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ERGONOMICS at WSU Lezlie Couch EH&S- WSU-TC Completion of this unit fulfills required WSU safety training for: Ergonomics Lifting Slips, trips and falls.

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Presentation on theme: "ERGONOMICS at WSU Lezlie Couch EH&S- WSU-TC Completion of this unit fulfills required WSU safety training for: Ergonomics Lifting Slips, trips and falls."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ERGONOMICS at WSU Lezlie Couch EH&S- WSU-TC Completion of this unit fulfills required WSU safety training for: Ergonomics Lifting Slips, trips and falls

3 What is Ergonomics? Ergonomics is the scientific study of human work. Ergonomic principals adapt work to a specific person by designing tasks & tools or equipment to fit the individual to prevent injuries to the musculoskeletal system.

4 What are the benefits of ergonomics? Reduction of work-related injuries Increased worker productivity Increased work quality Reduced absenteeism Increased morale Ergonomics provides a win-win situation…..on and off the job YOU JUST FEEL BETTER!

5 An MSD is an illness or injury that affects one or more parts of the musculoskeletal system Bones Muscles Tendons Ligaments Cartilage Nerves Blood vessels Other common terms for MSDsare: Cumulative trauma disorder (CTDs) Repetitive strain injures (RSIs) Repetitive motion injuries (RMIs) When not diagnosed and treated these can cause inconvenience permanent pain and disability. What are the risks of ignoring ergonomic principles? MSD MusculoSkeletal Disorders

6 SYMPTOMS of MSDs Pain Loss of strength Discomfort Tingling Stiffness Numbness Swelling Fatigue Aching Reduced range of motion

7 What are MSD S ? MSDs are injuries caused by sustained exposure to stressors or repetitive motion. They may affect muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, circulation, or nerves. Some well-known MSDs are: Carpel tunnel syndrome Guyners syndrome Trigger finger Tennis elbow CONTINUE

8 CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME One of the best known MSDs The median nerve does not work properly due to pressure on the nerve as it runs through an opening called the carpel tunnel Numbness is usually first symptom. Pain & tingling, can go up the arm to the shoulder and neck, causing waking to pain in middle of night

9 GUYONS CANAL SYNDROME Similar to carpel tunnel Guyons affects the ulnar nerve as it passes through the Guyon canal in the wrist; this is similar to carpal tunnel, but involves a different nerve. Unlike carpel tunnel, Guyons affects the little and ring fingers. Can be in conjunction with carpal tunnel

10 TRIGGER FINGER Trigger finger affects the ability of tendons to slip back and forth. The tendon and/or ligament thicken and a nodule forms This can be caused by rheumatoid arthritis, lacerations of tendon, gripping power tools, long hours of grasping steering wheel, or birth defects Symptoms are pain and a funny clicking sensation

11 TENNIS ELBOW Overuse or misuse of the forearm muscles can cause tendonitis, or a painful inflammation of the tendons connecting these muscles to bone. This condition is brought on or aggravated by poor leverage causing an uneven distribution of force on a few muscles. This may be when working, or during certain leisure activities, such as sports and gardening. Symptom are severe pain.

12 ARE MSD S PREVENTABLE? They are preventable and reversible ….. if identified early. The treatment depends on the stage of MSD. If the condition cannot be reversed, treatment can turn into a pain management situation. The individual plays a large role in preventing MSDs.

13 Am I at risk for a MSD? Do you …perform frequent repetitive motions? …bend at the waist or twist when lifting objects? …lift push or pull objects throughout the day? …sometimes use the wrong tool for the job? …grasp tools with your fingers? …forget to take breaks while working? …feel like you are under stress? …have to stretch to reach your work? …forget to adjust your work area to fit your task? The more you answered yes, the greater your risk.

14 RISK FACTORS which can lead to MSDs (Stressors) Awkward posture Static loading or sustained exertion Contact stress Force Vibration Repetition of same motion for several hours/day Length of tasks without breaks Insufficient rest time Psychosocial stress These STRESSORS can be influenced by 1.Organizational or administrative precautions 2.Environmental conditions 3.Individual work routine and habits Most MSDs are the result of combined risk factors

15 Reducing RISK FACTORS for MSDs The purpose of ergonomic training is to help you reduce or eliminate the stresses that can lead to MSDs Your body is designed to do work. When it works in positions or postures in which it is designed to deal with physical stress, there is no problem, but when it is forced to perform under unnatural situations or for abnormal periods of time, injuries can occur. Almost all of the ergonomic stresses at work can be decreased by using the right equipment in the right position so that the body can perform in the right posture.

16 Review your Work Area You spend most of your day in your work area. You dont want your work area to contribute to ergonomic problems Ergonomic Rule #1 Work Comfortably! If most of your work is done in an office continueIf most of your work is done outside of an office continue

17 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place Use a good CHAIR Front edge of seat pan curves down Five feet for base-most stable Height adjustable On rollers Seat pan adjustable horizontally and tilts Backrest is provides good lower back support Arms adjustable

18 The position of your head and neck is very important Place computer monitors directly in front of you The right height is person dependent- usually the top of the screen at eye level (or slightly below for those who wear bifocals) The screen should be at least an arms length away (If you cant see at that distance, get special computer glasses) Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place MONITOR HEIGHT Raise the monitor if you have to look down at it

19 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place KEYBOARD STYLES A variety of styles are available. Choose one that is comfortable for you.

20 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place KEYBOARD HOLDER Keyboard holders should Tilt Provide wrist rests (rest palms not wrist) Provide space for a mouse

21 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place MOUSE HOLDERS Mouse trays or mouse holders can bring a mouse to a better position

22 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place MOUSE STYLES Choose a style comfortable for your hand and fingers

23 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place WORK PLACEMENT Position equipment so that your body is in a comfortable and natural position most of the time while you are working. Dont place things so you have to reach, twist or bend continually Place work at monitor height or place in path of monitor Listen to your body. If you cannot focus or often feel tired or uncomfortable, you are probably not working in a good position. See what you can do to make your work more comfortable for you. Disclaimer: Wait a minute! Though this position may look comfortable, it is NOT a comfortable position to work in. Imagine how your back would feel after typing a few pages in this position! Do not equate comfortable leisure positions with comfortable work positions!

24 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place Everyone needs a relaxed, neutral position DO WHATS COMFORTABLE FOR YOUR BODY! Monitor at or below eye level Wrists straight Forearms supported Back supported Feet flat on the floor Forearms and thighs parallel to the floor

25 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place MOUSE POSITION NO! Mouse should be close to the keyboard and the same height or slightly higher Locate the mouse to avoid reaching

26 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place Phone PLACEMENT Should be different for right and left handers You should not have to twist and reach across your body every time you answer the phone. Many people need to spend a lot of time on the phone, and must often do other tasks at the same time This creates a lot of stress for neck and shoulder muscles Consider a head set if you spend a lot of time on the phone, especially if you do other tasks at the same time

27 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place Document PLACEMENT Place documents so that you dont need to bend your head to read while you keyboard Consider getting a document holder

28 Ergonomic STRESSORS Environmental conditions Environmental conditions can influence ergonomic stress. Lighting Noise Temperature ….even at a computer station!

29 LIGHTING & MONITOR GLARE Lighting should be indirect and adequate Not too much light, or it may cause a glare, headaches and eye fatigue If there is a glare on your eyes as you work, use glare screens on computers, or adjustable blinds at windows Ideal is foot candles Ergonomic STRESSORS

30 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place GLARE SCREENS

31 COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME can be prevented Accommodate your eyes Use computer eyewear when appropriate Placement of reference material and monitor distance should be comfortable for your eyes Exercise your eyes Periodically focus on object 20 feet away Blink eyes rapidly if they feel dry Prevent constant glare Keep monitor clean Use : indirect lighting non-reflective walls and furniture anti-glare screens

32 Noise can be a STRESSOR If your office is near a noise source, close your door, or wear ear plugs Besides causing ear damage, constant noise can create extra muscle tension in the body causing fatigue and making it easier for ergonomic injuries to occur. Ergonomic STRESSORS

33 Temperature People are more prone to ergonomic injuries in cold environments. Muscles and other tissues are more tense, because of decreased circulation. Dress appropriately Do some warm up exercises, such as stretching your hands, to loosen your finger muscles before keyboarding. Ergonomic STRESSORS

34 FORCE can be a stressor A task can require a moderate amount of force to be applied to very small muscles Examples: Dragging and dropping with the mouse Gripping the sides of the mouse or phone tightly Pounding on the keyboard Grasping thick file folders Stapling or stamping Opening 3-ring binder Lifting heavy manuals with one hand Ergonomic STRESSORS

35 MECHANICAL CONTACT STRESS A hard or sharp surface or object pressing into the soft tissues, the tendons, nerves and blood vessels. Examples: Resting wrists on the desk edge while typing or using mouse Leaning elbows on hard chair or armrests or work surfaces Sitting in chair that places pressure on the backs of the thighs Ergonomic STRESSORS

36 CONTINUE VIBRATION causes stress Hand-arm vibration (hand power tools) Whole body vibration (driving rough off roads) Even if these do not occur in your work environment, what about home activities? Ergonomic STRESSORS

37 Workplace Ergonomics

38 Office Ergonomics - The right equipment, the right place WORK PLACEMENT Position equipment so that your body is in a comfortable and natural position most of the time while you are working. Dont place things so you have to reach, twist or bend continually Place work at monitor height or place in path of monitor Listen to your body. If you cannot focus or often feel tired or uncomfortable, you are probably not working in a good position. See what you can do to make your work more comfortable for you. Disclaimer: Wait a minute! Though this position may look comfortable, it is NOT a comfortable position to work in. Imagine how your back would feel after typing a few pages in this position! Do not equate comfortable leisure positions with comfortable work positions!

39 Ergonomic STRESSORS Environmental conditions Environmental conditions can influence ergonomic stress. Lighting Noise Temperature

40 EYE STRAIN can be prevented Accommodate and exercise your eyes When working on a computer Use computer eyewear when appropriate Placement of reference material and monitor distance should be comfortable for your eyes When doing work at close range Periodically focus on object 20 feet away Blink eyes rapidly if they feel dry When driving for long periods of time Periodically focus on object 5 feet away Blink eyes rapidly if they feel dry Ergonomic STRESSORS

41 Noise can be a STRESSOR If you work near a constant noise source, such as generators or fans, close your door, or wear ear plugs. Besides causing ear damage, constant noise can create extra muscle tension in the body causing fatigue and making it easier for ergonomic injuries to occur. Ergonomic STRESSORS

42 Noise can be a STRESSOR If you use equipment which makes loud noise, wear ear plugs. EH&S can help you find some which are comfortable and appropriate Use of most power equipment, machinery, lawn mowers, and blowers should require ear plugs. x Ergonomic STRESSORS

43 Temperature People are more prone to ergonomic injuries in cold environments because circulation is slowed down and muscles and other tissues are more tense. Dress appropriately Do warm up exercises such as stretching before you begin work. Ergonomic STRESSORS

44 FORCE can be a stressor A task can require a moderate amount of force to be applied to very small muscles Examples: Pushing the same button over Gripping the sides of the phone tightly Pounding a hammer using your wrist muscles Grasping a screwdriver with only a couple of fingers Lifting heavy items with one hand Ergonomic STRESSORS

45 MECHANICAL CONTACT STRESS A hard or sharp surface or object pressing into the soft tissues, the tendons, nerves and blood vessels. Examples: Leaning elbows on hard chair or armrests or work surfaces Sitting on a seat that places pressure on the backs of the thighs Ergonomic STRESSORS

46 VIBRATION causes stress Hand-arm vibration (hand power tools) Whole body vibration (driving rough off roads) If you dont encounter these at work, what about home activities? Ergonomic STRESSORS

47 HOME-OFFICE CONNECTION What happens off the job may influence stress, discomfort, or pain during the workday and vise-versa.The two are intertwined. Hobbies and recreational activities (golf, sewing, gardening, etc.) may cause repetitive motion injuries, which may then be complicated on the job. Ergonomic STRESSORS

48 Psycosocial Stress Any interactions, job tasks or personal problems which cause psychological or social stress cause increased muscle tension, which can make injury more likely. Be aware of these additional stresses and compensate for them by taking extra breaks and being especially careful when under extra pressure. Ergonomic STRESSORS

49 INDIVIDUAL STRESSORS People face different stresses and have different abilities to cope. Employees vary in physical condition. Some individuals are also dealing with chronic illnesses or disabilities We dont live in a vacuum, life stresses can adversely effect the wellness of an individual and contribute to ergonomic stressors. Ergonomic STRESSORS

50 Individual work routine and habit Fortunately, most STRESSORS can be minimized or eliminated by individual habits and work routine. The solution to most ergonomic problems is to work comfortably and avoid a few common ergonomic pitfalls. Solutions

51 Avoid REPETITION Performing the same or similar motions repeatedly for extended periods without time for rest and recovery can lead to discomfort or trauma. Examples: Keyboarding, mousing, and 10-keying Flipping through files & paperwork Extended reading or writing Punching or stapling Pruning or clipping Painting Hammering Solutions

52 AVOID LONG DURATION OF SAME TASK The length of time spent at a task without breaks, shifts in position, or stretches is more important than the actual task. The longer the uninterrupted duration of a task, the more potential for discomfort or injury Our bodies are designed to do work. But the result on the body of doing a repetitive task for 2 hours verses 6 hours straight is very different. Solutions

53 STRETCHES & BREAKS Solutions Static positions are your enemy! Whenever you think of it, change position Small frequent stretches go a long way in preventing MSDs.

54 Stretch Break WSU- TC has purchased this software for all faculty, staff, and students to use if they wish. To download this program, go to Choose 'Open' when prompted to do so. Press 'Ok' and 'Next' until the installation is finished. Stretch Break (default) interrupts you every 30 minutes- suggests three varied stretches which take a total of 1 minute to complete. You cannot believe how much better you feel afterwards. You can cancel the stretches as soon as they come on the screen, choose the amount of time you work before being interrupted ( between 10 minutes and 3 hours) and decide which of the many exercises you want to include, and how many you want to do at each break. Such programs are one of the best preventions of ergonomic injuries at a computer workstation. Even if you choose not to do the exercises, you will be reminded to shift position, etc periodically so that your muscles do not become unduly stressed. Most computer related injuries occur because of projects which engage persons for a substantial length of time.

55 A FEW BREAK IDEAS Organize tasks around built in breaks Eye breaks - blink to moisten eyes every 5-10 minutes. Every 15 minutes or so look away from the screen to distant part of room. Micro-breaks - between burst of activity rest the hands, neck and shoulders in a relaxed straight posture. Rest breaks - every minutes take a brief 5-minute break and engage in another activity. Exercise breaks - every 1-2 hours do gentle stretching exercises Solutions

56 Avoid BAD POSTURES Bad postures are a primary cause of ergonomic injuries Everyone has seen these…. Propping a phone on shoulder Slouching over a computer Solutions

57 Avoid AWKARD POSITIONS Awkward positions bend the joints in a way that they are more likely to become injured. Examples: Reaching up and over Slouching or leaning forward in the chair Leaning forward or bending over work Holding heavy items in position Lifting, pushing pulling Turning head side to side to view the monitor Cradling the phone between the ear and shoulder Typing with bent wrists AWKWARD POSITIONS create STRESS Solutions

58 Avoid SUSTAINED EXERTIONS Static loading occurs when muscles must hold the body in a single position for a long period of time. Lack of movement reduces circulation and causes muscle tension Examples: Holding hands in place Keeping the head still while reading Sitting still for long periods of time Sitting upright without back support STATIC POSITIONS create STRESS Solutions

59 Lifting (Static Loading) A large percentage of ergonomic injuries are due to improper lifting. Planning the lift before attempting it will prevent most injuries. Solutions When evaluating a lifting task, consider: 1.The weight of the object 2.What position it must be lifted from and to 3.How many times you will need to lift it 4.If there will be twisting involved 5.If there is good footing, and if you can get a good grasp on the object

60 Lifting (Static Loading) Use a step stool or platform to reach loads above your head For bulky and oversized loads, get help or use mechanical aids Get a good grip- use handles when available Solutions

61 Lifting (Static Loading) Dont pull Push Get twice the power Reduce the risk of injury Solutions

62 Lifting (Static Loading) Get a firm grip on what you are lifting and be sure you are on solid footing Squat when lifting something from below the waist. Keep heels down and feet shoulder-width apart and turned out Keep the load close to your body Turn your whole body in the direction you want to move- avoid twisting when lifting Keep your knees bent and lean in the direction of the movement Let your legs and body weight do the work Squat to set loads down Solutions

63 NO ONE SOLUTION FOR ALL People come in all shapes and sizes- what works for one person may or may not work for another. Ergonomics is a puzzle to be put together for each individual. What works today may or may not work later. We all change due to time and other circumstances. Individualize Solutions

64 Meet the Challenge! Individuals must take responsibility for their own ergonomic problems. Think about possible MSDs BEFORE you have discomfort! Listen to your body: pay attention to those aches and pains! Individualize Solutions

65 Identify your risk of ergonomic problems Identify types of ergonomic problems Look at your daily work tasks Identify one or more risk factors Review & rethink your work activities/tasks (including those outside of work) For a Free WORK STATION ASSESSMENT Contact your supervisor and Lezlie Couch WSU ergonomic fact sheet Meet the Challenge!

66 Identify barriers to solving the problems Let supervisors know when there is a problem Discuss concerns and possible solutions with your supervisor Adjusting work schedules Modifying job design Rearranging task order Changing task assignments Consult a physician, if warranted Meet the Challenge!

67 Identify approaches to overcoming the barriers Recommend and/or implement solutions. Try something and if it doesnt feel comfortable, discontinue and try something else! As time passes, try to notice if the problem has truly been eliminated. Let your supervisor know how well the controls are working. Meet the Challenge!

68 You Can Reduce Risk Greatly Improve body posture and keep a safe body position avoid awkward positions use tools and equipment correctly Rearrange work area- control your environment, use the right equipment in the right position, keep work within reach Change work habits- practice and use correct procedures, avoid repetition and long duration of a single task take frequent breaks Meet the Challenge! Apply ergonomic principals at home, too REMEMBER!

69 Things YOU can do TODAY Look up & away from your work frequently Change your chair position occasionally Take frequent mini breaks & include stretches/exercises (Use stretch break computer program) Vary tasks and the daily order of tasks Ergonomics is a Win-Win situation! Meet the Challenge!

70 SLIPS TRIPS FALLS Real slips, trips and falls are not funny. At WSU-TC, more people are injured and more work time is lost by slips, trips, and falls, than by any other means.

71 Slips, Trips and Falls Hazards that can lead to slips, trips and falls are often overlooked, even though they cause many injuries ranging from minor cuts and sprains to disabling injuries and even death. Although slip, trip and fall hazards are easily created, they are also easy to correct. Be aware of such hazards, and correct them quickly, before the next person becomes a victim!

72 SLIP Hazards A slip occurs when there is too little friction or traction between footwear and a walking surface. Common causes of slips are: Slippery floor surfaces Liquid, moisture or ice on the floor, Food, trash or other small objects Oil or grease on the floor Footwear without nonskid soles

73 Trip Hazards A trip occurs when a persons foot contacts an object or drops to a lower level unexpectedly, and they are thrown off balance. Some common causes of tripping are: Desk or file cabinet drawers left open, objects protruding into passageways and aisles Electrical or telephone cords that cross passageways and aisles Insufficient lighting for walking or working areas Furniture that creates obstacles Hazardous floor conditions such as protruding nails, holes or loose boards, loose carpet and rugs Elevator cars that do not level off at the same height of the floor stopped at Unsafe stairway conditions or use Materials stored in passageways, aisles and stairways Floor level changes or hidden steps that may not be obvious

74 Fall Hazards In addition to falls as a result of slips and trips, you may be injured if you fall from an elevation. Some causes of falls are: Using makeshift items (boxes, buckets, chairs, etc ) to gain height Not sitting on 4 square of a chair Carrying large or too many items that prevents seeing where you are going Jumping from one level to another

75 Preventing Injuries with good housekeeping Good housekeeping is one of the most important methods for preventing falls due to slips and trips Clean up all spills immediately Mark spills and wet areas Mop or sweep debris from floors Remove obstacles from walkways and always keep them free of clutter Secure mats, rugs and carpets that do not lay flat Always close file cabinets or storage drawers Cover cables that cross walkways Keep work areas and walkways well lit Replace used light bulbs and faulty switches WITHOUT GOOD HOUSEKEEPING PRACTICES, ANY OTHER PREVENTIVE MEASURES (SUCH AS INSTALLING SPECIAL NO-SLIP FLOORING, EXPENSIVE SHOES OR TRAINING ON WALKING TECHNIQUES AND SAFE FALLING) WILL NEVER BE FULLY EFFECTIVE.

76 Walking on Slippery Surfaces Take small steps- shorter than your foot length- to keep your center of balance under you. Walk with your toes pointed outward. This provides a wider, more stable base of support for maintaining balance. Turn gradually- a sharp turn results in a sideways force that can cause loss of balance and a fall Keep both hands free for balance rather than in your pockets. Wear shoes with slip-resistant soles or studded shoe pullovers for walking on icy surfaces Use sidewalks walkways that have been cleared of ice and snow.

77 Using the Stairs Use the handrail from start to finish Avoid carrying loads on the stairways- or only carry loads you can see over. Keep your eyes on where you are going, and descend stairs slowly to keep your balance and identify tripping hazards. Test potentially slippery stairs by tapping them with your foot. Going up or down, keep weight on your back leg until your front foot is safety on the next step. This maintains your center of gravity.

78 Most Slips and Trips can be Prevented As part of the WSU organization, know what to look for and take action to reduce the risk and eliminate the hazards before someone is injured. If you dont, the result can be potentially serious injuries and costly lawsuits. $$

79 In Conclusion… When you have completed this training on preventing injuries due to ergonomic problems and slips, trips and falls, you may return to review it, or you may proceed to take the review quiz. You must complete the quiz and submit it to receive credit for this training. Take responsibility for the safety of your work area. Report unsafe situations or conditions to Facilities (Jerry Massey )or EH&S (Lezlie Couch ) Think Safety Act Safely Click here if you want to go back to the beginning and review the training Click here if you are ready to complete the 15 question quiz


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