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Prescription Drug Abuse: Loosening the Knot J. Patrick Slifka, LCSW & George Young, LCSW.

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Presentation on theme: "Prescription Drug Abuse: Loosening the Knot J. Patrick Slifka, LCSW & George Young, LCSW."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prescription Drug Abuse: Loosening the Knot J. Patrick Slifka, LCSW & George Young, LCSW

2 Why Were Here

3 Dealer out of Business?

4 Which is More Dangerous?

5 Just The Facts All of these drugs are available – right now. They do what theyre advertised to do. If your individuals (particularly your adolescent ones) have not been already, they will soon be in a position to make a choice…to use or not to use. Their choice will carry both a benefit and a consequence.

6 Just The Facts Drugs are not inherently evil, bad, or good – theyre simply chemicals. The Relationship a person forms with a drug becomes the problem – and the problem gets progressively and significantly worse over time. Remember that not all individuals have the same responses to the same drug or class of drugs. There are idiosyncratic reactions we have to assess and understand.

7 Why Were Here? Epidemic? Problem? Attitude is the father of the Action Ethical Obligation and Competent Practice

8 Jeopardy Time

9 Jeopardy Question #1 The Answer is: Patients leave a doctors office with this on 7 out of every 10 visits. What is a Prescription?

10 Jeopardy Question #2 The Answer is: Medicine Cabinets Where do a large number of teens who abuse prescription medications get their drugs?

11 Jeopardy Question #3 The Answer is: Dr. Gregory House and American High School Seniors identify this prescription drug as their favorite. What is Vicodin?

12 Trends and Statistics The Landscape

13 A View of the Landscape


15 Rates of Rx drug sales, deaths and substance abuse tx admissions






21 1 in 6 Teenagers


23 Most Commonly Abused Medications Among U.S. High School Seniors (2010 Annual Prevalence) Source: Monitoring the Future, University of Michigan, December 14, 2010



26 What is Driving the Prevalence? Misperceptions about safety. Increasing environmental availability Varied motivations for their abuse.

27 Other Factors Driving Trend: Pill-Taking Society Rx medications are all around us…and teens notice. Patients leave the doctors office with a prescription in hand in 7 out of 10 visits. Direct-to-consumer advertising on TV and in magazines. Many people dont know how to safely use these medications or ignore their doctors instructions.

28 Common Prescription Drugs of Abuse Signs, Symptoms and Biopsychosocial Consequences

29 Top 10 Most Dangerous Drugs in America (DAWN database of ER visits) 1. Xanax 2. Oxycontin 3. Vicodin 4. Methadone 5. Klonopin 6. Ativan 7. Morphine Drugs (opiates) 8. Seroquel (Antipsychotic) 9. Ambien 10. Valium

30 Most Commonly Abused Classes of Prescription Drugs Opioid Pain Relievers (Opiates, Narcotics) CNS Stimulants (primarily those used in the tx of ADHD) CNS Depressants (Sedatives, Hypnotics, Anxiolytics)

31 Key Assessment Point: Effects of Drugs Depend on… Route of administration Amount taken at one time Users past drug experience Circumstances under which the drug is taken (the place, the users psychological and emotional stability, the presence of other people, simultaneous use of alcohol and other drugs, etc.)

32 Commonly Abused Rx Drugs How they workAbused toDrug names Strong Pain RelieversUsed to relieve moderate-to-severe pain, these medications block pain signals to the brain To get high, increase feelings of well being by affecting the brain regions that mediate pleasure Vicodin, OxyContin, Percocet, Lorcet, Lortab, Actiq, Darvon, Codeine, Morphine, Methadone StimulantsPrimarily used to treat ADHD type symptoms, these speed up brain activity causing increased alertness, attention, and energy that comes with elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate and breathing Feel alert, focused and full of energyperhaps around final exams or to manage coursework, lose weight Adderall, Dexedrine Ritalin, Concerta Sedatives or tranquilizers Used to slow down or depress the functions of the brain and central nervous system Feel calm, reduce stress, sleep Valium, Xanax, Ativan, Klonopin, Restoril, Ambien, Lunesta, Mebaral, Nembutal, Soma

33 Opioid Pain Relievers (Opiates/Narcotics )

34 What are Opiates? Opiates are a group of drugs that are used for treating pain. They are derived from opium which comes from the poppy plant. Opiates go by a variety of names including opiates, opioids, and narcotics. The term opiates is sometimes used for close relatives of opium such as codeine, morphine and heroin, while the term opioids is used for the entire class of drugs including synthetic opiates such as Oxycontin. But the most commonly used term is opiates.

35 Dried Opium Poppy

36 Commonly Used & Abused Opiates Opium Codeine …anybody youre working with taking any of these? Morphine Tramadol (Ultram) Methadone Buprenorphine (Subutex) Propoxyphene (Darvocet) Pethidine (Demerol) Hydrocodone (Lortab/Vicodin) Oxycodone (Percocet, Oxycontin) Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) Oxymorphone (Opana) Fentanyl Heroin (diacetylmorphine)

37 Most Rxd Opiate in America

38 Oxycontin

39 Opiates Opiates are highly effective in controlling moderate to severe pain, but they also have a downside. Opiates are highly addictive…and once a person starts abusing them he/she generally becomes dependent (addicted) to them.

40 Opiate Effects Feelings of Euphoria Suppression of Pain Depressed Respiratory Rate Lowered Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Lethargy/Drowsiness Clouded Mental Functioning Nausea/Vomiting Lowered Body Temperature Muscle and Bone Pain Physical/Psychological Dependence Severe Withdrawal Symptoms Mood Swings Severe Constipation Unconsciousness Coma Death by Overdose

41 Opiates: Long Term Effects Cause significant changes to the nerochemical, molecular and cellular levels. Changes brain structure and functioning that lasts well beyond the substance use. These changes are part of what can trigger drug cravings years after last use.


43 How Do Opiates Work? Opiates elicit their powerful effects by activating opiate receptors that are widely distributed throughout the brain and body. Once an opiate reaches the brain, it quickly activates the opiate receptors that are found in many brain regions and produces an effect that correlates with the area of the brain involved.opiate receptors

44 How Do Opiates Work? Two important effects produced by opiates, such as morphine, are pleasure (or reward) and pain relief. The brain itself also produces substances known as endorphins that activate the opiate receptors. Research indicates that endorphins are involved in many things, including respiration, nausea, vomiting, pain modulation, and hormonal regulation. morphine endorphins

45 Opiate Agonists Opiate agonists are drugs that stimulate the opioid receptors in the brain, leading to the high associated with opiate drugs. They include Heroin, Vicodin, Morphine, Codeine and Methadone. They mimic the effects of naturally-occurring endorphins in the body, and produce an opiate effect by interacting with the opioid receptor sites.

46 Opiate Antagonists Opiate antagonists block the brains opioid receptors, making it impossible for opiate drugs to stimulate them. For example, drugs like Naloxone and Naltrexone make it so that, if the user were to take a drug like heroin afterwards, there would be no high. These medications are often used to combat the overdose effects of an opiate or to help break an addiction.

47 Partial Opiate Agonists Partial opiate agonists are drugs that have a ceiling effect. In other words, they can only stimulate the opioid receptors to a certain extent. Buprenorphine, the main ingredient in Suboxone, is one of these. No matter how much Suboxone you take, its effects are limited.

48 Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Anxiolytics

49 Sedatives, Hypnotics and Anxiolytics Drugs that reversibly depress the activity of the central nervous system. Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, and other sedative-hypnotics have diverse chemical and pharmacological properties that share the ability to depress the activity of all excitable tissue, especially in the arousal center of the brainstem. Barbiturates (Sedatives): Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal and Phenobarbital. Benzodiazepines (Anti-Anxiety): Ativan, Halcion, Librium, Valium, Xanax, and Rohypnol. Other Sedative-Hypnotics (Sleep Inducers): Lunesta, Sonata, Ambien.

50 Barbiturates In therapeutic doses, barbiturates are effective and are typically used for seizure disorders and anesthesia. Using them to get high is extremely dangerous because there is a relatively small difference between the desired dose and an overdose. A small miscalculation, which is easy to make, can lead to coma, respiratory distress (breathing slows or stops) and death. Withdrawal from barbiturates is similar to, and sometimes more severe than, alcohol withdrawal. Seizures are possible and can also lead to death.

51 Common Barbiturates Amytal Nembutal Seconal Phenobarbital Seconal 100mg A barbiturate may be prescribed for a variety of reasons, the list is extensive, but the most common use today is as an anesthesia for surgery. This form is hardly ever abused because they cause almost immediate unconsciousness. Other forms like Phenobarbital are used in treating various seizure disorders as an anticonvulsant. Other uses of this form of barbiturate along with mephobarbital include treating anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy and delirium tremens.

52 Benzodiazepines The benzodiazepine family of depressants is used therapeutically to produce sedation, induce sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and to prevent seizures. In general, benzodiazepines act as hypnotics in high doses, anxiolytics (anti-anxiety) in moderate doses, and sedatives in low doses. Of the drugs marketed in the United States that affect central nervous system function, benzodiazepines are among the most widely prescribed medications. Compared to barbiturates, benzodiazepines are much safer. They cause sedation but rarely stop a persons breathing or lead to death (unless combined with other CNS depressants).

53 Common Benzodiazepines Ativan Halcion Librium Restoril Valium Xanax Rohypnol (not marketed in U.S.)

54 Other Sedative-Hypnotics: Sleep Aids This is a newer class of drugs that is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. They cause the onset of sleep to occur faster and allows for a longer sleep period throughout the night. These non-benzodiazepines have a short half-life and have less chance of causing dependency, tolerance, and impairment of daytime activities due to carry-over effects. Again, combining any of these drugs or using them with alcohol (and other depressants) can lead to dangerous effects.

55 Common Sleep Aids/Hypnotics Ambien/Ambien CR Sonata Rozerem Precedex Lunesta

56 CNS Stimulants

57 CNS Stimulants are a class of drugs that elevate mood, increase feelings of well-being and increase energy and alertness. Examples include: Caffeine *Amphetamines Cocaine Methamphetamine Bath Salts

58 Amphetamines Synthetic psychoactive CNS stimulant drugs including amphetamine, dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine Medications containing amphetamines are prescribed for narcolepsy, obesity and ADHD (including Adderall, Dexedrine, DextroStat, and Desoxyn). The basic molecule of amphetamine can be modified to emphasize specific actions (e.g., appetite suppressant, CNS stimulant, cardiovascular actions) for certain medications…including methylphenidate (Ritalin and Concerta).

59 Dexedrine

60 Ritalin

61 Adderall

62 Adderall: The Study Pill

63 Amphetamines Cause release of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine – and their reuptake is inhibited. This influx causes the buildup of NTs at synapses in the brain. When mixed with other drugs (including alcohol), the effects of prescription amphetamines are enhanced. When the drug is snorted, effects occur within 3-5 minutes. When ingested orally, effects occur within 15 to 20 minutes.

64 Amphetamines: Short-Term Effects Increased activity/talkativeness Decreased fatigue/drowsiness Heightened sense of well-being Heightened alertness/energy Euphoria Release of social inhibitions Altered sexual behavior Unrealistic feelings of cleverness, great competence, and power Hostility or paranoia Increased body temperature Irregular or increased heart rate Increased diastolic/systolic BP Decreased appetite Dry mouth Dilated pupils Increased respiration Nausea Headache Palpitations Cardiovascular system failure Twitching/Tremor of small muscles

65 Amphetamines: Long-Term Effects Toxic psychosis Physiological and behavioral disorders Dizziness Pounding heartbeat Difficulty breathing Mood/Mental changes Unusual tiredness/weakness Cardiac arrhythmias Repetitive motor activity Ulcers Malnutrition Mental Illness Skin disorders Vitamin deficiency Flush or pale skin Loss of coordination and physical collapse Convulsions, coma and death.

66 Amphetamines: Potential for Abuse Rx amphetamines are taken orally and in low doses, drug abuse and addiction are not serious risks. Abuse of amphetamines can lead to tolerance and physical/psychological dependence characterized by consuming increasingly higher dosages and by the binge and crash cycle. When the binge episode ends, the abuser crashes and is left with severe depression, anxiety, extreme fatigue, and a craving for more drugs. The chronic abuse of amphetamines is characterized by erratic (sometimes violent) behavior – as well as a psychosis similar to schizophrenia.

67 Screening and Evaluation

68 Screening & Assessment: 3 Primary Goals 1. To Obtain Information/Collect a Database 2. To Determine Eligibility for a Particular Service 3. To Engage the Individual/Family in the Treatment Process

69 The Clinical Assessment Interview: Basic Elements Only One part of a multimodal evaluation Formally arranged meeting Has specific purpose Interviewer chooses topic/broad content Defined relationships Interviewer attuned to ALL aspects of interaction - Affect, Behavior, Style (Process) and Content Questioning techniques/strategies employed to direct the flow of conversation Acceptance of client's expressions of feelings and factual information without casting judgment Interviewer makes explicit what otherwise be left unstated Assessor follows guidelines for confidentiality and disclosure of info.

70 What a Clinical Assessment Interview is NOT... Ordinary Conversation "Counseling" Session Forensic Interview Survey Interview

71 The Assessment Interview: Assumptions 1. Need for Multiple Data Sources: There is no gold standard for assessing people's functioning. The key to good assessment is to find the conceptual links and relationships between methods and modalities of the assessment. Each form of indirect and direct methods contributes unique elements to solving the puzzle (Wheel of Fortune).

72 Assumptions (Cont.) 2. Situational Variability: Individuals' behaviors are likely to vary across situations and relationships. Good assessment requires identifying patterns of behavior that DIFFER across situations and relationships as well as patterns that REMAIN CONSISTENT, despite variations in situations and relationships.

73 Assumptions (Cont.) 3. Limited Cross-Informant Agreement: There is likely to be only low-to-moderate agreement between informants who are in different situations or in different relationships with the same person (esp. children). Low agreement does not mean that one is right and one is wrong or that one has a "truer" picture. The challenge is to put all these pieces together to form a meaningful picture of the person's functioning under the given circumstances.

74 Assumptions (Cont.) 4. Variations in Interview Structure and Content: The structure and content of clinical interviews should vary in relation to the informant and the goals of the interview. Structured, semi-structured, direct observation, indirect data collection, age/role appropriateness, etc. Clinical interviews need to be tailored to particular informants. The content and questioning strategies are shaped by the kind of informant interviewed and the kind of information sought.

75 Interview Content and Questioning Strategies 1. Semi-Structured: Questions used to query client (and others) about many aspects of functioning. Format is relatively open-ended and flexible to stimulate a natural flow of conversation. MI strategies are used (empathy, reflective listening, summarizing). Probe questions can then be used to obtain more detailed information. 2. Structured: Appropriate for querying individuals/family members about symptoms and criteria for psychiatric disorders. Structured diagnostic interviews have a standardized set of questions and probes focusing on specific problems relevant to diagnoses.

76 Interview Content and Questioning Strategies (Cont.) 3. Behavior-Specific: Questions can be used to query family members parents, teachers, PO's, etc. regarding their current concerns about the individual. More narrow in scope than semi-structured because the focus is on a limited number of specific problem areas. Typically, the main purposes are: a) identify and define problems of concern of others (problem identification) b) examine antecedents and consequences that surround the identified problems (problem analysis) Assessors can also use behavior-specific questions to elicit from individuals their views of particular problems and their understanding of the consequences around the problems.

77 Interview Content and Questioning Strategies (Cont.) 4. Problem-Solving: Focus on others' current concerns with the goal of developing interventions for identified problems. In initial clinical interviews, assessors can use problem-solving questions to explore and gauge others' receptivity to different kinds of interventions prior to implementing any interventions. Can also use problem-solving questions to explore individuals views of different interventions and to find out which approaches are acceptable to them.

78 Preparation: Master Your Material Preparation and Mastery increase your confidence and competence. Your goals include... Understanding and applying all aforementioned material Learning and knowing intimately all sections (and the purpose for each) of the assessment forms Mastering the art of Motivational Interviewing Reading, Studying, Understanding DSM-IV/DSM-5 diagnostic criteria - and applying structured interviewing strategies to rule out and rule in dx Knowing what you don't know - and learning it

79 Preparation and Mastery: Conceptualizing Your Case Guided by: Observing, Questioning, Thinking (repeat ad nauseum) Study your prelim. Info (Screening Form, etc.) and apply the above... Begin your studies/research Generate Questions Formulate Hypotheses (not conclusions) Prepare, Prepare, Prepare...


81 Key Terms Tolerance: (a) a need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect. (b) markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance (DSM-IV TR). Potentiation: Potentiation occurs when two drugs are taken together and one of them intensifies the action of the other. This could be expressed by a +b= B. As an example, - an antihistamine, when given with a painkilling narcotic such as Percocet,intensifies its effect thereby cutting down on the amount of the narcotic needed.

82 Key Terms Cross Tolerance and Cross Dependence: Cross tolerance refers to the fact that if a person has developed a tolerance to a drug in a certain classification, such as the depressants, that person is more likely to develop tolerance with another drug in that classification. As an example, people who are dependent upon alcohol show an increased tolerance to barbiturates, synthetic and natural opiate narcotics, and anesthetics. This, of course, means that the person must have a higher dose of the new drug for it to be effective. In cross dependence, the withdrawal symptoms from one drug in a classification can be relieved by another. As an example, many alcoholics are given barbiturates and tranquilizers to prevent withdrawal symptoms. However, the person may soon develop a dependency on the other drug as well.

83 Key Terms Synergism: Synergism is similar to potentiation. If two drugs are taken together that are similar in action, such as barbiturates and alcohol, which are both depressants, an effect exaggerated out of proportion to that of each drug taken separately at the given dose may occur. This could be expressed by 1+1= 5. An example might be a person taking a dose of alcohol and a dose of a barbiturate. Normally, taken alone, neither substance would cause serious harm, but if taken together, the combination could cause coma or death.

84 Key Terms Withdrawal: Withdrawal is a term referring to the feelings of discomfort, distress, and intense craving for a substance that occur when use of the substance is stopped. These physical symptoms occur because the body had become metabolically adapted to the substance. The withdrawal symptoms can range from mild discomfort resembling the flu to severe withdrawal that can actually be life threatening. Withdrawal from particular substances can be extremely serious and dangerous (potentially life-threatening). Refer to the DSM-IV TR and or DSM-5 for drug-specific withdrawal profiles.

85 Interventions/Best Practices

86 Treatment: Key Components Established Clinical Model that is evidence-based Individualized assessment and person-centered treatment planning Full array of integrated services (MH and SA, etc.) Individual, Family and Group Therapies Psychoeducation Motivational Interviewing/Motivational Enhancement (strengths-based) Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Relapse and Recovery Planning Connection and Collaboration with Community Resource and Associated Professionals (wrap-around) Frequent/randomized drug/alcohol screening Accountability



89 Drug Testing Critical Component of any treatment program Urine lab testing Urine instant Oral Hair

90 Pay Attention! What to watch for when conducting drug screens All testing needs to be Observed whenever possible. 1. Dilution – water loading/adding water to samples 2. Flushing – ingesting Niacin or Golden Seal (or any of hundreds of other products on the market) 3. Substituting – synthetic urine or borrowing/storing urine 4. Mechanical Devices – the Wizinator, small bottles or tubes

91 Screening: Other things to Know Know where your individuals can get tested (and what kind of testing they conduct) Know what medications your individuals are taking Connect with a therapist or doctor that conducts drug screens, or make sure you call the lab toxicologist for specific information You do not have to be the expert on all information, but know where to get the information and be willing to puruse it!

92 Principles of Effective Treatment (National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2012) 1. Addiction is a complex but treatable disease that affects brain function and behavior. 2. No single treatment is appropriate for everyone. 3. Treatment needs to be readily available 4. Effective treatment attends to multiple needs of the individual, not just his or her substance abuse.

93 Principles of Effective Treatment (cont.) 5. Remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time is critical. 6. Behavioral therapies – including individual, family, or group counseling – are the most commonly used forms of drug abuse treatment. 7. Medications are important element of treatment for many individuals, especially when combined with counseling and other behavioral therapies.

94 Principles of Effective Treatment (Cont.) 8. An individuals treatment and services plan must be assessed continually and modified as necessary to ensure that is meets his or her changing needs. 9. Many drug-addicted individuals also have other mental disorders. 10. Medically assisted detoxification is only the first stage of addiction treatment and by itself does little to change long-term drug abuse

95 Principles of Effective Treatment (Cont.) 11. Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective. 12. Drug use during treatment needs to be monitored continuously, as lapses during treatment do occur. 13. Treatment programs should test individuals for the presence of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases as well as provide targeted risk reduction counseling, linking individuals to treatment if necessary.

96 ASAM Criteria: Case Conceptualization Wherever the treatment location or circumstances, some guidelines have suggested criteria to consider when treating substance dependence. The following criteria were developed by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) to consider in the treatment of dependence: 1. acute intoxication and/or withdrawal potential 2. biomedical conditions and complications 3. emotional, behavioral, or cognitive conditions and complications 4. readiness to change 5. relapse, continued use, or continued problem potential 6. recovery/living environment

97 ASAM Levels of Treatment ASAM Levels Level 0.5 = Early Intervention Services Level 1 = Outpatient Treatment Services(3 hours a week or less) Level 2 = Intensive Outpatient/Partial Hospitalization (9 hours per week at least) Level 3 = Residential/Inpatient Services (24 Hours/Day) Level 4 = Medically Managed Intensive Inpatient Services Reference:

98 Opiate Withdrawal and Detoxification

99 Opiate/Narcotic Withdrawal Opiate addicts avoid treatment because they are afraid of withdrawal, which can be rather unpleasant but rarely fatal. They crave the drug and experience muscle and bone pain, insomnia, restlessness, nausea and vomiting, sweating, involuntary muscle twitches, dry mouth. Opiate withdrawal will usually peak between 48-72 hours after the last use. But withdrawal can last much longer, depending on the individual.

100 Detoxification and Maintenance Medications have been developed to lessen the impact of the withdrawal and help addicts rid themselves of the need to use. Principal among these are Methadone and Suboxone, both synthetic opiates themselves, but both act to block the impact of the opiates.

101 Maintenance Therapy Maintenance therapy with drugs like methadone or Suboxone is helpful because it takes away the severe effects of a heroin or prescription painkiller habit while easing the symptoms of withdrawal.

102 APA Guidelines for Opiate Dependence The American Psychiatric Association (APA) guideline identified the following 3 treatment modalities to be effective strategies for managing opioid dependence and withdrawal: 1. opioid substitution with methadone or buprenorphine, followed by a gradual taper 2. abrupt opioid discontinuation with the use of clonidine to suppress withdrawal symptoms 3. clonidine-naltrexone detoxification

103 Considering Your Options in Dealing with an Opiate Dependent Individual Acute opioid-related disorders that require medical management include opioid intoxication, opioid overdose, and opioid withdrawal. Issues pertaining to treatment of chronic opioid abuse include opioid agonist therapy (OAT), psychotherapy, and treatment of acute pain in patients already on maintenance therapy.

104 Intensive Case Management

105 The Importance of Coordinated Intervention We need an integrated, coordinated community response focused on recovery. This type of approach is more effective in preventing, treating and managing the chronic consequences of substance abuse and addiction than a response that is fragmented or focused primarily on penalties. We need a systematic response that is fast, fluid and flexible…meeting needs as they arise and changing through the continuum of care.

106 Intensive Case Management and Wrap- Around: Who Needs to be Involved? The prescribing physician Significant other(s) Probation or parole (if a part of the case) Other clinicians (if part of the case) Other natural supports (as part of a high-fidelity wrap around team) Please make sure you follow all confidentiality regulations under 42 CFR Part 2.

107 Why include these people? Whats the rational? 1. Liability 2. Appropriate Service/Treatment Planning 3. Best Practice

108 Case Study Exercise

109 Case Study : Time to Pick each others Brains and Generate some Ideas!

110 Dedicated Service To Those In Need Our strong reputation keeps us increasingly committed to providing high quality services to youth and families in the community.

111 Additional References and Resources American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Johnston, LD, O'Malley, PM, Bachman, JG, & Schulenberg, JE. (2012). Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2011. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Available at Levine, DA. (2007). 'Pharming': The abuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs in Teens. Current Opinion in Pediatrics. Vol. 19, No. 3, pages 270-274. National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA InfoFacts: Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications. Bethesda, MD: NIDA, NIH, DHHS. Published June 2009. Retrieved February 2012. National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA Research Report: Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction. NIH Publication No. 11-4881. Bethesda, MD: NIDA, NIH, DHHS. Published July 2001. Revised October 2011. Retrieved February 2012.

112 References and Resources (Cont.)

113 Additional References and Resources Epidemic: Responding to Americas Prescription Drug Crisis Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (3 rd Edition) Students Seek Competitive Edge… Adderall: The Study Pill PBS NewsHour Excerpt:Prescription Drug Abuse (aired 5/2013) Prescription Drug Abuse voices.html?emc=eta1#/#1 In Their Own Words: Study Guides.

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