Presentation on theme: "IS 376 October 1, 2013 Robotics, The New Industrial RevolutionRobotics, The New Industrial Revolution By German Carro Fernandez, Sergio Martin Gutierrez,"— Presentation transcript:
IS 376 October 1, 2013 Robotics, The New Industrial RevolutionRobotics, The New Industrial Revolution By German Carro Fernandez, Sergio Martin Gutierrez, Elio Sancristobal Ruiz, Francisco Mur Perez, and Manuel Castro Gil IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Summer 2012
October 1, 2013 IS 376 Page 2 Automating processes that were once performed by humans is an age-old means to relegate tedious tasks to machines, which are better able to perform them consistently and correctly, without succumbing to boredom. Examples: Printing instead of photocopying Universal Product Codes instead of price stickers Direct deposit instead of payroll checks Self-checkout instead of regular checkout Pre-recorded drive- through greetings Automated doctor appointment reminders In The Office: In The Grocery: In Daily Interaction:
October 1, 2013 IS 376 Page 3 The term robot was coined by Karel Čapek in his 1921 play R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robots), about a factory that produces artificial people, who ultimately rebel and drive humanity to extinction.
October 1, 2013 IS 376 Page 4 Robots are extremely popular in factories, where their endurance, speed, precision, and programmability make them perfect for such jobs as: Assembly Assembly Painting Painting Welding Welding Packaging Packaging Palletizing Palletizing Loading Loading Inspecting Inspecting Testing Testing
October 1, 2013 IS 376 Page 6 In order to program industrial robots to perform precisely, various parameters must be specified and closely monitored. Working Envelope The region of space that the robot is able to reach. Kinematics The arrangement of rigid sections and flexible joints making up the robot. Payload The amount of weight the robot is capable of lifting. Degrees of Freedom The set of rotational and translational movements of which the robot is capable. Precision The accuracy with which the robot can reach a particular position. Repeatability The robots ability to return to an exact position.
October 1, 2013 IS 376 Page 7 $22K factory robot from Rethink Robotics Behavior-Based Intelligence (adapts to changing environment) Human Presence Detection (360° sonar & front- face camera) User Interface (navigator on arm; expression on face) Force Sensing & Control (at each joint) Vision-Guided (movement & object identification) Natural Compliance (spring-based sensors detect bumping into people/objects) Direct Training (tasks taught via arm movement, not programming)
October 1, 2013 IS 376 PAGE 8 Kiva Systems in Massachusetts has developed a robot that works in warehouses to identify and retrieve warehouse inventory, usually for mail order businesses. Full pallets of products are delivered to cabinet replenishment stations. Items are selected from cabinets to be included in specific orders. Completed orders are delivered to the loading dock.
October 1, 2013 IS 376 Page 9 Robots are commonly used for tasks that would be too dangerous for humans. Explosive Ordnance Disposal Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle On-Orbit Servicing Search & Rescue Underwater Oil Capping Firefighting
October 1, 2013 IS 376 Page 10 Telepresence robots are designed to stand in for humans who are in remote locations, in this case with a video screen hat and camera and laser pointer eyes. Using a Web browser, the human controls the robot from home, using the robots mobility and voice and video capabilities to participate in meetings and interact with coworkers.
Stuffed Animal October 1, 2013 IS 376 Page 11Familiarity Human Likeness Industrial Robot Humanoid Robot Bunraku Puppet Corpse Zombie Prosthetic Hand Healthy Person Still Moving In 1970, cognitive scientist Masahiro Mori noticed a relationship between how close an object approximates a human likeness and the ease with which people respond to the object. A child hugs a doll more than a pillow. An industrial robot looks utilitarian, while primitive humanoid robots look cute. Mori observed that past a certain point, however, a simulated human likeness strikes people as creepy unless it literally cannot be distinguished from a real human.
October 1, 2013 IS 376 Page 12 Recent research indicates that military personnel are increasingly forming emotional attachments to their EOD (explosive ordinance disposal) robots While soldiers insist that attachment to their robots does not affect their performance, they acknowledged they felt a range of emotions such as frustration, anger and even sadness when their field robot was destroyed. This has resulted in speculation that outcomes on the battlefield could be compromised by human-robot attachment, or the feeling of self- extension into the robot described by some operators. It has been suggested that the next generation of EOD robots should be designed to have less personality, and be more like tools, so that they're harder to form relationships with.