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1.Application of UV-C 2.Problems with HVAC Systems 1.How does UV-C help? 3.What is UV-C 4.How do UV-C Lamps Work 5.ASHRAE Update 6.CDC and GSA specifications.

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Presentation on theme: "1.Application of UV-C 2.Problems with HVAC Systems 1.How does UV-C help? 3.What is UV-C 4.How do UV-C Lamps Work 5.ASHRAE Update 6.CDC and GSA specifications."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1.Application of UV-C 2.Problems with HVAC Systems 1.How does UV-C help? 3.What is UV-C 4.How do UV-C Lamps Work 5.ASHRAE Update 6.CDC and GSA specifications 7.Questions

3 Applications

4 UV in HVACR System Goals Control Bio-Film Control Bio-aerosols Degrade Other Organic Debris Maintenance Who enjoys cleaning coils? So To Reduce: IAQ Problems Absenteeism Energy Use

5 Bio-Contamination

6 Causes: Higher Coil ΔP Reduced: Air Flow Heat Exchange Efficiency Drain Pan Drainage Source of: Mycotoxins Endotoxins Microbial VOC Other Odor

7 Bio-Lunch at a Well Known Tobacco Plant

8 Various Infected Coils & Drain Pans

9 Plenums, Fans & Dampers

10 Hospital Drain Pans & Overflow

11 Mold Growth in Filter

12 Mold on Fan

13 Coil Surface Samples

14 THE PROBLEM

15 Depending on the region, more than half the energy consumed can be for powering air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. And electrical power costs are often the largest expenditure for most occupied buildings. Reducing energy use while improving the working environment of a building has always been a common goal. Ventilation & Cooling 52% Lighting 31% Other 17% Energy Consumption

16 Organic Matter Buildup Lowers Coil Efficiency / Increase in Coil Pressure Add only.006 of bio film: New Clean Coil: Optimum cooling/ Design = Decreased efficiency =

17 Typical Responses To The Problem Speed up Fan Lower Coil Water TempPump More Chilled Water Increased kWh Usage on Fan Motors = Increased kWh Usage on Pump Motors = Significantly Increases kWh Usage on Chiller = INCREASED ENERGY COSTS

18 THE SOLUTION

19 Restore The Coil Efficiency Energy is Reflected Through The Coil UV-C Energy Vaporizes Organic Matter Week One Week Five UV-C on The Coil

20 Aluminum surfaces throughout a coil are highly reflective to the UVC wavelength such that there is an increase in Flux Density between coil fins. Fig. 6 – Ray-tracing computer model of UVC spectral lines being reflected throughout the coil vaporizing organic matter in their path. Twenty only, out of billions of different angle reflections are shown with a 80 percent reflective value.

21 Harvesting Energy Savings From A Restored Cooling Coil Slow Down Fan Raise Coil Water TempPump Less Chilled Water Restored kWh Usage = Restored kWh Usage = Restores Significant kWh Usage = SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SAVINGS

22 UVC-HVAC Applications

23 What is UV-C

24 Light Spectrum

25 Ultraviolet Light Spectrum 1nm = 1/1000 micron UV-A (315nm - 400nm) - Includes black lights, sun tanning lamps and it is harmful to eyes UV-B (280nm - 315nm) - Causes sunburn and Skin cancer UV-C (200nm - 280nm) - Is naturally germicidal, damages the DNA of microbes and more The Sun produces all 3, UV-A & UV-B make it through the Earths atmosphere. UV-C is mostly filtered out

26 DNA Response to UV Energy

27 Light Spectrum Germicidal UV-C Lamp nm

28 Cell Destruction Electromagnetic energy breaks through cell wall Damages DNA Cannot reproduce or feed Cell Dies UVC energy enters the cell

29 DNA Damage

30 Lamps

31 Many kinds of lamps Black light UV-A UV-C Germicidal Fluorescent

32 Impure or junk glass; does not transmit UV-C Contains Mercury (Hg) Contains Phosphor Contains Noble gas (Argon is the most common)

33 Germicidal Lamps Glass that transmits UV-C Quartz Soda Barium (soft glass) Phosphor is removed Contains Mercury (Hg) Majority use Argon some use a mixture of Argon/ Neon or maybe a little Xenon

34 Fluorescent Vs. UV-C Lamps

35 Lamp Wattage/ Output Philips Lamp DescriptionLamp WattageDiameterµW/CM 2 Philips TUV 4W4T59 Philips TUV 6W6T515 Philips TUV 8W8T521 Philips TUV 10W10T823 Philips TUV 11W11T526 Philips TUV 15W15T848 Philips TUV 16W16T545 Philips TUV Fl7T817T888 Philips TUV 25W25T569 Philips TUV 25W25T869 Philips TUV 30W30T8100 Philips TUV 36W36T8145 Philips TUV 55W HO55T8150 Philips TUV 75W HO75T8220 Philips TUV 115W-R VHO115T12610 Philips TUV 115W VHO115T12360 Philips TUV 240W XPT240T6800 Philips TUV 270W XPT270T10920 Philips TUV PL-S 5W/2P5PLS9 Philips TUV PL-S 7W/2P7PLS15 Philips TUV PL-S 9W/2P9PLS22 Philips TUV PL-S I I W/2P11PLS33 Philips TUV PL-S I 3W/2P13PLS31 Philips TUV PL-L I 8W/4P18PLL51 Philips TUV PL-L 24W/4P24PLL65 Philips TUV PL-L 35W/4P HO35PLL105 Philips TUV PL-L 36W/4P36PLL110 Philips TUV PL-L 55W/4P HF55PLL156 Philips TUV PL-L 60W/4P60PLL166 Philips TUV PL-L 95W14P HO95PLL250 Philips TUV 36T540T5144 Philips TUV 64T575T5280 Philips TUV 36T5 HO75T5230 Philips TUV 64T5 HO145T5442

36 Lamp Intensity Philips TUV PL-L 35W/4P HO35PLL105 Philips TUV PL-L 36W/4P36PLL110 Philips TUV PL-L 55W/4P HF55PLL156 Philips TUV PL-L 60W/4P60PLL166 Philips TUV PL-L 95W14P HO95PLL250 Philips TUV 36T540T5144 Philips TUV 64T575T5280 Philips TUV 36T5 HO75T5230 Philips TUV 64T5 HO145T5442 For a variety of low pressure mercury TUV lamps, the irradiance values at I meter distance are expressed below. Philips Lamp DescriptionLamp WattageDiameterMicrowatt/CM2

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38 Intensity Factors Lamps follow the inverse square law Closer to the lamp the higher the intensity Lamp Intensity Factors Lamp µW/CM 2 Philips TUV 64T5 HO442 Distance from Lamp (inches)IntensityµW/CM

39 Safety

40 UV-C Exposure limits

41 UV-C Exposure

42 Radiometer

43 HVAC Applications for UV-C Two distinct applications for UVC Decontaminating surfaces Coils Filters capture and kill Decontaminating moving air-streams (on-the-fly) Coil 800 MicroWatt/cm2 shown On-The Fly Shown is 12,000 MicroWatt/cm2

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49 ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

50 ASHRAE Highlights TG 2.UVAS created in Winter Meeting 2005 (Orlando) TG 2.UVAS was turned into a full TC (TC-2.9) SPC was formed (On-the-Fly kill) SPC was formed (Surface kill) ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook Published Chapter 16 Highlights UV Fundamentals – ASHRAE Board of Directors publishes a position paper on Airborne Infectious Diseases…highlights UV-C 2011 – SPC goes out for public review 2011 – AHSRAE HVAC Applications Handbook Published Chapter 60 covers UV applications

51 2008 Fundamentals Handbook

52 2011 HVAC Applications Handbook

53 SPC-185 SPC MOT.UVC Lights for use in air handling units or air ducts to inactivate airborne microorganisms 1.PURPOSE This standard establishes a test method for evaluating the efficacy of a UVC device for inactivating airborne microorganisms in a moving air stream. SPC Method of Testing Ultraviolet Lamps for Use in HVAC&R Units or Air Ducts on Irradiated Surfaces. 1.PURPOSE This standard establishes a test method for measuring the intensity of ultraviolet lamps on irradiated surfaces under typical HVAC&R operating conditions

54 Position Document

55 Airborne Infectious Diseases There are three general UVGI strategies: installation into ventilating ducts, irradiation of the upper zones of occupied spaces, and in-room irradiation after one occupant and before the next. Filtration and UVGI controls research are given top priority because less is known about how these controls can be applied in buildings and HVAC systems to decrease disease events.

56 Research Priority

57 ASHRAE 2012-New Committee New Committee is being formed to write PD position documents for Air Cleaning Devices Air Filtration UV-C Others Will last 18 months 10 – 15 documents will be presented to ASHRAE for publication.

58 CDC Guidelines

59 TB in Pakistan Tuberculosis (TB), an illness that mainly affects the respiratory system, is one of the world's most pernicious diseases. TB currently infects one-third of the world's population and kills approximately 1.7 million people each year. Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide Pakistan cases are estimated at 286,000 annually Pakistan ranked 6 th in the world on TB burden

60 CDC Because of the results of numerous studies ( ) and the experiences of TB clinicians and mycobacteriologists during the past several decades, the use of UVGI has been recommended as a supplement to other TB infection-control measures in settings where the need for killing or inactivating tubercle bacilli is important (2,4, ). Commercially available UV lamps used for germicidal purposes are low-pressure mercury vapor lamps (127) that emit radiant energy in the UV-C range, predominantly at a wavelength of nm (128).

61 Correctional Facilities

62 GSA Specification

63 Implemented in 2000 Last revision was in 2005 Section Five, Sub-Section 5.8, Page 135 HVAC Components Revised March 2005 – PBS-P100

64 GSA Section 5.8, pg 135

65 UL proposed Will require AHU manufactures to test for leaking of UV from cabinets. The emissions from the equipment shall not exceed an effective irradiance value of 0.1 microWatts/cm 2 The ratings of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation lamp system shall include, lamp rating in watts and voltage. Conclusion: OEMs will rate cabinets for the maximum Lamp Watts

66 Take Away Remember ALL Germicidal lamps have their output at 253.7nm Wattage dictates output…higher wattage = More UV-C output Finally, A Watt is A Watt

67 UV-C Benefits Improves Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Cleans coils and drain pans Recovers coil efficiencies Reduces energy consumption ASHRAE acceptance Two chapters, two proposed test standards & Position Documents Should be a Standard of Care

68 Thank You


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