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Team Name: Super Troopers Presented by: Ernest Del Real Jeanette Gerardo Rosa Morales Brian Ly.

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Presentation on theme: "Team Name: Super Troopers Presented by: Ernest Del Real Jeanette Gerardo Rosa Morales Brian Ly."— Presentation transcript:

1 Team Name: Super Troopers Presented by: Ernest Del Real Jeanette Gerardo Rosa Morales Brian Ly

2 Computer Development Refers to the different generations of computing devices Each generation is characterized by a major technological development. Brian Ly

3 First computer used Vacuum Tubes Consisted of: Tubes for circuitry Magnetic drums for memory Metal cylinder coated with magnetic iron-oxide material. Disadvantages: Expensive to operate Used great deal of electricity Generated a lot of heat Undependable Brian Ly

4 Relied on machine language Solve one problem at a time High-level programming languages Assembly language Used assemblers and compilers CPU had their own unique language Brian Ly

5 Transistors replaced vacuum tubes. Transistors are devices composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit. Transistors invented in 1947. Advantages: Superior than vacuum tubes Smaller Faster Cheaper More energy-efficient More reliable Brian Ly

6 Moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic. COBOL and FROTRAN First computers that were developed for the atomic energy industry Brian Ly

7 Integrated circuits Hallmark of the third generation Drastically increased speed and efficiency of computers. Keyboards/Monitors interfaced with Operating Systems. Advantages: Many programs can be ran at same time Became accessible to a mass audience Even Smaller Even Cheaper Brian Ly

8 Carry out instructions in billionths of a second. Size of machine dropped to the size of small file cabinets. Brian Ly

9 Microprocessor Thousands of integrated circuits were rebuilt onto a single silicon chip. Contains a CPU Controls the logic of almost all digital devices Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessors: Instruction Set Bandwidth Clock Speed Higher the values, the more powerful the CPU is Brian Ly

10 First generation computers can now be fit in the palm of the hand. Intel 4004chip located all the components of the computer. CPU is the brain of the computer Most calculation takes place Most important element of a computer system Large machines require CPUs with one or more printed circuit boards PCs and Small workstations housed by a single chip, the microprocessor. Brian Ly

11 Two typical components of a CPU: ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit Control Unit 1981 - IBM introduced its first computer for the home user. 1984 – Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors moved out of the realm of desktop computers. Brian Ly

12 Artificial Intelligence Still in development Branch of computer science concerned with making computer behave like humans Includes: Games Playing Expert Systems Natural Language Neural Networks Robotics Brian Ly

13 No Computers exhibit full artificial intelligence Greatest advances In the fields of games playing Chess programs Capable of beating humans IBM super computer, Deep Blue Robots widely used in assembly plants

14 Hardware and machine design Software and Language Design Innovative Applications Artificial Intelligence Jeanette Gerardo

15 Margaret Butler: Helped develop one of the first digital computers of science Ev e lyn Berezin: helped design, develop and manufacture word processing systems Jeanette Gerardo

16 Betty Snyder Holberton: Collaborated with others in the original programming of the first stored-program computer Adele Mildred Coss: Created an Editing Generator, used to build an editing routine. programming knowledge. Jeanette Gerardo

17 Margaret Harper: contributed to the development of tested programs, along with… Grace Hopper who was one of the major developers of the first compiler for computer Jeanette Gerardo

18 Joyce Wrenn: invented the application customizer. Janet Marie Dearholt Esty: Invented data management which in her words was taking care of all the paper work and reporting requirements for government contracts. Garhart (Casey) Stone: Invented an interactive videodisk to teach independent thinking to hearing impaired children. Dr. Rosamond Gianutsos: Created a series of computer programs to help diagnose and treat brain-injured people. Jeanette Gerardo

19 Wendy Lehnert: won a presidential young investigator award for her work in artificial intelligence for trying to make computers think like humans. Karen Sparck-Jones: introduced the concept of inverse document frequency, it is used in most search engines today. Thelma Estrin: Provided computer support for a variety of research projects, expert in the application of computers to medical research and treatment. Jeanette Gerardo


21 UNIVAC is the first commercial computer produced in the United States The Acronym stands for Universal Automatic Computer which was chosen by John Mauchly in 1947. Designed by Dr. Presper Eckert and Dr. John Mauchly Jeanette Gerardo

22 Its design and contract was not finalized until 1948 Costs for this project were erroneous and almost drove its inventors to bankruptcy The project was not accepted by the Census Bureau until March 31, 1951 Costs to finally construct the UNIVAC were close to a million dollars Jeanette Gerardo

23 The infamous UNIVAC was 25feet by 50 feet in length, and was composed of about 5600 tubes, 18000 crystal diodes and 300 relays. Its internal capacity was of about 1000 words to 12000 characters. Jeanette Gerardo

24 Its processing speed was.525 milliseconds for arithmetic functions, 2.15 milliseconds for multiplication and 3.9 Milliseconds for division. It was unique from any other invention since it provided the separation of complex problems of input and the output from the actual computation Jeanette Gerardo


26 -In 1952, it successfully predicted the outcome of the 1952 presidential election during a televised news broadcast. -UNIVAC was soon used to compute major companys payrolls, sales records, sales performance, etc. -The largest amount of UNIVACs to be delivered took place in 1958 Jeanette Gerardo

27 The first practical compiler that consisted of a group error-free programs placed on tapes that were in turn assigned to call numbers. Automatic programming which enabled computers to write their own programs from using key instructions. Data processing: (Flow-matic) was the first computer language consisted of 500 typical programs and identified 30 verbs that shared commonalities amongst all. Jeanette Gerardo


29 First general purpose electronic computer that amongst its capabilities were reprogramming which would allow it to be used for different computing problems It was initially invented for military purposes to enable them to calculate artillery firing tablesartilleryfiring tables Was used for the first time for calculations for the hydrogen bomb Jeanette Gerardo

30 Was referred to as a Giant Brain through media Its speed was one thousand times faster then electro- mechanical machines The construction contract was signed by the United States army on June 5, 1943. Jeanette Gerardo

31 Were programmers of the worlds first general response electronic computer They were mostly math graduates Were initially hired to calculate shell and missile trajectories for the War department About 200 women operated the ENIAC systems at once Jeanette Gerardo


33 Wrote the complete technical description for the first digital computer Was also a mathematics teacher Taught 6 women that were the original programmers of the ENIAC to perform hand calculations of the firing table trajectory Jeanette Gerardo

34 Was one of three math majors at her college (Chestnut Hill College near Philadelphia) Was 22 when she was hired at the University of Pennsylvania for mathematicians to calculate bullet and missile trajectories. Jeanette Gerardo

35 Was also a math major with a minor in physics Was hired by Moore School of engineering to compute ballistics trajectories Was then selected to become part of the programmers of ENIAC Jeanette Gerardo

36 Graduated with a bachelors in mathematics from Hunter College Was also hired by Moore School of Engineering She also traveled with ENIAC to the Aberdeen Proving grounds to train the future ENIAC programmers where she remained for about two years Jeanette Gerardo

37 She was a mathematics major Was originally hired as Aberdeen Proving ground to also calculate ballistic trajectories Was then elected to be one of the programmers She later became an editor for a company which published information on high technology Jeanette Gerardo

38 Was originally hired by Moore School of Engineering to perform weather calculations Then was hired to also perform ballistic trajectories Jeanette Gerardo

39 Hired by Moore School of Engineering to compute Ballistic trajectories Was later asked to be part of the ENIAC programmers. Jeanette Gerardo

40 Ada Lovelace, Countess of Lovelace Born In London, England, December 10, 1815. Died November 27, 1852. Her Father was the famous Romantic poet Lord Byron. Her mother made sure she was tutored in mathematics and music because she did not want her daughter to be a poet like her father. She was later influenced by Charles Babbage who also become a lifelong friend. Rosa Morales

41 She met Babbage at age 17 Babbage was a Mathematics Professor in Cambridge He came up with the idea of a analytical engine Ada helped translate transcripts that informed on analytical engine. The Analytical Engine was steam powered general purpose computing machine Rosa Morales

42 Analytical Engine An analytical engine basic function was an empty box. It didnt actually do anything itself, but merely executed whatever program was applied by its operator. The transcripts Ada translated led to the acceptance of the first computer program. She introduced computer programming but during her lifetime it was never tested. Rosa Morales

43 Born in New York City December 9, 1906. Died in Arlington, Virginia, January 1, 1992. Graduated from Vassar with a B.A. in mathematics, physics, and economics. She received her Masters from Yale as well as her Ph.D. One of the first woman hands on computer programmer Join Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) and served into her retirement. Director of the Navy Programming Languages Group Rosa Morales

44 Navy Mark I (1944) and Mark II (1944) were the first digital computers Designed at Harvard University Used by the US Navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations Eckert-Mauchly Computer Coporation Helped develop the UNIVAC I (1949), first commercially viable computer. FLOW-MATIC, first computer language consisting of words COBOL (1959) She was one of the creators of COBOL Acronym for Common Business-Oriented Language. Known as one of the oldest programming language Could be used in different computers Rosa Morales


46 BINAC Two computers linked together Capacity to check itself for accuracy. First to realize that software are an essential part of the computer. Virtual Storage Later work included development of virtual storage, greatly increasing the effective memory available to the computer, the computer operating system, and parallel processing. Rosa Morales

47 Hopper also develop the first compiler for a computer programming language. B-O compiler Compiler, the intermediate program that translates English language instructions into the language of the target computer. Invented automatic programming Rosa Morales

48 Where are all the women? Prepared By: Ernest Del Real



51 1. What was the major change between the Third Generation and the Fourth Generation? 2. What does UNIVAC stand for? 3. What does COBAL stand for? 4. What percent of women are programmers?

52 "Grace Murray Hopper." Computer Science at Yale University. 1994. Web. 05 Nov. 2010.. "CS 4, Winter, 2006." Welcome to the Dartmouth Computer Science Department. Web. 08 Nov. 2010.. Rosa Morales

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