15Energy ConsumptionDepending on the region, more than half the energy consumed can be for powering air conditioning and refrigeration equipment.And electrical power costs are often the largest expenditure for most occupied buildings.Other17%Ventilation& Cooling52%Lighting31%Reducing energy use while improving the working environment of a building has always been a common goal.
16Optimum cooling/ Design Organic Matter Buildup Lowers Coil Efficiency / Increase in Coil PressureNew Clean Coil:Optimum cooling/ Design=Add only .006”of bio film:Decreased efficiency=
17Typical Responses To The Problem Speed up FanPump MoreChilled WaterLower Coil Water TempaIncreased kWhUsage on Fan MotorsIncreased kWhUsage on Pump MotorsSignificantly Increases kWh Usage on Chiller===INCREASED ENERGY COSTS
19Restore The Coil Efficiency UV-C on The CoilUV-C Energy Vaporizes Organic MatterEnergy is Reflected Through The CoilWeek OneWeek Five
20Aluminum surfaces throughout a coil are highly reflective to the UVC wavelength such that there is an increase in Flux Density between coil fins.Fig. 6 – Ray-tracing computer model of UVC spectral lines being reflected throughout the coil vaporizing organic matter in their path. Twenty only, out of billions of different angle reflections are shown with a 80 percent reflective value.
21Harvesting Energy Savings From A Restored Cooling Coil Slow Down FanPump LessChilled WaterRaise Coil Water TempaRestored kWhUsageRestored kWhUsageRestores Significant kWh Usage===SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SAVINGS
25Ultraviolet Light Spectrum 1nm = 1/1000 micronUV-A (315nm - 400nm) - Includes black lights, sun tanning lamps and it is harmful to eyesUV-B (280nm - 315nm) - Causes sunburn and Skin cancerUV-C (200nm - 280nm) - Is naturally germicidal, damages the DNA of microbes and moreThe Sun produces all 3, UV-A & UV-B make it through the Earth’s atmosphere. UV-C is mostly filtered out
31Many kinds of lampsBlack lightUV-AUV-CGermicidalFluorescent
32Fluorescent Impure or “junk” glass; does not transmit UV-C Contains Mercury (Hg)Contains PhosphorContains Noble gas (Argon is the most common)
33Germicidal Lamps Glass that transmits UV-C Phosphor is removed QuartzSoda Barium (“soft glass”)Phosphor is removedContains Mercury (Hg)Majority use Argon some use a mixture of Argon/ Neon or maybe a little Xenon
38Lamp Intensity Factors µW/CM2Philips TUV 64T5 HO442Distance from Lamp (inches)Intensity232.314277322.810078418.68221612.9570289.854354107.943509126.482864145.352365183.61591242.331030361.2253939.371480.681301600.452200800.2561131000.169751200.11551Lamps follow the inverse square lawCloser to the lamp the higher the intensity
43HVAC Applications for UV-C Two distinct applications for UVCDecontaminating surfacesCoilsFilters “capture and kill”Decontaminating moving air-streams(“on-the-fly”)“On-The Fly”Shown is 12,000 MicroWatt/cm2“Coil”800 MicroWatt/cm2 shown
49ASHRAEAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
50ASHRAE Highlights2005 -TG 2.UVAS created in Winter Meeting 2005 (Orlando)TG 2.UVAS was turned into a full TC (TC-2.9)SPC was formed (“On-the-Fly” kill)2007- SPC was formed (Surface kill)ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook Published Chapter 16 Highlights UV Fundamentals.2009 – ASHRAE Board of Directors publishes a position paper on Airborne Infectious Diseases…highlights UV-C2011 – SPC goes out for public review2011 – AHSRAE HVAC Applications Handbook Published Chapter 60 covers UV applications
53SPC-185SPC MOT.UVC Lights for use in air handling units or air ducts to inactivate airborne microorganisms1. PURPOSEThis standard establishes a test method for evaluating the efficacy of a UVC device for inactivating airborne microorganisms in a moving air stream.SPC Method of Testing Ultraviolet Lamps for Use in HVAC&R Units or Air Ducts on Irradiated Surfaces.This standard establishes a test method for measuring the intensity of ultraviolet lamps on irradiated surfaces under typical HVAC&R operating conditions
55Airborne Infectious Diseases There are three general UVGI strategies: installation into ventilating ducts, irradiation of the upper zones of occupied spaces, and in-room irradiation after one occupant and before the next.Filtration and UVGI controls research are given top priority because less is known about how these controls can be applied in buildings and HVAC systems to decrease disease events.
57ASHRAE 2012-New CommitteeNew Committee is being formed to write “PD” position documents for “Air Cleaning Devices”Air FiltrationUV-COthersWill last 18 months10 – 15 documents will be presented to ASHRAE for publication.
59TB in PakistanTuberculosis (TB), an illness that mainly affects the respiratory system, is one of the world's most pernicious diseases.TB currently infects one-third of the world's population and kills approximately 1.7 million people each year.Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwidePakistan cases are estimated at 286,000 annuallyPakistan ranked 6th in the world on TB burden
60CDCBecause of the results of numerous studies ( ) and the experiences of TB clinicians and mycobacteriologists during the past several decades, the use of UVGI has been recommended as a supplement to other TB infection-control measures in settings where the need for killing or inactivating tubercle bacilli is important (2,4, ).Commercially available UV lamps used for germicidal purposes are low-pressure mercury vapor lamps (127) that emit radiant energy in the UV-C range, predominantly at a wavelength of nm (128).
65UL “proposed”Will require AHU manufactures to test for leaking of UV from cabinets.The emissions from the equipment shall not exceed an effective irradiance value of 0.1 microWatts/cm2The ratings of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation lamp system shall include, lamp rating in watts and voltage.Conclusion:OEM’s will rate cabinets for the maximum “Lamp Watts”
66Take Away Remember ALL Germicidal lamps have their output at 253.7nm Wattage dictates output…higher wattage = More UV-C outputFinally, A Watt is A Watt
67UV-C Benefits Improves Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Cleans coils and drain pansRecovers coil efficienciesReduces energy consumptionASHRAE acceptanceTwo chapters, two proposed test standards & Position DocumentsShould be a “Standard of Care”