Presentation on theme: "Warm UP Define these terms using the Mastering the Grade 8 Social Studies TEKS on your own paper. Domestic policy Foreign policy Precedent Political parties."— Presentation transcript:
1Warm UPDefine these terms using the Mastering the Grade 8 Social Studies TEKS on your own paper.Domestic policyForeign policyPrecedentPolitical partiesNeutrality
2OBJECTIVE8.5 Understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the republic.8.5 A Describe major domestic problems faced by the leaders of the new republic.8.5 C Explain the origin (starting place) and development of American Political Parties.
4The 1st PresidentBeing the fist president, was very hard for Washington.He had no example to follow.He knew the world would be analyzing his every move.He believed the president should have power to act as president, but he feared any time he used his presidential powers he would be viewed by the people as trying to be a king.He, also, knew that anything he did would set precedence for future presidents, and it did.
5George Washington 1st President of United States of America Major Challenges for the New PresidentDefine authority of Central GovernmentCreate a stable economic system $$$Build a militaryMaintain National SecurityConduct Foreign relationsMake treaties with Native Americans
6Washington Needs help to meet challenge President Washington is going to start with adding a cabinet to the executive branch because he can not accomplish those challenges by himself. He needs some people to advise him that are experts in that area.
7Washington’s Cabinet Thomas Jefferson- Secretary of State George WashingtonAlexander Hamilton – Secretary of Treasury $$$$Henry Knox – secretary of WarThomas Jefferson- Secretary of State
8Judiciary Act of 1789The Judiciary Act of 1789 was passed by Congress.It set up 13 district courts (1 per state).It set up 3 circuit courts (1 per region). These were appellate courts.
9First Chief JusticeJohn Jay was appointed as the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
10The Bill of Rights Were Adopted In December 1791, the Bill of Rights were officially added to the Constitution.
11Hamilton’s Economic Plan Whiskey TaxTax on whiskey to raise money from Western farmersNew tax caused hostility among western farmer. Farmers refused to pay the tax and threaten the tax collectors. Washington had to send the militia to put down the rebellionProtective TariffTariff on imported goods to protect American goods.Tariff was defeated because the Southern states opposed the high tariff rates it would make it harder for Southerners to sale their crops to Britain.National BankPlace to deposit taxesProvide sound currencyMake loans to National government.Jefferson is against the National Bank not in Constitution as a Federal powerRepay the DebtCombing the National and state debt to establish the nation’s credit.
12War Bonds Should war bonds be paid at their full value? Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, said yes. He believed full payment was necessary to gain the trust of the people.Opposition in the South claimed that only speculators would profit from full payments and since most war bonds were issued in the North, they did not feel responsible for paying them back.In a compromise, the South agreed to paying full value for the war bonds in exchange for moving the capital further south. The new capital would be moved to an independent area called the District of Columbia and the Capital would be called Washington.
13Creating a National Bank Should there be a national bank?Madison and Jefferson said “no”. It would only benefit the wealthy and the Constitution did not allow for it.Hamilton disagreed. He argued it was an implied power in the Constitution and Congress did have the power to create a bank.Washington agreed and signed the bill creating the First National Bank.
14The Whiskey Tax $$$$$ The Whiskey Tax Whiskey was made from left over grain grown by farmers.Hamilton saw it as extra cash and created a law taxing the whiskey.The farmers felt the tax was unfair, because only farmers had to pay it.$$$$$
15The Whiskey RebellionA group of farmers protested the whiskey tax by attacking tax collectors homes and burning federal buildings. This is known as the Whiskey Rebellion.Washington gathered an army and crushed the rebellion.Washington’s victory proved two things:It proved that Washington could raise an army when needed.It sent a message to the people that the proper way to protest was to contact their congressman.
16Tariffs $$$$$ $$$$$ Should there be a tariff? Hamilton proposed a tariff, tax on imports, to protect American industry.The South, led by Jefferson and Madison, voted against the tariff concerned that it forced citizens to pay higher prices.The protective tariff passed anyway, but the South continued to fight against it.
17How a Protective Tariff Works In AmericaIn BritainWhen shipped to America, a .75 cents tariff is added to the price of British socksAmerican-made socks sell for 2.00 a pairBritish-made socks sell for 1.75 a pairBritish-made socks sell for 2.50 a pairThis is why the Southern states were against the tariff
18Come up with your own example of what a tariff process What is a tariff?Come up with your own example of what a tariff process
19How a Protective Tariff Works In AmericaIn BritainWhen shipped to America, a .75 cents tariff is added to the price of British socksAmerican-made socks sell for 2.00 a pairBritish-made socks sell for 1.75 a pairBritish-made socks sell for 2.50 a pairThis is why the Southern states were against the tariff
20Ticket Out door1) list 3 challenges George Washington faced during his time in office2) List 3 things that were accomplished during his time in office3) List domestic issues that arose due to Hamilton’s Financial Plan4) Why did Jefferson & Madison disagree with the Creation of the Nation Bank.12
21Hamilton’s Plan Created the formation of the first Political Parties OBJ: 8.5 C Explain the origin and development of American political parties.Federalists vs Democratic-Republicans
22Formation of Political Parties Replacing the Articles of ConfederationProcess of Ratification of the U.S. ConstitutionEarly development of political PartiesFederalist—Strong Central GovernmentAnti– FederalistWeak Central Government and strong State
23Political Parties Formed Process of Ratification of the U.S. ConstitutionEarly development of political PartiesReplacing the Articles of ConfederationFederalist—Strong Central GovernmentAnti– FederalistWeak Central Government and strong StateU.S. Constitution ApprovedElection forPresidentFederalistCreated a strong Central GovernmentAnti-Federalistadded The Bill of RightsGeorge Washington Elected PresidentUnanimously voted for 2 terms as PresidentCreated a Cabinet to help him run the countryHamilton selected as Secretary of Treasury
24Early development of political Parties Replacing the Articles of ConfederationProcess of Ratification of the U.S. ConstitutionEarly development of political PartiesFederalist—Strong Central GovernmentAnti– FederalistWeak Central Government and strong StateU.S. Constitution ApprovedHamilton’s Financial PlanElection forPresidentFederalistCreated a strong Central GovernmentAnti-Federalistadded The Bill of RightsGeorge Washington Elected PresidentContinued Federalist and Anti-Federalist disagreementsLeads to the Early development ofPolitical PartiesUnanimously voted for 2 terms as PresidentCreated a Cabinet to help him run the countryHamilton selected as Secretary of Treasury
25Hamilton’s Financial Plan U.S. Constitution ApprovedFederalistCreated a strong Central GovernmentAnti-Federalistadded The Bill of RightsElection forPresidentGeorge Washington Elected PresidentUnanimously voted for 2 terms as PresidentCreated a Cabinet to help him run the countryHamilton selected as Secretary of TreasuryHamilton’s Financial PlanContinued Federalist and Anti-Federalist disagreementsLeads to the Early development of Political PartiesSplits Washington’s cabinetHamilton’s Plan– created a Nation Bank,Strong Central Government*National Bank *Assumption of State *Debt *Nation factoriesThomas Jefferson– Democratic RepublicanDisapprove of National Bank, thinks States have more powerDemocratic– RepublicanOpposed Hamilton’s economic policiesConcern about powers of states
26Hamilton’s Financial Plan George Washington Elected PresidentCreated a Cabinet to help him run the countryHamilton selected as Secretary of TreasuryHamilton’s Financial PlanSplits Washington’s cabinetHamilton’s Plan– created a Nation Bank, Strong Central Government*National Bank *Assumption of State *Debt *Nation factoriesThomas Jefferson– Democratic RepublicanDisapprove of National Bank, thinks States have more powerDemocratic– RepublicanOpposed Hamilton’s economic policiesConcern about powers of statesContinuedFederalistand Anti-Federalist disagreementsLeads to the Early development of Political PartiesWashington’s Farwell AddressNo PDANo Political PartiesNo DebtNoAlliancesJohn Adams ElectedDivisions continue to grow with in the countryPolitical Parties have formedFederalist-Strong Central GovernmentIndustrialDemocratic - Republican Weak Central Gov’t and Strong State Gov’tFarmers/small guy
27Democratic-Republicans FederalistsDemocratic-RepublicansMain Party LeadersAlexander Hamilton andJohn AdamsThomas Jefferson andJames MadisonConstitutional ViewsLoose constructionists: the national government should take all steps needed to govern the nationStrict constructionist: the national government should only have powers expressly listed in the ConstitutionViews on GovernmentFavored a strong federal governmentFavored states’ rightsViews on Foreign policyPro-British: Federalists feared the French Revolution as an example of mob rulePro-French: Jefferson was sympathetic to the French RevolutionMain SupportersMerchants and manufacturesFarmers and skilled craftsmenWho should voteOnly those meeting property qualificationsVote should be open to all adult males
28Events during Washington Presidency Problems with IndiansIndians were attacking western settlements.Washington made treaties with many Indian tribes, but Americans ignored the treaties and continued to move west.With the British urging them on, the Indians continued to attack various American settlements.
29The Battle of Fallen Timbers In 1794, Washington sent troops to defeat the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.After losing the battle, the Indians signed the Treaty of Greenville in which they agreed to surrender all Indian lands in Ohio.
30OBJ: 8.5 EIdentify the foreign policies of Presidents Washington and explain the impact of Washington’s Farewell address
31Problems in EuropeShortly after Washington became president, in 1789, the French Revolution began.Many Americans believed America should support the Revolution, because the French supported us in ours.Other Americans opposed the violence of the French Revolution and its attack on religion and individual liberties. Besides, it was the French king who sent troops to help us during our revolution, not the French people.
32The Proclamation of Neutrality In 1793, France and Britain went to war.Some Americans supported the British and some supported the French.Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality forbidding Americans to take sides.The British began capturing American cargo ships and forcing the crews to fight for the British navy (impressments).
33Trying to Stay NeutralWashington sent John Jay to make peace with Britain.John Jay created a treaty with the British known as Jay’s Treaty.In this treaty the British agreed to:finally leave American soil,pay for some damages to captured ships,and allow some American trade in the Caribbean.Most Americans disapproved of this treaty, because it did not address the issue of impressments.Jay’s Treaty
34Pinckney’s Treaty Spain feared that Jay’s Treaty would unite the U.S. and Britain against the Spanish Empire in North America.Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to settle the problem.In Pinckney’s Treaty, Spain agreed to allow Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and rights to trade in New Orleans.
35Washington’s Farewell As the first President, Washington set several precedents for future presidents:1. He served two terms. -Franklin D. Roosevelt was the only presidentto serve more than two terms.2. He set foreign policy in his “FarewellAddress” given in Sept –“Observe good faith and justice toward allnations… Tis our policy to steer clear ofpermanent alliances.” This policy wasfollowed for more than 100 years.3. He created a cabinet composed of headsof departments to advise him. –All presidents since have had cabinets.4. He also warned of the dangers of politicalparties.Washington’s farewell address is read in the Senate every year on Washington's Birthday.