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1 Safety Moment Collection of the Joint Safety Team at the University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science.

2 Use these safety moments as you see fit. Feel free to adapt a safety moment to meet the specific needs and time constraints of an audience or occasion; this may mean using only a portion of the prepared slides for a topic or including additional resources for an in-depth discussion.

3 Have a safety moment? Contribute it to this collection. Send safety moments to with Safety Moment in the subject line. Please put content in the provided template and cite reliable, credited sources. Thank you!

4 Emergency Procedures

5 On your handout, mark the location of the following in each laboratory: 1.Fire Extinguisher 2.Eyewash 3.Safety Shower 4.First Aid Kit 5.Posted Emergency Procedures 6.Posted Emergency Contacts 7.Spill Kit (one lab only) 8.Gas shut off (if present) Locations of Emergency Equipment

6 Lab 381 Hood 1Hood 2 rotovap Hood 4 balance Computer Eye- wash Shower Fire Extinguisher First Aid Hood 3 Emergency Procedures Emergency Contacts

7 Emergency Procedures

8 What would you do if the following occurred? List the actions/ responses you would take. Examples: Minor solvent spill: While running a column in DCM/MeOH under pressure, column glassware breaks causing solvent to splash all over the contents of your hood. A few flasks and column fractions are spilled. Major solvent spill: After returning from the stock room, 2 4L bottles of DCM are dropped (causing them to shatter) while moving them to the flammable cabinet. Fire: While working with Pd/C it spontaneously starts a fire on a lab bench. Injury: An out of place power cord causes someone to trip. The individual bumps his/her head on the edge of a lab bench and is bleeding. Stitches may be required. Emergency Response Procedures

9 Minor Solvent Spill Use spill kit for solvent outside hood. – (Do NOT use spill kits for HF, radioactive material, or mercury spills) If inside hood, close doors and sash. Notify lab mates. – Be conscious of solvent vapors (flammable, cause dizziness, etc.) Make sure there are no chemicals on you – remove lab coat, flush eyes, check shoes and other clothing Notify Chuck Tomlinson (4-2321) or Raul Caretta (5-8066) as soon as possible Spill kit locations? – In CHEM, large spill kits are located in near 681in Kolthoff and the hallway by the east elevator on the sub-basement in Smith. JST Emergency Response Information spills that do not pose an immediate hazard, clean up manageable by researcher

10 Major Solvent Spill Evacuate the area and alert others in the area Remove victims to fresh air – Remove contaminated clothing and flush contaminated skin and eyes with water for 15 minutes. – If anyone has been injured or exposed to toxic chemicals/vapors call 911 and seek medical attention immediately. Confine: close doors and isolate the area Contact emergency personnel – Call 911 and say "Call AHERPS. Be prepared to give basic information and be given some instructions. Contact the Front Office as soon as possible: – Chem (4-6000) CEMS (5-1313) JST Emergency Response Information Spill that presents an immediate hazard (fire, explosion, chemical exposure, etc.) or is a highly dangerous chemical.

11 Fire or Release of Toxic / Explosive Material If you are trained and the fire size is manageable, use fire extinguisher to put out fire. If unmanageable fire, remove all personnel from area. Close off area to prevent spread of hazardous material or fire. Call 911 to report the nature and location of the hazard. Activate the building alarm system at the nearest manual alarm station. In all cases, report the incident to the front office – Chem (4-6000) CEMS (5-1313) JST Emergency Response Information

12 Injury If minor, go to the U of M Hospital Emergency Room accompanied by another person. If the injury is serious dial 911 and describe your injury as well as your location. Notify Chuck Tomlinson (4-2321) or Raul Caretta (5-8066) A First Report of Injury must be filled out promptly JST Emergency Response Information

13 Assisting an Emergency Response In the event of a building evacuation, fire, police and other emergency responders will go to the north entrance of Smith Hall, facing Walter Library. – If you have information relevant to an incident, plan to head to the north entrance to meet them and answer questions. Walter Library Smith Hall Fire Dept. Lockbox

14 Spill Kits

15 Make a spill kit for a particular class of chemicals Biological, radioactive material, reactive, acidic, basic, etc. 15 Image source: Components Adsorbents Inert material to soak up spill Floor dry for oil Activated charcoal for thiols Vermiculite or sand for reactives Sodium bicarbonate to neutralize acid Absorbents Inert material to soak up spill Wipes, mats, rolls for most lab spills Hazmat made of polypropylene (compatible with HF, Nitric, Solvents etc) Ex. New Pig brand Pillows, socks, and booms are for large (>5 gallons) spills Avoid plain paper towels, especially with oxidizers

16 Make a spill kit for a particular class of chemicals 16 Components, continued Containers For used materials Ziplock bags Plastic containers or jar Bucket (5-gallon) Barrier Signs To guard or block the area CAUTION tape Do not enter signs Special PPE & Tools For use during clean up & to minimize exposure PPE- Extra Gloves that cover forearm & other as indicated in SDS of chemical Tools- Tongs, Mini dust pan & brush Special Cleaners To decontaminate Bleach for biological spill Lift away spray for radioactive

17 Think about Where - Best location to for the spill kit? -Easily accessed? -Relocate? -Add additional? Prior to experiment Check SDSs Know the largest container of material you will be handling / the max volume of hazardous material –What volume you could safely clean up? –Do you have (large) enough clean up materials? 17

18 Cleaning up a Chemical Spill How to use a spill kit

19 Evaluating a chemical spill Is help needed? Can this be handled with lab personnel? 19 Adapted from: Univ. of Wiscon. Environment, Health and Safety. Spill Response and Reporting Simple spill Can be cleaned up promptly by researcher Chemical Hazards Do I know what it is? Quantity Can I handle a spill of this size? Impacts Can this spill be contained? Training and Equipment Can I safely clean up the spill with the available PPE and equipment? Yes No Yes No Complex spill GET HELP! Call 911, if no imminent hazard (fire or major injury) ask for AHERPS for further assistance. Evacuate if needed. Container label is legible SDS is available Hazards: reactive, flammable, volatile Risks: health, physical property, or environment Training and experience Available PPE Available spill control materials Hazardous vapors/ dust Liquids can encounter ignition sources or incompatible materials Nearby classrooms or offices Available spill control materials to confine and absorb Physical layout of the spill

20 Cleaning up a chemical spill 20 Images: Minor spill clean up. Iowa State University, Environmental Health and Safety 1.Contact DEHS for guidance 2.Look up the SDS of the chemical Clean up procedures PPE requirements – put it on! Remember, Do NOT use spill kits for HF, radioactive material, or mercury spills (call DEHS). 3.Secure the area – Post do not enter signs 4.Control the spread of spill with absorbent materials (spill mats). 5.Neutralize acids and bases. Add neutralizer slowly from edges to center; Mix Test with pH (want pH from 6-8) For acids use sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) For bases use citric or ascorbic acid Before cleaning up a spill make sure that you can do so safely.

21 Cleaning up a chemical spill 21 5.Absorb the liquid with spill mats or other absorbent 5.Be careful not to be cut by any glass shards 6.Collect and contain the cleanup residues Place in a plastic waste container/bucker or double layered plastic bags. Label with a yellow hazardous waste label and a red solid waste sticker. Contact DEHS personnel for more information. 7.Decontaminate the area and effected equipment. Vent the spill area (open doors/windows, use a fan Clean area with soap and water with a mop or sponge Images: Minor spill clean up. Iowa State University, Environmental Health and Safety Hazardous Waste

22 Compatible Absorbents 22 How to make a spill Kit FAQs, Hazardous Waste Management Program. Vermont DEC, Waste Management and Prevention Division ChemicalNeutralizer, Absorbent, or Spill Containment AcidsSodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or calcium carbonate Acid ChloridesDry sand or other inert absorbent - DO NOT use water or sodium bicarbonate Alkali Metals (Li, Na, Mg, K)Dry sand or contents from a Class "D" fire extinguisher - DO NOT use water BasesSodium bisulfate Bromine5% solution of sodium thiosulfate or other inert material FlammablesActivated charcoal, sand or non-combustible absorbent pads Hydrofluoric Acid Neutralize with soda ash or lime (or absorb with special HF spill pillow - standard spill pads will NOT work) MercuryMercury amalgamate powder, such as Merc-sorb OilGranular absorbent or oil-specific absorbent pads (oil-specific absorbents will only absorb oil) Oxidizersnon-combustible absorbent pads Solvents (organic)Inert absorbent material Thiols/MercaptansThe odor of thiols and mercaptans may be removed with activated charcoal White or Yellow PhosphorusCover with wet sand or wet absorbent

23 New PIG HazMat Mat Pad Great chemical compatibility mat301?cm_cat=item_number_search 23

24 Keep in Mind Ventilation Fume hood < vented cabinet < lab < hall < closet Risks Explosives / air, water, temperature reactive – Dangerous, but rare; likely already reacted prior to clean up of residue Fire / volatile / inhalation hazards – Tricky to evaluate; Call DEHS (911 + AHERPS) Contact hazards (corrosives / toxic via ingestion) – Most likely can be handled by lab (unless at high concentration or volume) Delayed effect (carcinogens / environmental hazards) – Handled by lab 24 Lower riskHigher risk

25 Chemical Spill Four-step Emergency Procedure

26 1.Evacuate and Aid Leave spill area and assist others in leaving Remove victims to fresh air; remove contaminated clothing/flush any exposed areas with excess water 2.Confine Without endangering yourself, close doors, isolate the spill area, and prevent entrance 3.Report Call EHS during working hours or 911 after hours State your name, phone, and location; describe the emergency, contents of the spill, injuries, etc. EHS will advise you what to do 4.Secure and Clean Block off entrances, lock doors, put up warning tape/signs on all entrances Follow instructions from EHS on how to clean the spill 26 Four-step Procedure

27 Chemical Spill Response Example from a Learning Experience Report (LER)

28 Chemical Spill Response After working hours, a 100mL bottle of trifluoroacetic acid was dropped. It broke, splashing on the floor and cabinets. The overwhelming odor caused a coworker to 911 and say, "Call AHERPS. The dispatcher contacted the AHERPS employee who determined the spill was not very dangerous could be resolved with the researchers, not 911's resources. The researchers wore masks, quarantined the spill with the spill barriers, neutralized the trifluoroacetic acid with baking soda and water as described in the SDS, and opened all fume hoods. 28

29 Chemical Spill Response The AHERPS employee followed up with the incident approximately min later to assess the current situation. No significant chronic effects, as the spill was neutralized and cleaned up quickly. No need for county emergency response personal (fire, police, etc.). DEHS person would pick up the spill clean up supplies the next day. 29 To prevent dropping a chemical bottle: 1.Dont hurry – take your time. 2.Securely hold bottles, using two hands for large or heavy containers.

30 Spill Kits Where are they: Kolthoff - northwest hallway near 681 Smith - hallway by the east elevator, sub-basement level In individual labs A reminder: Do NOT use spill pillows for HF, radioactive material, or mercury spills. See the safety moment on making spills kits and using the contents to clean up chemical spills. 30

31 Fire Extinguishers How to use them

32 Can you handle it? If you doubt your ability to fight a fire… EVACUATE IMMEDIATELY and Call Emergency personal If you are trained and the fire size is manageable, use fire extinguisher to put out fire.

33 P ull… A im… S queeze… S weep… Following the P.A.S.S Technique

34 P ull … …Pull the pin. This will also break the tamper seal. Following the P.A.S.S Technique

35 Following the P.A.S.S Technique A im … …Aim low, pointing the extinguisher nozzle (or its horn or hoses) at the base of the fire. Note: Do not touch the plastic discharge horn on CO2 extinguishers, it gets very cold and may damage skin.

36 Following the P.A.S.S Technique S queeze … …Squeeze the handle so that it will release the extinguishing agent.

37 S weep … …Sweep from side to side at the base of the fire until the extinguisher is completely empty assuring that the fire is out. Following the P.A.S.S Technique

38 Resources Duke University Fire Safety Website: Stony Brook University EHS MSDS firefighting measures section

39 Fire Extinguishers Types and compatibility

40 Four classes of fires

41 Proper Use of Fire Extinguishers For fires involving: wood cloth paper plastics

42 Proper Use of Fire Extinguishers For fires involving: gasoline kerosene oils flammable chemicals

43 Proper Use of Fire Extinguishers For fires involving: appliances motors computers

44 Proper Use of Fire Extinguishers For fires involving: lithium sodium magnesium potassium COMBUSTIBLE METALS

45 45 Fire extinguishers everywhere The fire extinguishers are designed to put out or control small fires. It is important that we equip facilities with the proper fire extinguishers as part of fire protection plan.

46 Water is one of the most commonly used extinguishing agents for type A fires. Always you can recognize an APW by its large silver container. They are filled about two-thirds of the way with ordinary water, pressurized with air. APWs are designed for Class A (wood, paper, cloth, rubber, and certain plastics) fires only. Air-pressurized water extinguishers

47 Carbon Dioxide extinguishers This type of extinguisher is filled with Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ), a non-flammable gas under extreme pressure. These extinguishers put out fires by displacing oxygen, You can recognize this type of extinguisher by its hard horn and absent pressure gauge. CO 2 extinguishers are designed for Class B and C (flammable liquid and electrical) fires only.

48 Dry Chemical extinguishers Dry chemical extinguishers put out fires by coating the fuel with a thin layer of fire retardant powder, separating the fuel from the oxygen. The powder also works to interrupt the chemical reaction, which makes these extinguishers extremely effective. Dry Chemical extinguishers will have a label indicating they may be used on class A, B, and/or C fires. OR

49 Thermal Burns First aid treatment

50 Thermal burns 50 ABC of burns: Pathophysiology and types of burns BMJ June 12; 328(7453): 1427–1429. Burns: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

51 First aid for burns For minor burns, soak in cold water (not ice water) until the pain stops (5 min+) If the burn covers a large area of the body, apply cool wet dressings to that area Do not break any blisters Once the pain is subdued, apply antibiotic ointment or first aid gel to the area and bandage If necessary, seek medical attention for minor burns. 51 Burns: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia DEHS

52 First aid for burns Minor burns will usually heal without further treatment. However, if a second-degree burn covers an area more than 2 to 3 inches in diameter, or if it is located on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, or a major joint, treat the burn as a major burn For severe burns call 911 immediately and do not attempt to remove charred clothing 52 Burns: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia DEHS

53 Automated External Defibrillator The basics

54 Automated external defibrillator (AED) 54 Diagnoses cardiac arrhythmias Use an AED on victims experiencing sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) – Unresponsive – No pulse – No breathing or abnormal breathing Kolthoff 4 th floor (by elevator) Smith 1 st floor lobby

55 AED Basics Automated External Defibrillator Diagnoses cardiac arrhythmias – treats those that will respond to shock (heart beating too fast or chaotically) – will not treat flat lining Locations: – 4 th floor Kolthoff by elevator – 1 st floor Smith south of lobby – Alarm will sound if opened 55 National Institutes of Health – National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. How to Use an Automated External Defibrillator. 02 Dec Accessed 07 Mar Written instructions Verbal instructions Shock button

56 When to use an AED Use an AED on persons experiencing Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA). Symptoms include: – Unable to respond when you try to wake them – No breathing or abnormal breathing – No detectable pulse – Blue color in skin – Person might move, spasm Before using an AED: – Confirm that the person cannot respond to shaking or shouting – Call 911 (or have someone else do it) – Chances of survival increase if someone starts CPR while another gets the AED – Make sure person is in a dry area (no puddles, flowing water sources) National Institutes of Health – National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. How to Use an Automated External Defibrillator. 02 Dec Accessed 07 Mar 2013.

57 How to use an AED Turn on AED power Follow voice prompts Expose persons chest – Remove jewelry and other metal sources Place sticky pads Press analyze button If prompted, push shock button Continue CPR if possible National Institutes of Health – National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. How to Use an Automated External Defibrillator. 02 Dec Accessed 07 Mar 2013.

58 For more information National Institutes of Health website – topics/topics/aed/links.html topics/topics/aed/links.html CPR and first aid classes available through Boynton Health Services – Red Cross online refresher – aed/choices/ aed/choices/

59 Learning Experience Reports (LERs) A.K.A. Near-miss reports

60 Learning Experience Reports (LER) LER: Short anonymous report documenting a near-miss or incident Benefits: – Builds database where researchers can go to learn about safety issues that have occurred and how safety issues were resolved Others learn without risk that comes with experience! – Anonymous! 60

61 When/How to Submit 61 Technically, all injuries should be reported to both PI and DEHS – Consider using LERs for minor injuries such as small cuts and mild burns not usually reported to PI To submit – List of incident forms: – Click on LER form (first link on list) – Log in with UofM ID and – Fill out form answering basic questions about incident Forms processed by JST Compiled incidents will be viewable by researchers soon!

62 Example Summary of Report 62 Example: A mercury spill occurred when rearranging oven shelving, during pm working hours. No injury resulted. The participate somewhat knew what do in the incident (7/10), but did not have much prior experience with the activity/technique during which the incident occurred (5/ 10). To prevent incident: 1.Mercury thermometers should not be used in the first place. 2.More care should have been taken when rearranging oven shelving. For information on how to deal with a Hg spill, please see the related safety moment.

63 Incident Reporting

64 Incident Response Incident- unexpected and unsafe occurrence that deviates from the normal procedure After incident occurs: 1.Ensure immediate health/safety of all personnel Call emergency response crews if necessary 2.Report to PI, LSO Communicate to coworkers 3.Submit incident report 4.Make/correct SOP Implement changes in lab 5.Communicate changes to coworkers 64

65 Types of Incident Forms Learning Experience Report (LER)- record of near-miss or incident Safety concern- leads to possible incident Lab incident investigation- fire, chemical spill, explosion require investigation by PI Lab injury- any work-related incident requires reporting to PI and DEHS – If injury causes you to miss work, submit Workers Compensation form All forms found on JST website: – 65

66 Injury Follow-up

67 Its not that bad, right?

68 Get injuries looked at Even minor injuries can have major consequences A quick check-up can catch potential problems Cost should not be an issue – injuries sustained at work can be covered by Workers Compensation

69 First Aid Kits Do you have one? What is in it? Where can replacement materials be purchased?

70 First Aid Kit Components provided in single-use or dose-unit packs Burn cream Antiseptic wipes Antibiotic ointment Adhesive bandages (Various sizes) Gauze pads, sterile Compresses Triangular bandages Ace bandages Instant cold packs Adhesive tape Blunt tip scissors Tweezers 70 Laboratory First Aid Kit North by Honeywell. Fisher Scientific. Accessed 7 Jan First Aid Kits (Image). Western Safety Products. Accessed 7 Jan Amount of supplies needed depends on: -number of researchers -number of accessible first aid kits

71 Basic Lab First Aid SituationResponse Burns (thermal or chemical) Flush with cold water (15 min), remove contaminated clothing, apply burn cream, cover burn loosely with clean, dry cloth or dressing. Cuts, Scrapes, and Punctures Stop bleeding with compress, apply antiseptic, cover with bandage Fainting or Collapse Remove victim to fresh air, apply cold compress to forehead, provide CPR if needed, call for medical assistance Large bleeding wound Cover with gauze, apply pressure to stop bleeding (5 min), secure cloth compress with bandage. Call 911 if bleeding is severe and does not stop. 71 Basic First Aid Procedures., Quick Tips #207. Grainger. Accessed 7 Jan 2014, 207?currenturl=%2FGrainger%2Fstatic%2Fbasic-first-aid-procedures-207.html Do not hesitate to contact emergency personal if it is needed. Use gloves as a barrier for biological fluids. Wash your hands with soap and water after giving care.

72 First Aid Kit Know where First Aid Kits are located in the laboratory Check the contents every 6 months. Remove expired materials. Replace missing/used materials. Purchase from: – Chemistry stock room – Laboratory vendors (Fischer Scientific, VWR, etc.) If a first aid kit is used to treat an injury report the incident – Learning Experience Reports ( 72

73 Emergency Evacuation Plan

74 Prepare Now 1.Make a checklist of group members 2.Define possible exit routes 3.Decide on a place to meet 4.Place a copy of the evacuation procedures next the emergency response information 74

75 In an Emergency 75

76 Available Resources

77 DEHS Contact Anna Sitek (Englund) Phone: (612) Office W Research Safety Specialist assigned to our department, and newly-created DEHS safety contact for our entire college. She will serve as a member of our department Safety Committee and will work with the JST. Feel free to contact her with any questions!

78 JST website

79 Dow Safety Academy

80 80

81 Have a safety moment? Contribute it to this collection. Send safety moments to with Safety Moment in the subject line. Please put content in the provided template and cite reliable, credited sources. Thank you!


83 Templates

84 Safety Moment Title

85 85



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