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Technologies of the Information Age

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1 Technologies of the Information Age
Team Name: Super Troopers Presented by: Ernest Del Real Jeanette Gerardo Rosa Morales Brian Ly

2 Five Generations of Computers
Computer Development Refers to the different generations of computing devices Each generation is characterized by a major technological development. Machine or component that attaches to a computer Such as disk drives, printers, mice, and modems Peripheral devices, separate from the main computer Need a device driver that acts as translator, converting general commands from an application into specific commands that the device understands. Fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. Brian Ly

3 First Generation 1940 - 1956 First computer used Vacuum Tubes
Consisted of: Tubes for circuitry Magnetic drums for memory Metal cylinder coated with magnetic iron-oxide material. Disadvantages: Expensive to operate Used great deal of electricity Generated a lot of heat Undependable -Vacuum Tubes – used for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, often enormous, taking up entire rooms. -magnetic drums were used to store data and programs on it. -Were once used as a primary storage device but has stopped as auxiliary storage devices came about. Brian Ly

4 First Generation Computers
Relied on machine language Solve one problem at a time High-level programming languages Assembly language Used assemblers and compilers CPU had their own unique language High level programming languages or an assembly language or machine language by a complier. Assembly language program translated into machine language by a program called an assembler Programmers used high-level programming languages or an assembly language programming. Assembly language contains the same instructions as a machine language, but the instructions and variables have names instead of being just numbers. Brian Ly

5 Second Generation 1956 – 1963 Transistors replaced vacuum tubes.
Transistors are devices composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit. Transistors invented in 1947. Advantages: Superior than vacuum tubes Smaller Faster Cheaper More energy-efficient More reliable - Transistors did not see a widespread use in computers until the late 50s. Brian Ly

6 Moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic.
COBOL and FROTRAN First computers that were developed for the atomic energy industry COBOL and FORTRAN were being developed during this time First computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. COBOL = common business oriented language. Popular for business applications that run on large computers A wordy language; programs written in COBOL tend to be much longer than the same program written in other languages. Wordiness makes it easy to understand programs because everything is spelled out. Most widely used programming language in the world. FORTRAN = formula translator. Oldest high-level language For scientific applications that require extensive mathematical computations Brian Ly

7 Third Generation 1964 – 1971 Integrated circuits
Hallmark of the third generation Drastically increased speed and efficiency of computers. Keyboards/Monitors interfaced with Operating Systems. Advantages: Many programs can be ran at same time Became accessible to a mass audience Even Smaller Even Cheaper Transistors were miniaturized and placed into silicon chips, called semiconductors. Placing large numbers of transistors on a single chip vastly increased the power of a single computer and lowered its cost considerably. Number of transistors can be placed on a single chip has doubled every two years, shrinking botth the size and cost of computers even further and further enhancing its power. Brian Ly

8 Carry out instructions in billionths of a second.
Size of machine dropped to the size of small file cabinets. Brian Ly

9 Fourth Generation 1971 - Present
Microprocessor Thousands of integrated circuits were rebuilt onto a single silicon chip. Contains a CPU Controls the logic of almost all digital devices Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessors: Instruction Set Bandwidth Clock Speed Higher the values, the more powerful the CPU is Microprocessors controls, clock radios to fuel injection systems for automobiles Instruction Set: Set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute Bandwidth : number of bits processed in a single instruction Clock Speed: Given in megahertz (MHz), the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute. Higher the value the more powerful Brian Ly

10 First generation computers can now be fit in the palm of the hand.
Intel 4004chip located all the components of the computer. CPU is the brain of the computer Most calculation takes place Most important element of a computer system Large machines require CPUs with one or more printed circuit boards PCs and Small workstations housed by a single chip, the microprocessor. Intel 4004chip – from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls on a single chip. as these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse, and handheld devices. Brian Ly

11 Two typical components of a CPU:
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit Control Unit IBM introduced its first computer for the home user. 1984 – Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors moved out of the realm of desktop computers. ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations Control Unit – extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary. Microprocessors – moved into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. Such as calculators, video game consoles, handhelds, CD and DVD players, Satellite Receivers, microwaves, Conventional over, etc. Brian Ly

12 Fifth Generation Present - Beyond
Artificial Intelligence Still in development Branch of computer science concerned with making computer behave like humans Includes: Games Playing Expert Systems Natural Language Neural Networks Robotics Term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Games playing – programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers Expert Systems – programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations ( example: some expert system help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms). Early 1980s, expert systems were believed to represent the future of artificial intelligence and of computers in general Natural Language – programming computers to understand natural language. Natural Language Processing – process on building computer systems that process natural language in any meaningful sense requires considering language as part of a larger communicative situation. Regarding language as communication requires consideration of what is said (literally), what is intended, and the relationship between the two. Neural Networks – systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains Hottest area of AI. Proving successful in an umber of disciplines such as voice recognition and natural-language processing. Robotics – programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli. Brian Ly

13 No Computers exhibit full artificial intelligence
Greatest advances In the fields of games playing Chess programs Capable of beating humans IBM super computer, “Deep Blue” Robots widely used in assembly plants IBM super computer Deep Blue defeats world chess champion Gary Kasparov in chess match. Robots have great difficulty identifying objects based on appearance or feel, and they still move and handle object clumsily. Voice Recognition systems Convert spoken sounds into written words, but they do not understand what they are writing, they simply take dictation Some might require speaking slowly.

14 What pioneering role did women have in terms of their contributions to computer technology?
Hardware and machine design Software and Language Design Innovative Applications Artificial Intelligence Jeanette Gerardo

15 Hardware Margaret Butler: Helped develop one of the first digital computers of science Evelyn Berezin: helped design, develop and manufacture word processing systems Jeanette Gerardo

16 Software and Language Design
Betty Snyder Holberton: Collaborated with others in the original programming of the first stored-program computer Adele Mildred Coss: Created an Editing Generator, used to build an editing routine. programming knowledge. Jeanette Gerardo

17 Software and Language Design
Margaret Harper: contributed to the development of tested programs, along with… Grace Hopper who was one of the major developers of the first compiler for computer Jeanette Gerardo

18 Innovative Applications
Joyce Wrenn: invented the application customizer. Janet Marie Dearholt Esty: Invented data management which in her words was “taking care of all the paper work and reporting requirements for government contracts”. Garhart (“Casey”) Stone: Invented an interactive videodisk to teach independent thinking to hearing impaired children. Dr. Rosamond Gianutsos: Created a series of computer programs to help diagnose and treat brain-injured people. Jeanette Gerardo

19 Artificial Intelligence
Wendy Lehnert: won a presidential young investigator award for her work in artificial intelligence for trying to make computers think like humans. Karen Sparck-Jones: introduced the concept of inverse document frequency, it is used in most search engines today. Thelma Estrin: “Provided computer support for a variety of research projects”, expert in the application of computers to medical research and treatment. Jeanette Gerardo

20 Jeanette Gerardo

21 What was UNIVAC? UNIVAC is the first commercial computer produced in the United States The Acronym stands for “Universal Automatic Computer” which was chosen by John Mauchly in 1947. Designed by Dr. Presper Eckert and Dr. John Mauchly Jeanette Gerardo

22 Cont. Its design and contract was not finalized until 1948
Costs for this project were erroneous and almost drove its inventors to bankruptcy The project was not accepted by the Census Bureau until March 31, 1951 Costs to finally construct the UNIVAC were close to a million dollars Jeanette Gerardo

23 Components Of UNIVAC The infamous UNIVAC was 25feet by 50 feet in length, and was composed of about 5600 tubes, crystal diodes and 300 relays. Its internal capacity was of about 1000 words to characters. Jeanette Gerardo

24 Components Of UNIVAC Its processing speed was .525 milliseconds for arithmetic functions, 2.15 milliseconds for multiplication and 3.9 Milliseconds for division. It was unique from any other invention since it provided the separation of complex problems of input and the output from the actual computation Jeanette Gerardo

25 UNIVAC Jeanette Gerardo

26 -The largest amount of UNIVAC’s to be delivered took place in 1958
-In 1952, it successfully predicted the outcome of the 1952 presidential election during a televised news broadcast. -UNIVAC was soon used to compute major company’s payrolls, sales records, sales performance, etc. -The largest amount of UNIVAC’s to be delivered took place in 1958 Jeanette Gerardo

27 Additions to UNIVAC The first practical compiler that consisted of a group error-free programs placed on tapes that were in turn assigned to call numbers. Automatic programming which enabled computers to write their own programs from using key instructions. Data processing: (Flow-matic) was the first computer language consisted of 500 typical programs and identified 30 verbs that shared commonalities amongst all. Jeanette Gerardo

28 Jeanette Gerardo

29 What was the ENIAC? First general purpose electronic computer that amongst its capabilities were reprogramming which would allow it to be used for different computing problems It was initially invented for military purposes to enable them to calculate artillery firing tables Was used for the first time for calculations for the hydrogen bomb Jeanette Gerardo

30 Was referred to as a “Giant Brain” through media
Its speed was one thousand times faster then electro-mechanical machines The construction contract was signed by the United States army on June 5, 1943. Jeanette Gerardo

31 ENIAC GIRLS Were programmers of the world’s first general response electronic computer They were mostly math graduates Were initially hired to calculate shell and missile trajectories for the War department About 200 women operated the ENIAC systems at once Jeanette Gerardo

32 ENIAC GIRLS Jeanette Gerardo

33 Adele Goldstine Wrote the complete technical description for the first digital computer Was also a mathematics teacher Taught 6 women that were the original programmers of the ENIAC to perform hand calculations of the firing table trajectory Jeanette Gerardo

34 Kay Mauchly Was one of three math majors at her college (Chestnut Hill College near Philadelphia) Was 22 when she was hired at the University of Pennsylvania for mathematicians to calculate bullet and missile trajectories. Jeanette Gerardo

35 Frances Bilas Was also a math major with a minor in physics
Was hired by Moore School of engineering to compute ballistics trajectories Was then selected to become part of the programmers of ENIAC Jeanette Gerardo

36 Ruth Lichterman Graduated with a bachelors in mathematics from Hunter College Was also hired by Moore School of Engineering She also traveled with ENIAC to the Aberdeen Proving grounds to train the future ENIAC programmers where she remained for about two years Jeanette Gerardo

37 Elizabeth Jennings known as Jean Bartik
She was a mathematics major Was originally hired as Aberdeen Proving ground to also calculate ballistic trajectories Was then elected to be one of the programmers She later became an editor for a company which published information on high technology Jeanette Gerardo

38 Marilyn Wescoff Was originally hired by Moore School of Engineering to perform weather calculations Then was hired to also perform ballistic trajectories Jeanette Gerardo

39 Betty Holberton Hired by Moore School of Engineering to compute Ballistic trajectories Was later asked to be part of the ENIAC programmers. Jeanette Gerardo

40 Ada Lovelace, Countess of Lovelace
Born In London, England, December 10, Died November 27, 1852. Her Father was the famous Romantic poet Lord Byron. Her mother made sure she was tutored in mathematics and music because she did not want her daughter to be a poet like her father. She was later influenced by Charles Babbage who also become a lifelong friend. Rosa Morales

41 Ada Lovelace and Charles Babbage
She met Babbage at age 17 Babbage was a Mathematics Professor in Cambridge He came up with the idea of a analytical engine Ada helped translate transcripts that informed on analytical engine. The Analytical Engine was steam powered general purpose computing machine Rosa Morales

42 Ada Continue Analytical Engine
An analytical engine “basic function was an empty box. It didn’t actually do anything itself, but merely executed whatever ‘program’ was applied by its operator.” The transcripts Ada translated led to “the acceptance of the first computer program.” She introduced computer programming but during her lifetime it was never tested. Rosa Morales

43 Rear Admiral Grace Hopper
Born in New York City December 9, 1906. Died in Arlington, Virginia, January 1, 1992. Graduated from Vassar with a B.A. in mathematics, physics, and economics. She received her Masters from Yale as well as her Ph.D. One of the first woman hands on computer programmer Join Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) and served into her retirement. Director of the Navy Programming Languages Group Rosa Morales

44 Hopper’s Career Navy Eckert-Mauchly Computer Coporation COBOL (1959)
Mark I (1944) and Mark II (1944) were the first digital computers Designed at Harvard University Used by the US Navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations Eckert-Mauchly Computer Coporation Helped develop the UNIVAC I (1949), “first commercially viable computer.” FLOW-MATIC, “first computer language consisting of words” COBOL (1959) She was one of the creators of COBOL Acronym “for Common Business-Oriented Language.” Known as one of the oldest programming language Could be used in different computers Rosa Morales

45 Mark 1 Rosa Morales

46 First to realize that software are an essential part of the computer.
BINAC Two computers linked together Capacity to check itself for accuracy. First to realize that software are an essential part of the computer. Virtual Storage “Later work included development of virtual storage, greatly increasing the effective memory available to the computer, the computer operating system, and parallel processing.” Rosa Morales

47 Career Continue Hopper also develop the first compiler for a computer programming language. B-O compiler “Compiler, the intermediate program that translates English language instructions into the language of the target computer.” Invented automatic programming Rosa Morales

48 The Video Game Industry
Where are all the women? Prepared By: Ernest Del Real

49 Prepared By: Ernest Del Real
The Facts: 1 woman for every 5 men currently in video game industry. (2007 survey by Game Developer Magazine) Women at all levels of the field earned an average of $64,643 last year, while men earned $74,459, according to the survey. (2007 survey by Game Developer Magazine) Prepared By: Ernest Del Real

50 Prepared By: Ernest Del Real
The Numbers Don’t Lie Prepared By: Ernest Del Real

51 What was the major change between the Third Generation and the Fourth Generation?
What does UNIVAC stand for? What does COBAL stand for? What percent of women are programmers?

52 Biobliography "Grace Murray Hopper." Computer Science at Yale University Web. 05 Nov <http://cswww.cs.yale.edu/homes/tap/Files/hopper-story.html>. "CS 4, Winter, 2006." Welcome to the Dartmouth Computer Science Department. Web. 08 Nov <http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/farid/teaching/cs4/summer.08/notes/historyofcomputing/>. Rosa Morales


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