Presentation on theme: "Completion of this unit fulfills required WSU safety training for:"— Presentation transcript:
1Completion of this unit fulfills required WSU safety training for: ERGONOMICS at WSUCompletion of this unit fulfills required WSU safety training for:ErgonomicsLiftingSlips, trips and fallsLezlie CouchEH&S- WSU-TC
2What is “Ergonomics”?Ergonomics is the scientific study of human work.Ergonomic principals adapt work to a specific person by designing tasks & tools or equipment to fit the individual to prevent injuries to the musculoskeletal system.
3What are the benefits of ergonomics? Reduction of work-related injuriesIncreased worker productivityIncreased work qualityReduced absenteeismIncreased moraleErgonomics provides a win-win situation…..on and off the jobYOU JUST FEEL BETTER!
4What are the risks of ignoring ergonomic principles? An “MSD” is an illness or injury that affects one or more parts of the musculoskeletal systemBonesMusclesTendonsLigamentsCartilageNervesBlood vesselsOther common terms for “MSDs”are:Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD’s)Repetitive strain injures (RSI’s)Repetitive motion injuries (RMI’s)When not diagnosed and treated these can cause inconvenience permanent pain and disability.MSDMusculoSkeletal Disorders
5Pain SYMPTOMS of MSDs Discomfort Numbness Loss of strength Tingling StiffnessLoss of strengthSwellingPainAchingFatigueTinglingReduced range of motion
6What are MSD’S?MSD’s are injuries caused by sustained exposure to stressors or repetitive motion.They may affect muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, circulation, or nerves.Some well-known MSD’s are:Carpel tunnel syndromeGuyner’s syndromeTrigger fingerTennis elbowCONTINUE
7CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME One of the best known MSDs The median nerve does not work properly due to pressure on the nerve as it runs through an opening called the carpel tunnelNumbness is usually first symptom.OUCH!Pain & tingling, can go up the arm to the shoulder and neck, causing waking to pain in middle of night
8GUYON’S CANAL SYNDROME Similar to carpel tunnel Guyon’s affects the ulnar nerve as it passes through the Guyon canal in the wrist; this is similar to carpal tunnel, but involves a different nerve.Unlike carpel tunnel, Guyon’s affects the little and ring fingers.OUCH!Can be in conjunction with carpal tunnel
9TRIGGER FINGER OUCH! CLICK! Trigger finger affects the ability of tendons to slip back and forth. The tendon and/or ligament thicken and a nodule formsThis can be caused by rheumatoid arthritis, lacerations of tendon, gripping power tools, long hours of grasping steering wheel, or birth defectsSymptoms are pain anda funny clicking sensationOUCH!CLICK!
10TENNIS ELBOWOveruse or misuse of the forearm muscles can cause tendonitis, or a painful inflammation of the tendons connecting these muscles to bone.This condition is broughton or aggravated by poor leveragecausing an uneven distributionof force on a few muscles.This may be when working,or during certain leisure activities,such as sports and gardening.Symptom are severe pain.OUCH!
11The individual plays a large role in preventing MSD’s. ARE MSD’S PREVENTABLE?They are preventable and reversible….. if identified early.The treatment depends on the stage of MSD.If the condition cannot be reversed, treatment can turn into a pain management situation.The individual plays a large role in preventing MSD’s.
12Am I at risk for a MSD? Do you …perform frequent repetitive motions? …bend at the waist or twist when lifting objects?…lift push or pull objects throughout the day?…sometimes use the wrong tool for the job?…grasp tools with your fingers?…forget to take breaks while working?…feel like you are under stress?…have to stretch to reach your work?…forget to adjust your work area to fit your task?The more you answered “yes”, the greater your risk.
13RISK FACTORS which can lead to MSDs (Stressors) Awkward postureStatic loading or sustained exertionContact stressForceVibrationRepetition of same motion for several hours/dayLength of tasks without breaksInsufficient rest timePsychosocial stressThese STRESSORS can be influenced byOrganizational or administrative precautionsEnvironmental conditionsIndividual work routine and habitsMost MSDs are the result of combined risk factors
14Reducing RISK FACTORS for MSDs The purpose of ergonomic training is to help you reduce or eliminate the stresses that can lead to MSDsYour body is designed to do work. When it works in positions or postures in which it is designed to deal with physical stress, there is no problem, but when it is forced to perform under unnatural situations or for abnormal periods of time, injuries can occur.Almost all of the ergonomic stresses at work can be decreased by using the right equipment in the right position so that the body can perform in the right posture.
15Work Comfortably! You spend most of your day in your work area. Review your Work AreaYou spend most of your day in your work area.You don’t want your work area to contribute to ergonomic problemsErgonomic Rule #1Work Comfortably!If most of your work is done in an office continueIf most of your work is done outside of an office continue
16Backrest is provides good lower back support Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place Use a good CHAIRBackrest is provides good lower back supportArms adjustableFront edge of seat pan curves downSeat pan adjustable horizontally and tiltsHeight adjustableOn rollersFive feet for base-most stable
17Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place MONITOR HEIGHT The position of your head and neck is very importantPlace computer monitorsdirectly in front of youThe right height is persondependent- usually the topof the screen at eye level(or slightly below for those whowear bifocals)The screen should be at least an arms length away(If you can’t see at that distance, get special computer glasses)Raise the monitor if you have to look down at it
18Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place KEYBOARD STYLES A variety of styles are available.Choose one that is comfortable for you.
19Keyboard holders should Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place KEYBOARD HOLDERKeyboard holders shouldTiltProvide wrist rests (rest palms not wrist)Provide space for a mouse
20Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place MOUSE HOLDERS Mouse trays or mouse holders can bring a mouse to a better position
21Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place MOUSE STYLES Choose a style comfortable for your hand and fingers
22Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place WORK PLACEMENT Position equipment so that your body is in a comfortable and natural position most of the time while you are working.Don’t place things so you have to reach, twist or bend continuallyPlace work at monitor height or place in path of monitorListen to your body. If you cannot focus or often feel tired or uncomfortable, you are probably not working in a good position.See what you can do to make your work more comfortable for you.Disclaimer: Wait a minute! Though this position may look comfortable, it is NOT a comfortable position to work in.Imagine how your back would feel after typing a few pages in this position!Do not equate comfortable leisure positions with comfortable work positions!
23Monitor at or below eye level Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place Everyone needs a relaxed, neutral positionDO WHAT’S COMFORTABLE FOR YOUR BODY!Monitor at or below eye levelWrists straightBack supportedForearms supportedForearms and thighs parallel to the floorFeet flat on the floor
24Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place MOUSE POSITION Mouse should be close to the keyboard and the same height or slightly higherLocate the mouse to avoid reaching
25Should be different for right and left handers Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place Phone PLACEMENTShould be different for right and left handersYou should not have to twist and reach across your bodyevery time you answer the phone.Consider a head set if you spend a lot of time on the phone, especially if you do other tasks at the same timeMany people need to spend a lot of time on the phone, and must often do other tasks at the same timeThis creates a lot of stressfor neck and shoulder muscles
26Consider getting a document holder Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place Document PLACEMENTPlace documents so that you don’t need to bend your head to read while you keyboardConsider getting a document holder
27Ergonomic STRESSORS Environmental conditions Environmental conditions can influence ergonomic stress.LightingNoiseTemperature….even at a computer station!
28LIGHTING & MONITOR GLARE Ergonomic STRESSORSLIGHTING & MONITOR GLARELighting should be indirect and adequateNot too much light,or it may cause a glare,headaches and eyefatigueIf there is a glare on your eyes as you work, use glare screens on computers, or adjustable blinds at windowsIdeal is foot candles
29Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place GLARE SCREENS
30COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME can be prevented Accommodate your eyesUse computer eyewear when appropriatePlacement of reference materialand monitor distance should becomfortable for your eyesPrevent constant glareKeep monitor cleanUse:indirect lightingnon-reflective walls and furnitureanti-glare screensExercise your eyesPeriodically focus on object 20 feet awayBlink eyes rapidly if they feel dry
31Ergonomic STRESSORSNoise can be a STRESSORIf your office is near a noise source, close your door, or wear ear plugsBesides causing ear damage, constant noise can create extra muscle tension in the body causing fatigue and making it easier for ergonomic injuries to occur.
32Ergonomic STRESSORSTemperaturePeople are more prone to ergonomic injuries in cold environments. Muscles and other tissues are more tense, because of decreased circulation.Dress appropriatelyDo some warm up exercises, such as stretching your hands, to loosen your finger muscles before keyboarding.
33Ergonomic STRESSORSFORCE can be a stressorA task can require a moderate amount of force to be applied to very small musclesExamples:Dragging and dropping with the mouseGripping the sides of the mouse or phone tightlyPounding on the keyboardGrasping thick file foldersStapling or stampingOpening 3-ring binderLifting heavy manuals with one hand
34MECHANICAL CONTACT STRESS Ergonomic STRESSORSMECHANICAL CONTACT STRESSA hard or sharp surface or object pressing into the soft tissues, the tendons, nerves and blood vessels.Examples:Resting wrists on the desk edge while typing or using mouseLeaning elbows on hard chair or armrests or work surfacesSitting in chair that places pressure on the backs of the thighs
35VIBRATION causes stress Ergonomic STRESSORSVIBRATION causes stressHand-arm vibration (hand power tools)Whole body vibration (driving rough off roads)Even if these do not occur in your work environment, what about home activities?CONTINUE
37Office Ergonomics- The right equipment, the right place WORK PLACEMENT Position equipment so that your body is in a comfortable and natural position most of the time while you are working.Don’t place things so you have to reach, twist or bend continuallyPlace work at monitor height or place in path of monitorListen to your body. If you cannot focus or often feel tired or uncomfortable, you are probably not working in a good position.See what you can do to make your work more comfortable for you.Disclaimer: Wait a minute! Though this position may look comfortable, it is NOT a comfortable position to work in.Imagine how your back would feel after typing a few pages in this position!Do not equate comfortable leisure positions with comfortable work positions!
38Ergonomic STRESSORS Environmental conditions Environmental conditions can influence ergonomic stress.LightingNoiseTemperature
39EYE STRAIN can be prevented Ergonomic STRESSORSEYE STRAIN can be preventedAccommodate and exercise your eyesWhen working on a computerUse computer eyewear when appropriatePlacement of reference materialand monitor distance should becomfortable for your eyesWhen doing work at close rangePeriodically focus on object 20 feet awayBlink eyes rapidly if they feel dryWhen driving for long periods of timePeriodically focus on object 5 feet awayBlink eyes rapidly if they feel dry
40Ergonomic STRESSORSNoise can be a STRESSORIf you work near a constant noise source, such as generators or fans, close your door, or wear ear plugs.Besides causing ear damage, constant noise can create extra muscle tension in the body causing fatigue and making it easier for ergonomic injuries to occur.
41x Noise can be a STRESSOR Ergonomic STRESSORS If you use equipment which makes loud noise, wear ear plugs. EH&S can help you find some which are comfortable and appropriateUse of most power equipment, machinery, lawn mowers, and blowers should require ear plugs.x
42Ergonomic STRESSORSTemperaturePeople are more prone to ergonomic injuries in cold environments because circulation is slowed down and muscles and other tissues are more tense.Dress appropriatelyDo warm up exercises such as stretching before you begin work.
43Ergonomic STRESSORSFORCE can be a stressorA task can require a moderate amount of force to be applied to very small musclesExamples:Pushing the same button overGripping the sides of the phone tightlyPounding a hammer using your wrist musclesGrasping a screwdriver with only a couple of fingersLifting heavy items with one hand
44MECHANICAL CONTACT STRESS Ergonomic STRESSORSMECHANICAL CONTACT STRESSA hard or sharp surface or object pressing into the soft tissues, the tendons, nerves and blood vessels.Examples:Leaning elbows on hard chair or armrests or work surfacesSitting on a seat that places pressure on the backs of the thighs
45VIBRATION causes stress Ergonomic STRESSORSVIBRATION causes stressHand-arm vibration (hand power tools)Whole body vibration (driving rough off roads)If you don’t encounter these at work, what about home activities?
46HOME-OFFICE CONNECTION Ergonomic STRESSORSHOME-OFFICE CONNECTIONWhat happens off the job may influence stress, discomfort, or pain during the workday and vise-versa.The two are intertwined.Hobbies and recreational activities (golf, sewing, gardening, etc.) may cause repetitive motion injuries, which may then be complicated on the job.
47Ergonomic STRESSORSPsycosocial StressAny interactions, job tasks or personal problems which cause psychological or social stress cause increased muscle tension, which can make injury more likely. Be aware of these additional stresses and compensate for them by taking extra breaks and being especially careful when under extra pressure.
48Ergonomic STRESSORSINDIVIDUAL STRESSORSPeople face different stresses and have different abilities to cope.Employees vary in physical condition.Some individuals are also dealing with chronic illnesses or disabilitiesWe don’t live in a vacuum, life stresses can adversely effect the wellness of an individual and contribute to ergonomic stressors.
49Individual work routine and habit SolutionsIndividual work routine and habitFortunately,most STRESSORS can be minimized or eliminatedby individual habitsand work routine.The solution to most ergonomic problems is to work comfortably and avoid a few common ergonomic pitfalls.
50Avoid REPETITION Solutions Performing the same or similar motions repeatedly for extended periods without time for rest and recovery can lead to discomfort or trauma.Examples:Keyboarding, mousing, and 10-keyingFlipping through files & paperworkExtended reading or writingPunching or staplingPruning or clippingPaintingHammering
51AVOID LONG DURATION OF SAME TASK SolutionsAVOID LONG DURATION OF SAME TASKThe length of time spent at a task without breaks, shifts in position, or stretches is more important than the actual task.The longer the uninterrupted duration of a task, the more potential for discomfort or injuryOur bodies are designed to do work. But the result on the body of doing a repetitive task for 2 hours verses 6 hours straight is very different.
52STRETCHES & BREAKS Static positions are your enemy! SolutionsSTRETCHES & BREAKSStatic positions are your enemy!Whenever you think of it, change positionSmall frequent stretches go a long way in preventing MSD’s.
53Stretch BreakWSU- TC has purchased this software for all faculty, staff, and students to use if they wish.To download this program, go toChoose 'Open' when prompted to do so. Press 'Ok' and 'Next' until the installation is finished.Stretch Break (default) interrupts you every 30 minutes- suggests three varied stretches which take a total of 1 minute to complete. You cannot believe how much better you feel afterwards.You can cancel the stretches as soon as they come on the screen, choose the amount of time you work before being interrupted ( between 10 minutes and 3 hours) and decide which of the many exercises you want to include, and how many you want to do at each break.Such programs are one of the best preventions of ergonomic injuries at a computer workstation. Even if you choose not to do the exercises, you will be reminded to shift position, etc periodically so that your muscles do not become unduly stressed. Most computer related injuries occur because of projects which engage persons for a substantial length of time.
54A FEW BREAK IDEAS Solutions Organize tasks around built in breaks Eye breaks - blink to moisten eyes every 5-10 minutes. Every 15 minutes or so look away from the screen to distant part of room.Micro-breaks - between burst of activity rest the hands, neck and shoulders in a relaxed straight posture.Rest breaks - every minutes take a brief 5-minute break and engage in another activity.Exercise breaks - every 1-2 hours do gentle stretching exercises
55Avoid BAD POSTURES Solutions Everyone has seen these…. Slouching over a computerPropping a phone on shoulderBad postures are a primary cause of ergonomic injuries
56Avoid AWKARD POSITIONS SolutionsAvoid AWKARD POSITIONSAwkward positions bend the joints in a way thatthey are more likely to become injured.Examples:Reaching up and overSlouching or leaning forward in the chairLeaning forward or bending over workHolding heavy items in positionLifting, pushing pullingTurning head side to side to view the monitorCradling the phone between the ear and shoulderTyping with bent wristsAWKWARD POSITIONScreateSTRESS
57Avoid SUSTAINED EXERTIONS SolutionsAvoid SUSTAINED EXERTIONSStatic loading occurs when muscles must hold the body in a single position for a long period of time. Lack of movement reduces circulation and causes muscle tensionExamples:Holding hands in placeKeeping the head still while readingSitting still for long periods of timeSitting upright without back supportSTATIC POSITIONScreateSTRESS
58Lifting (Static Loading) SolutionsLifting (Static Loading)A large percentage of ergonomic injuries are due to improper lifting. Planning the lift before attempting it will prevent most injuries.When evaluating a lifting task, consider:The weight of the objectWhat position it must be lifted from and toHow many times you will need to lift itIf there will be twisting involvedIf there is good footing, and if you can get a good grasp on the object
59Lifting (Static Loading) SolutionsLifting (Static Loading)Use a step stool or platform to reach loads above your headFor bulky and oversized loads, get help or use mechanical aidsGet a good grip- use handles when available
60Lifting (Static Loading) SolutionsLifting (Static Loading)Don’t pullPushGet twice the powerReduce the risk of injury
61Lifting (Static Loading) SolutionsLifting (Static Loading)Get a firm grip on what you are lifting and be sure you are on solid footingSquat when lifting something from below the waist. Keep heels down and feet shoulder-width apart and turned outKeep the load close to your bodyTurn your whole body in the direction you want to move- avoid twisting when liftingKeep your knees bent and lean in the direction of the movementLet your legs and body weight do the workSquat to set loads down
62Individualize Solutions NO ONE SOLUTION FOR ALLPeople come in all shapes and sizes- what works for one person may or may not work for another.Ergonomics is a puzzle to be put together for each individual.What works today may or may not work later. We all change due to time and other circumstances.
63Individualize Solutions Meet the Challenge!Individuals must take responsibility for their own ergonomic problems.Think about possible MSDs BEFORE you have discomfort!Listen to your body: pay attention to those aches and pains!
64Identify your risk of ergonomic problems Meet the Challenge!Identify types of ergonomic problemsLook at your daily work tasksIdentify one or more risk factorsReview & rethink your work activities/tasks (including those outside of work)For a Free WORK STATION ASSESSMENT Contact your supervisor and Lezlie CouchWSU ergonomic fact sheet
65Identify barriers to solving the problems Meet the Challenge!Let supervisors know when there is a problemDiscuss concerns and possible solutions with your supervisorAdjusting work schedulesModifying job designRearranging task orderChanging task assignmentsConsult a physician, if warranted
66Meet the Challenge!Identify approaches to overcoming the barriersRecommend and/or implement solutions.Try something and if it doesn’t feel comfortable, discontinue and try something else!As time passes, try to notice if the problem has truly been eliminated.Let your supervisor know how well the controls are working.
67You Can Reduce Risk Greatly Meet the Challenge!REMEMBER!You Can Reduce Risk GreatlyImprove body posture and keep a safe body positionavoid awkward positionsuse tools and equipment correctlyRearrange work area-control your environment,use the right equipment in the right position,keep work within reachChange work habits-practice and use correct procedures,avoid repetition and long duration of a single tasktake frequent breaksApply ergonomic principals at home, too
68Things YOU can do TODAY Look up & away from your work frequently Meet the Challenge!Things YOU can do TODAYLook up & away from your work frequentlyChange your chair position occasionallyTake frequent mini breaks & include stretches/exercises(Use stretch break computer program)Vary tasks and the daily order of tasksErgonomics is a Win-Win situation!
69Real slips, trips and falls are not funny. SLIPS TRIPS FALLSReal slips, trips and falls are not funny.At WSU-TC, more people are injured and more work time is lost by slips, trips, and falls, than by any other means.
70Slips, Trips and FallsHazards that can lead to slips, trips and falls are often overlooked, even though they cause many injuries ranging from minor cuts and sprains to disabling injuries and even death.Although slip, trip and fall hazards are easily created, they are also easy to correct.Be aware of such hazards, and correct them quickly, before the next person becomes a victim!
71SLIP HazardsA slip occurs when there is too little friction or traction between footwear and a walking surface. Common causes of slips are:Slippery floor surfacesLiquid, moisture or ice on the floor,Food, trash or other small objectsOil or grease on the floorFootwear without nonskid soles
72Some common causes of tripping are: Trip HazardsA trip occurs when a person’s foot contacts an object or drops to a lower level unexpectedly, and they are thrown off balance.Some common causes of tripping are:Hazardous floor conditions such as protruding nails, holes or loose boards, loose carpet and rugsFurniture that creates obstaclesUnsafe stairway conditions or useElectrical or telephone cords that cross passageways and aislesFloor level changes or hidden steps that may not be obviousInsufficient lighting for walking or working areasElevator cars that do not level off at the same height of the floor stopped atDesk or file cabinet drawers left open, objects protruding into passageways and aislesMaterials stored in passageways, aisles and stairways
73Fall HazardsIn addition to falls as a result of slips and trips, you may be injured if you fall from an elevation. Some causes of falls are:Using makeshift items (boxes, buckets, chairs, etc ) to gain heightNot sitting on “4 square” of a chairCarrying large or too many items that prevents seeing where you are goingJumping from one level to another
74Preventing Injuries with good housekeeping WITHOUT GOOD HOUSEKEEPING PRACTICES,ANY OTHER PREVENTIVE MEASURES (SUCH AS INSTALLING SPECIAL NO-SLIP FLOORING, EXPENSIVE SHOES OR TRAINING ON WALKING TECHNIQUES AND SAFE FALLING)WILL NEVER BE FULLY EFFECTIVE.Good housekeeping is one of the most important methods for preventing falls due to slips and tripsClean up all spills immediatelyMark spills and wet areasMop or sweep debris from floorsRemove obstacles from walkways and always keep them free of clutterSecure mats, rugs and carpets that do not lay flatAlways close file cabinets or storage drawersCover cables that cross walkwaysKeep work areas and walkways well litReplace used light bulbs and faulty switches
75Walking on Slippery Surfaces Take small steps- shorter than your foot length- to keep your center of balance under you.Walk with your toes pointed outward. This provides a wider, more stable base of support for maintaining balance.Turn gradually- a sharp turn results in a sideways force that can cause loss of balance and a fallKeep both hands free for balance rather than in your pockets.Wear shoes with slip-resistant soles or studded shoe pullovers for walking on icy surfacesUse sidewalks walkways that have been cleared of ice and snow.
76Using the Stairs Use the handrail from start to finish Avoid carrying loads on the stairways- or only carry loads you can see over.Keep your eyes on where you are going, and descend stairs slowly to keep your balance and identify tripping hazards.Test potentially slippery stairs by tapping them with your foot.Going up or down, keep weight on your back leg until your front foot is safety on the next step. This maintains your center of gravity.
77Most Slips and Trips can be Prevented As part of the WSU organization, know what to look for and take action to reduce the risk and eliminate the hazards before someone is injured.If you don’t, the result can be potentially serious injuries and costly lawsuits.$
78In Conclusion… Take responsibility for the safety of your work area. Report unsafe situations or conditions toFacilities (Jerry Massey )orEH&S (Lezlie Couch )Think Safety Act SafelyWhen you have completed this training on preventing injuries due to ergonomic problems and slips, trips and falls, you may return to review it, or you may proceed to take the review quiz. You must complete the quiz and submit it to receive credit for this training.Click here if you want to go back to the beginning and review the trainingClick here if you are ready to complete the 15 question quiz