover erased filesVirus Protection and Firewall protection
38InternetThe significance of the Internet and particularly the World Wide Web cannot be underestimated!Information is available instantly to the massesCommunication has few physical barriers (anytime, anywhere)Billions of usersKnowledge is POWER and now that is widely available to those that want itNo one organization owns the Internet and so what is available is not controlled or limitedThat provides opportunities for everyone: Business, Governments, Education & Research, Personal
39Internet Background The INTERNET is a worldwide network of computers. Created for the U.S. Department of Defense as a tool for military communications, command, and control, and exchanges of data with defense contractors.1969 Advanced Research Projects Agency of US Dept. of Defense (ARPA) connected computers at universities to create network that would survive nuclear disaster. Network called ARPANET.National Science Foundation (NSF) created NSFnet (higher capacity network) and linked it to ARPANET
40Internet Background (cont’d) The Internet came about through combination of ARPANET, NSFnet, and other networks.Internet timeline:* backbones = main communication pipelines
41How the Internet WorksComputer equipment on the internet consists of SERVERS, CLIENTS or ROUTERSThe SERVERS are like electronic filing cabinets that simply store information and pass it on when requested. They can be file servers; mail servers; or Web servers.There are something like 20 million servers on the Internet.The CLIENTS connect to the servers through an ISP (Internet Service Provider) so you can read your messages, look at a web site or download informationThere are far more clients on the Internet than servers—probably reaching a billion by now!
42How the Internet Works (cont’d) When two computers on the Internet swap information back and forth on a more-or-less equal basis, they are known as peers. If you use an instant messaging program to chat to a friend, and you start swapping files, you’re taking part in what’s called peer-to-peer (P2P) communication.
43How the Internet Works (cont’d) Apart from clients and servers, the Internet is also made up of ROUTERS, whose job is really just to make connections between different systems.The router is like a switchboard that directs your request to the worldwide networkIt starts, stop and directs traffic(bits) over the internet.
44How the Internet Works (cont’d) ISP like Rogers & BellTelephone lines orCable lines
45Some Key Internet Terms TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)Rules & procedures (software) to control timing & data format so computers can communicate.IP Address (Internet Protocol Address)Every computer on Internet has unique 4 part numeric address (ex ). Address contains routing information that identifies locationDNS Address (Domain Name System Address)is the IP address using words.2 parts: individual name + domain & sub-domainsex. microsoft.com
46Common Internet Domains .com commercial business (for profit).edu education.gov government.mil military.net gateway or host.org other organization (usually non-profit).on.ca Ontario, Canada.fr France.us United States
47Major Features Of The Internet WWW (web pages)NewsChatFTP (file transfer protocol)Bulletin BoardsEntertainment (gaming)
48World Wide Web (WWW or The Web) The WWW is not the same as the Internet. The Internet is a world-wide computer network. The WWW is just one software system running on the Internet.To view a web page you need:Browser: Software that displays graphics and text of a specified site (IE/Firefox).Uniform Resource Locator (URL): Special address that tells the browser where to go.
49Example of a URL http://www.cnn.com/feedback/comments.html http Protocol or rules used to transfer this type of data over the internet. (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)www Address is found on WWWcnn Domain namecom Type of Domainfeedback Directory or folder namecomments.html Filename
50World Wide Web (WWW or The Web) Web Sites are divided into pages with one page (usually the first) of the site designated as the Home Page.Web pages contain internal and/or external hyperlinks. These links allow the reader to click on the highlighted word/phrase/image and jump to another location in the document or another file located anywhere on Internet.
51Connecting to the Internet To access the Internet your browser sends a request to the SERVER, usually an Internet Service Provider like Rogers or Bell using your computer’s MODEMCommunication occurs over phone lines or cables or satelllitesYour information is not sent all at once but broken up into smaller packetsEach packet contains some information PLUS the sender’s and receiver’s address or IP addressThe router determines how the packets are sent (the quickest route)
52E-Mail Most common use of the Internet programs send text + attachments (graphics, sound, video, etc.)Offline: Pegasus, MS Outlook, ThunderbirdOnline: Gmail, HotMail, YahooMailnormally involves communication between two people, but can also be sent to multiple users (distribution list)Can send to people without others knowing (BCC: blind carbon copy)
53E-Mail Etiquette Keep messages short and to the point. Always include a subject with your message that briefly indicates its content.Do not send abusive messages to others.Be careful what you say about others, as your messages reflects upon you.Use humour and sarcasm where appropriate, but be sure your intent is understood.
54EtiquetteDo not be critical of others’ spelling or grammatical errors, you’ll make them too.DO NOT USE CAPITAL LETTERS as this is the Internet equivalent of shouting.You can’t take it back: after is sent, it’s gone, and it’s a permanent record of what you said.
55Evaluating an Information Website Consider the following criteria:
56Authority and Accuracy What do you know about the author?What indicates they are an expertCan you contact him/her??Why check? Anyone can publish anything!Can you check the information?Links to other sites?Why check? no web standards exist to ensure accuracy
57Advocacy and Objectivity What is the purpose of the website?Educate, entertain, persuade?Does the website try to persuade you to one side of an issue?Is it opinion or is it strictly facts?Why check? People could be trying to persuade you to do things that might not be right! You’re not hearing both sides of the story.
58Currency and Coverage Is the information current? When was it last updated?Does it cover the topic in enough depth?Are links relevant and appropriate?Why check? Older information may not still be accurate. You may not be getting the full picture.
59Style and Functionality Is the site organized in a clear and logical manner?Is it easy to read and find things?Are you able to search or use menues easily?Why check? Your time is valuable, don’t waste it on a website that takes too long to find things.
61Try this: Go to: http://lib.nmsu.edu/instruction/evalexpl.html Click on:Secondhand Smoke: The Big Lie
62Evaluation:Give an opinion and back it up with evidence from the website Authority & Accuracy:Advocacy and ObjectivityCurrency and CoverageStyle and Functionality
63NetworkingA stand-alone computer system works well for normal use on an individual basis. This refers to regular student use, common household requirements, and perhaps even home office or low-end business needs. However, as tasks become more complex and more users are involved, connecting PCs to create a network is frequently used as a solution to improve efficiency.
64NetworkA network is a system of interconnected computers that communicate with each other and share:ApplicationsDataHardware Components
65Advantages of a Network Simultaneous (all at the same time) access to programs and dataSharing of peripherals (i.e. printers and scanners)Easy communication with others usingEasy back-up of important data
66Disadvantages of a Network Need for increased security to protect the network (Users must login using unique ID and password)Higher maintenance due to larger number of usersPossible loss of privacy through hackingMore complex – need network administratorVandalism
67Parts of a NetworkServer: computer that has large storage capacity that holds all shared storage and programsShared peripherals: printer, scannerPCsSpecialized Network Software - programs that manage the resources on the networkAll joined through wired or wireless connections
68Network Setup A network can be setup as: LAN (Local Area Network) – A network of computers located relatively near each other and connected by a cable or wireless.WAN (Wide Area Network) – Two or more LANs connected together, generally across a wide geographical area using high-speed or dedicated phone lines.A router is necessary to join the LANs within a WAN
69Most Common Network Layout Star – Places a hub (server) in the center of the network nodes.Groups of data are routed through the central hub to their destination.Broken path affects only one device. Network goes down only if hub is lost.