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A LOW-COST, EXPANDABLE, OPEN- ARCHITECTURE GRINDING MACHINE CONTROL SYSTEM John Moruzzi AMTReL A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine.

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Presentation on theme: "A LOW-COST, EXPANDABLE, OPEN- ARCHITECTURE GRINDING MACHINE CONTROL SYSTEM John Moruzzi AMTReL A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine."— Presentation transcript:

1 A LOW-COST, EXPANDABLE, OPEN- ARCHITECTURE GRINDING MACHINE CONTROL SYSTEM John Moruzzi AMTReL A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Director of Studies: Dr Michael Morgan

2 AMTReL Jones & Shipman 1300X Universal grinding machine External and Internal wheelheads SAMM control (Servo Assisted Manual Machine) Prototype machine based on Format 15 model Built circa 1994, modified 2001 Closed control system – Industrial PC / MS-DOS A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Used for previous AMTReL projects/PhDs Adaptive control (Y Chen) Open CNC Interface (C Statham) High speed Internal grinding Industry co-operations (Timken, Lucas, …) Fluid delivery methods, nozzle design AE monitoring Dressing tool control (fluid coupling)

3 Aims of the project Replace old closed CNC control New simplified operator panel Touch screen operation Implement existing cycles for External grinding Enhance cycle programming and machine setup Interface and integrate external process control equipment Demonstrate optimised cycle Modern software design and implementation Expandable for intelligent and adaptive grinding features A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

4 Initial Objectives Machine Familiarity with machine & electrics Re-commission hardware Move axes Replace workhead drive Modifications to wiring Disable hardware limits Remove original control panel Control system Initial desktop PC control : ISA bus motion control card No Digital I/O card Standard mouse / keyboard / monitor Initial Software Windows 2000 (XP), Visual Basic Programming familiarity Axis configuration (Utility S/W) Axis movements (Utility S/W, libraries) Simple grinding cycles Simple cycle parameters No I/O features A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

5 Phase 2 Objectives Machine Modifications to hardware Optimise axes (drives) Replace original digital I/O wiring Activation of workhead external wheel coolant pump Modifications to wiring Enable hardware limits Interface to original control panel Interface external control devices (Power, AE) Implement new control panel Control system New industrial PC control : Rack mount case with Mini-ITX PC board PCI bus motion control card Digital I/O from motion card Standard mouse / keyboard / monitor LCD / Touchscreen monitor Developed software Windows XP, Visual Basic /.NET Program design & implementation Parameter definition & management Enhanced axis moves (MPG) Standard grinding cycles Enhanced cycle programming Initial IO features RS232 connectivity A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

6 Architecture of a CNC system Main Control Executor Scheduling, program execution, monitoring IO routines HMI, programming, Digital, Bus Safety Machine logic Cycle management Sequencing, monitoring Motion Control Axis movements, motors Process optimisation In-process GaugingDiameter, Shoulder Touch DetectionAE, Power Wheel balancingAuto / Manual Probing A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Adaptive / Intelligent Control Adaptive strategy Parameter modification Selection strategy Rule / Case based Process models & rules Kinematic, Compliance Database Learning strategy, data

7 New Components Workhead servo drive Industrial PC Motion control card Touchscreen monitor Console switches / lamps Cabling / connectors A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

8 Grinding Wheel speed and Control Wheelspeed Rotational speed n s (RPM)Surface speed v s (m/sec) Fixed on 1300X machine, can be changed with gearing / pulleys (3 ratios) Control buttons:SB4Start WheelGreen SB3Stop WheelRed Control relays:KA5Wheelhead Stop Override KA12Enable Internal Wheelhead KA13Enable External Wheelhead A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

9 Workhead speed and control Workspeed Rotational speed n w (RPM)Surface speed v w (m/sec) Variable on most grinding machinesControlled by operator / program Open-loop motor drive control 3 rd axis on motion card CalibrationReference Voltage => speed A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Control buttons:W+ W-Speed Down / Up SB8Start WorkheadGreen SB7Stop WorkheadRed Control relays:KA4Workhead Stop Override KA6Workhead Start Override KA7Workhead Stop Relay

10 Deva 004 : Axis servo setup Z axis parameters PITCH = MAXVOLT = 3000 (2150) COUNT = MAXSPEED = 60 MAXACCEL = 60 GAIN KV = 15 SPEED = 25 A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Motion card driver : Set up and adjust axis configuration parameters in, to match to real-world values and give satisfactory response characteristics. Optimization / minimization of lag and overshoot Also : Adjust servo drive amplifier settings, to give satisfactory response characteristics. Tuning of amplifier trim-pots Optimization / minimization of drift and overshoot Axor MTS 400 VEL Fine speed adjustment OffsetZero volt drift compensation kV Dynamic response (gain) DerDerivative gain

11 Workhead drive setup #1 A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Original drive unit (with choke) Original transformer (single phase) Non-standard drive and transformer (undocumented, unsupported) Non-functioning

12 Workhead drive setup #2 A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System New servo drive unit New transformer (3 phase 2kW) Axor drive Masterspeed MTS /28 and transformer TT2000/ Matched to wheelhead motor SEM MT40-P4 Equivalent to Control Techniques Maxi-Maestro DCD /50 A wheel power monitor

13 Motion Control Interfacing Problem : to integrate a new Motion card with the existing machine wiring. Original ISA bus Motion card – 4 axes on 2 boards: Conn 115W D Axis 0 encoder inputs Conn 215W D Axis 1 encoder inputs Conn 39W D Axis 0, 1 servo outputs Conn 415W D Axis 3 encoder inputs Conn 515W D Axis 4 encoder inputs Conn 69W D Axis 2, 3 servo outputs New PCI bus Motion card – 4 axes on 1 board + flyer cables: Conn 115W D Axis 0 encoder inputs / limit signals Conn 215W D Axis 1 encoder inputs / limit signals Conn 315W D Axis 2 encoder inputs / limit signals Conn 415W D Axis 3 encoder inputs / limit signals IO225W D Axis 0, 1, 2, 3 servo outputs A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

14 Digital I/O Interfacing Problem: To integrate a new Digital IO card with the existing machine. Original ISA bus I/O card – 48 opto-isolated signals on 50W D connector: Conn 150W D 24 inputs, 24 Outputs, 2 x common New PCI bus Motion card – 48 opto-isolated signals on 2 flyer cables: IO125W D 12 inputs, 9 Outputs, 2 x common, 1 x WDog IO225W D 4 inputs, 3 Outputs, 2 x common Machine requirements: 16 Inputs, 7 Outputs, 1 x WDog Connection:To terminal rails in electrical cabinet To auxiliary control equipment A Low-Cost, Expandable, Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

15 Signal Interface Unit To convert one set of signal configurations to be compatible with the machine wiring A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Servo 0, 1, 2, 3 MachineInterfaceControl PC Servo 0, 1 Servo 2, 3 Outputs Encoder 0 IO1 Inputs, Outputs IO2 Inputs, Outputs Encoder 1 Encoder 2 Encoder 3 Inputs Encoder 0 Encoder 1 Encoder 2 Encoder 3 Additional

16 Signal Interface Unit cont... Implemented as 2U high 19 rack enclosure A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Rack assembly with connecting cables

17 Electrical cabinet :- I/O A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System I/O terminals Fuses Relay board

18 Control PC hardware IEI Kino 945 GSE Industrial Mini ITX board with Intel Atom 1.6GHz CPU (Fanless) 1 x PCI expansion slot 1 x 200pin DDR2 SODIMM slot 2 x SATA connectors, 1 x IDE 2 x RS232 ports on rear I/O 1 x RS232 port (internal) 1 x RS232/422/485 port (internal) 8-bit digital I/O Further equipment 2U 19 rack PC case with PSU Operating system Windows XP 8.4 LCD Touchscreen (VGA, RS232) Deva 004 Motion card (4 axis + I/O) 2U 19 rack for signal interfacing Blank 19 rack panels Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

19 Control PC hardware cont... Front of 19 control console: VM20 unit 3U (balance / touch) Blank panel 1U PC rack unit 2U Signal Interface unit 2U Inside of control console: Axis cabling I/O cabling Cross connections An Introduction to Grinding Machine Control Systems

20 Software panel – main screen Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Main user interface Z axis status and Jog X axis status and Jog Manual axis control Cycle start / stop and status Grinding mode and program control Machine functions control

21 Software panel – program screen A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Cycle programming - Traverse

22 Common grinding cycles Dressing Single point diamond dressing: Wheel rotating (surface speed v c ) Wheel traverses past diamond tip (crossfeed velocity v f ) Wheel infeeds an increment (infeed amount a d ) Repeat until wheel surface fully dressed Plunge grinding Workpiece / table positioned relative to wheel Wheel and workpiece rotating (v c and v w ) Wheel infeed at Rapid speed to start position (dia) Wheel infeed at Coarse feed to Fine Feed start position (dia) Wheel infeed at Fine feed to Final Size position (dia) Sparkout or Dwell with no infeed Traverse grinding Workpiece / table set to oscillate across wheel Wheel and workpiece rotating (v c and v w ) Wheel infeed at Rapid speed to start position (dia) Wheel infeed by Coarse increments to Fine Feed start position (dia) Wheel infeed at Fine feed to Final Size position (dia) Sparkout passes of wheel with no infeed A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

23 Automatic Plunge Cycle A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Cycle parameters PlungeCoarseInfeed As Double PlungeFineInfeed As Double PlungeFineDia As Double PlungeStartDia As Double PlungeSizeDia As Double PlungeDwell As Double Motion parameters dblXMovespeed As Double dblXRapid As Double dblXCoarseFeed As Double dblXFineFeed As Double dblXInfeed As Double dblXInfeedRate As Double intXDwell as Integer dblXStartPosition As Double dblXFinePosition As Double dblXSizePosition As Double dblZReversePositionL As Double dblZReversePositionR As Double dblZStartPosition As Double intFROSetting As Integer blnFeedHold As Boolean Cycle State Machine Auxiliary variables WheelSpeed As Double WorkSpeed As Double WheelheadOn As Boolean WorkheadOn As Boolean CoolantOn As Boolean

24 Interfacing of Peripherals 1 A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System RS232: Com 1, 9600 Baud, No Parity Connect to 1300X Operator Panel via RS232: Read Data String: FRO value, button values, checksum Write Data String: Axis position displays, Workspeed display, LED values, checksum

25 Interfacing of Peripherals 2 A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System RS232: Com 2, Baud, No Parity Connect to Balance Systems VM9 TD via RS232: Read Data String: Signal values, Parameter values, checksum Write Data String: Operating commands, Parameter settings, checksum

26 OOD (Object Oriented Design) models software as people would describe the objects in the world. – OOD takes advantage of class relationships where objects of a certain class (e.g. a class of Vehicle) have the same characteristics. (e.g. a Car, a Truck, a Bus). – OOD also takes advantage of inheritance relationships where a new class of objects is derived by absorbing characteristics of an existing class of objects and adding unique characteristics of its own. An object of class Convertible has the characteristics of class Car, but additionally, has a convertible roof. A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

27 An Object has attributes... – i.e. size, shape, colour & weight.... and exhibits behaviours. – i.e. a ball rolls, bounces, inflates & deflates. A Class has Properties... – that describe its state and features... and Methods – that allow it to perform and experience actions A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

28 A fundamental object could be of type Parameter, with various Attributes and Operations(i.e. Properties and Methods) Class: Parameter Derived classes: CycleParameter AxisParameter VM9 Parameter …. Properties: Data Type Methods: ReadValue Decimal placesWriteValue GroupFormatValue LevelResetValue ValueGetAddress Min Value…. Max Value …. A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

29 Some System Parameters A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Axis Configuration XAxisChannel As AxisParameter XAxisPitch As AxisParameter XAxisCount As AxisParameter XAxisKV As AxisParameter XAxisMaxSpeed As AxisParameter XAxisMaxVolt As AxisParameter Traverse Cycle XCoarseInc As CycleParameter XFineInc As CycleParameter TraverseZFeed As CycleParameter TraverseStartDia As CycleParameter TraverseFineDia As CycleParameter TraverseSizeDia As CycleParameter Z0Dwell As CycleParameter ZRevDwell As CycleParameter TraversePasses As CycleParameter VM20 Balancer Function MinimumTolerance As BalanceParameter MaximumTolerance As BalanceParameter MaximumUnbalance As BalanceParameter NominalSpeed As BalanceParameter UnbalanceMeasuringUnit As BalanceParameter BalancingCycleTimeout As BalanceParameter CollectorType As BalanceParameter BalancingHeadType As BalanceParameter OptionRPMOutput As BalanceParameter RS232 Configuration Port As RS232Parameter Baudrate As RS232Parameter ParityCheckingAs RS232Parameter Handshaking As RS232Parameter InBufferSizeAs RS232Parameter OutBufferSize As RS232Parameter

30 ... ? Universal Modelling Language The UML Class diagram allows us to model the classes in the system and their relationships. Class diagrams : model a class as a rectangle. The top zone displays the class name. The middle zone contains the class attributes. The bottom zone contains the class operations. A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System

31 Progress So far..... Reactivation of machine tool Electrical modifications, new workhead drive Initial software with old hardware Development software with new hardware Axis configuration and movement Familiarity with motion control package Implementation of simple cycles Design and build of control unit, IO conversion Developed basic interface design Communication with external equipment Next steps.... Formal definition of software structure Integration of Touchscreen Connection with VM20 unit (RS232/Profibus) Axis movement via MPGs: Improved driver A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Issues.... Machine removed for workshop rebuild since August 2011 New workshop with machines available during April 2012 ????? VM9 Touch Detector unit with Hydrophone ?

32 And finally... Any Questions ??? A Low-Cost, Expandable Open-Architecture Grinding Machine Control System Thank you for your attention.....


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