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Warm UP Define these terms using the Mastering the Grade 8 Social Studies TEKS on your own paper. 1.Domestic policy 2.Foreign policy 3.Precedent 4.Political.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm UP Define these terms using the Mastering the Grade 8 Social Studies TEKS on your own paper. 1.Domestic policy 2.Foreign policy 3.Precedent 4.Political."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm UP Define these terms using the Mastering the Grade 8 Social Studies TEKS on your own paper. 1.Domestic policy 2.Foreign policy 3.Precedent 4.Political parties 5.Neutrality

2 OBJECTIVE 8.5 Understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the republic. 8.5 A Describe major domestic problems faced by the leaders of the new republic. 8.5 C Explain the origin (starting place) and development of American Political Parties.

3 Washingtons Presidency ( )

4 The 1 st President Being the fist president, was very hard for Washington. He had no example to follow. He knew the world would be analyzing his every move. He believed the president should have power to act as president, but he feared any time he used his presidential powers he would be viewed by the people as trying to be a king. He, also, knew that anything he did would set precedence for future presidents, and it did.

5 George Washington 1 st President of United States of America Major Challenges for the New President 1.Define authority of Central Government 2.Create a stable economic system $$$ 3.Build a military 4.Maintain National Security 5.Conduct Foreign relations 6.Make treaties with Native Americans

6 Washington Needs help to meet challenge President Washington is going to start with adding a cabinet to the executive branch because he can not accomplish those challenges by himself. He needs some people to advise him that are experts in that area.

7 Washingtons Cabinet George Washington Alexander Hamilton – Secretary of Treasury $$$$ Henry Knox – secretary of War Thomas Jefferson- Secretary of State

8 Judiciary Act of 1789 The Judiciary Act of 1789 was passed by Congress. It set up 13 district courts (1 per state). It set up 3 circuit courts (1 per region). These were appellate courts.

9 First Chief Justice John Jay was appointed as the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.

10 The Bill of Rights Were Adopted In December 1791, the Bill of Rights were officially added to the Constitution.

11 Hamiltons Economic Plan Repay the Debt Combing the National and state debt to establish the nations credit. National Bank Place to deposit taxes Provide sound currency Make loans to National government. Jefferson is against the National Bank not in Constitution as a Federal power Whiskey Tax Tax on whiskey to raise money from Western farmers New tax caused hostility among western farmer. Farmers refused to pay the tax and threaten the tax collectors. Washington had to send the militia to put down the rebellion Protective Tariff Tariff on imported goods to protect American goods. Tariff was defeated because the Southern states opposed the high tariff rates it would make it harder for Southerners to sale their crops to Britain.

12 War Bonds Should war bonds be paid at their full value? Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, said yes. He believed full payment was necessary to gain the trust of the people. Opposition in the South claimed that only speculators would profit from full payments and since most war bonds were issued in the North, they did not feel responsible for paying them back. In a compromise, the South agreed to paying full value for the war bonds in exchange for moving the capital further south. The new capital would be moved to an independent area called the District of Columbia and the Capital would be called Washington.

13 Creating a National Bank Should there be a national bank? Madison and Jefferson said no. It would only benefit the wealthy and the Constitution did not allow for it. Hamilton disagreed. He argued it was an implied power in the Constitution and Congress did have the power to create a bank. Washington agreed and signed the bill creating the First National Bank.

14 The Whiskey Tax Whiskey was made from left over grain grown by farmers. Hamilton saw it as extra cash and created a law taxing the whiskey. The farmers felt the tax was unfair, because only farmers had to pay it. $$$$$

15 The Whiskey Rebellion A group of farmers protested the whiskey tax by attacking tax collectors homes and burning federal buildings. This is known as the Whiskey Rebellion. Washington gathered an army and crushed the rebellion. Washingtons victory proved two things: 1.It proved that Washington could raise an army when needed. 2.It sent a message to the people that the proper way to protest was to contact their congressman.

16 $$$$$ Tariffs Should there be a tariff? Hamilton proposed a tariff, tax on imports, to protect American industry. The South, led by Jefferson and Madison, voted against the tariff concerned that it forced citizens to pay higher prices. The protective tariff passed anyway, but the South continued to fight against it.

17 How a Protective Tariff Works In America American- made socks sell for 2.00 a pair British-made socks sell for 2.50 a pair When shipped to America, a.75 cents tariff is added to the price of British socks In Britain British-made socks sell for 1.75 a pair This is why the Southern states were against the tariff

18 What is a tariff? Come up with your own example of what a tariff process

19 How a Protective Tariff Works In America American- made socks sell for 2.00 a pair British-made socks sell for 2.50 a pair When shipped to America, a.75 cents tariff is added to the price of British socks In Britain British-made socks sell for 1.75 a pair This is why the Southern states were against the tariff

20 Ticket Out door 1) list 3 challenges George Washington faced during his time in office 2) List 3 things that were accomplished during his time in office 3) List domestic issues that arose due to Hamiltons Financial Plan 4) Why did Jefferson & Madison disagree with the Creation of the Nation Bank. – 1 – 2

21 Hamiltons Plan Created the formation of the first Political Parties OBJ: 8.5 C Explain the origin and development of American political parties.

22 Formation of Political Parties Replacing the Articles of Confederation Process of Ratification of the U.S. Constitution Early development of political Parties Federalist Strong Central Government Anti– Federalist Weak Central Government and strong State

23 Replacing the Articles of Confederation Process of Ratification of the U.S. Constitution Early development of political Parties FederalistStrong Central Government Anti– Federalist Weak Central Government and strong State U.S. Constitution Approved Federalist Created a strong Central Government Anti- Federalist added The Bill of Rights Election for President George Washington Elected President Unanimously voted for 2 terms as President Created a Cabinet to help him run the country Hamilton selected as Secretary of Treasury

24 Replacing the Articles of Confederation Process of Ratification of the U.S. Constitution Early development of political Parties FederalistStrong Central Government Anti– Federalist Weak Central Government and strong State U.S. Constitution Approved Federalist Created a strong Central Government Anti-Federalist added The Bill of Rights Election for President George Washington Elected President Unanimously voted for 2 terms as President Created a Cabinet to help him run the country Hamilton selected as Secretary of Treasury Hamiltons Financial Plan Continued Federalist and Anti-Federalist disagreements Leads to the Early development of Political Parties

25 U.S. Constitution Approved Federalist Created a strong Central Government Anti-Federalist added The Bill of Rights Election for President George Washington Elected President Unanimously voted for 2 terms as President Created a Cabinet to help him run the country Hamilton selected as Secretary of Treasury Hamiltons Financial Plan Continued Federalist and Anti-Federalist disagreements Leads to the Early development of Political Parties Splits Washingtons cabinet Hamiltons Plan– created a Nation Bank, Strong Central Government *National Bank *Assumption of State *Debt *Nation factories Thomas Jefferson– Democratic Republican Disapprove of National Bank, thinks States have more power Democratic– Republican Opposed Hamiltons economic policies Concern about powers of states

26 George Washington Elected President Created a Cabinet to help him run the country Hamilton selected as Secretary of Treasury Hamiltons Financial Plan Continued Federalist and Anti-Federalist disagreements Leads to the Early development of Political Parties Splits Washingtons cabinet Hamiltons Plan– created a Nation Bank, Strong Central Government * National Bank *Assumption of State *Debt *Nation factories Thomas Jefferson– Democratic Republican Disapprove of National Bank, thinks States have more power Democratic– Republican Opposed Hamiltons economic policies Concern about powers of states Washingtons Farwell Address No PDA No Political Parties No Debt No Alliances John Adams Elected Divisions continue to grow with in the country Political Parties have formed Federalist- Strong Central Government Industrial Democratic - Republican Weak Central Govt and Strong State Govt Farmers/small guy

27 FederalistsDemocratic-Republicans Main Party LeadersAlexander Hamilton and John Adams Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Constitutional Views Loose constructionists: the national government should take all steps needed to govern the nation Strict constructionist: the national government should only have powers expressly listed in the Constitution Views on Government Favored a strong federal government Favored states rights Views on Foreign policy Pro-British: Federalists feared the French Revolution as an example of mob rule Pro-French: Jefferson was sympathetic to the French Revolution Main SupportersMerchants and manufacturesFarmers and skilled craftsmen Who should voteOnly those meeting property qualifications Vote should be open to all adult males

28 Events during Washington Presidency Problems with Indians Indians were attacking western settlements. Washington made treaties with many Indian tribes, but Americans ignored the treaties and continued to move west. With the British urging them on, the Indians continued to attack various American settlements.

29 The Battle of Fallen Timbers In 1794, Washington sent troops to defeat the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After losing the battle, the Indians signed the Treaty of Greenville in which they agreed to surrender all Indian lands in Ohio.

30 OBJ: 8.5 E Identify the foreign policies of Presidents Washington and explain the impact of Washingtons Farewell address

31 Problems in Europe Shortly after Washington became president, in 1789, the French Revolution began. Many Americans believed America should support the Revolution, because the French supported us in ours. Other Americans opposed the violence of the French Revolution and its attack on religion and individual liberties. Besides, it was the French king who sent troops to help us during our revolution, not the French people.

32 The Proclamation of Neutrality In 1793, France and Britain went to war. Some Americans supported the British and some supported the French. Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality forbidding Americans to take sides. The British began capturing American cargo ships and forcing the crews to fight for the British navy (impressments).

33 Trying to Stay Neutral Washington sent John Jay to make peace with Britain. John Jay created a treaty with the British known as Jays Treaty. In this treaty the British agreed to: 1.finally leave American soil, 2.pay for some damages to captured ships, 3.and allow some American trade in the Caribbean. Most Americans disapproved of this treaty, because it did not address the issue of impressments. Jays Treaty

34 Pinckneys Treaty Spain feared that Jays Treaty would unite the U.S. and Britain against the Spanish Empire in North America. Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to settle the problem. In Pinckneys Treaty, Spain agreed to allow Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and rights to trade in New Orleans.

35 Washingtons Farewell Washingtons farewell address is read in the Senate every year on Washington's Birthday. As the first President, Washington set several precedents for future presidents: 1. He served two terms. - Franklin D. Roosevelt was the only president to serve more than two terms. 2. He set foreign policy in his Farewell Address given in Sept – Observe good faith and justice toward all nations… Tis our policy to steer clear of permanent alliances. This policy was followed for more than 100 years. 3. He created a cabinet composed of heads of departments to advise him. – All presidents since have had cabinets. 4. He also warned of the dangers of political parties.

36 Washington Farewell address ARTIES EBT LLIANCES


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