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American Politics In a Nutshell. STRUCTURE AGENT INSTITUTIONS ECONOMICSCULTURE.

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Presentation on theme: "American Politics In a Nutshell. STRUCTURE AGENT INSTITUTIONS ECONOMICSCULTURE."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Politics In a Nutshell

2

3 STRUCTURE AGENT INSTITUTIONS ECONOMICSCULTURE

4 STRUCTURE INSTITUTIONS ECONOMICSCULTURE

5 INSTITUTIONS Arend Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, Yale University Press, 1999 Andrew Roberts, What Kind of Democracy Is Emerging in Eastern Europe? Post-Soviet Affairs, 2006, 22(1): 37–64

6 DividedConcentratedinstitutions Concentrate d politics Executive Parties Divided politics Lijphart: Two Dimensions

7 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension How much control can party have over government? HighLo w ConcentratedDivided

8 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension HighLo w ConcentratedDivided Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups

9 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive Interest Groups ConcentratedDivided

10 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups ConcentratedDivided

11 Democrats Republicans Third Parties As compared to the United States,

12 2. Number and size of political parties worldwide

13 3b. Stability of support for political parties worldwide

14 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups ConcentratedDivided

15 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups ConcentratedDivided

16 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups ConcentratedDivided

17 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups ConcentratedDivided

18 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups ConcentratedDivided

19 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups ConcentratedDivided

20 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive-Legislature Interest Groups American interest groups are divided, magnifying the centralization of the American Executive-Parties dimension ConcentratedDivided

21 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System C-Legislature Interest GroupsA An element not in Lijphart: Party Organization ConcentratedDivided

22 Multiple Centers of Power Factions One Person Rule KDHSMK HZDS Meciar Smer Fico SDKU Republicans Democrats Perot (1992) Reform (2000) Leadership in political parties: United States and Slovakia SNS Slota None

23 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups Party Organization ConcentratedDivided

24 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups ConcentratedDivided

25 DividedConcentratedinstitutions Concentrate d politics Divided politics Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension

26 How much can government change policy? Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension Are there mechanisms to preserve the minority's voice/rights? HighLo w

27 Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension HighLo w ConcentratedDivided

28 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension ConcentratedDivided

29 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension ConcentratedDivided

30 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension ConcentratedDivided

31 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension ConcentratedDivided

32 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension ConcentratedDivided

33 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension ConcentratedDivided

34 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension ConcentratedDivided

35 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension ConcentratedDivided

36 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups ConcentratedDivided

37 DividedConcentratedinstitutions Concentrate d politics Divided politics Lijphart: Two Dimensions

38 STRUCTURE INSTITUTIONS ECONOMICS CULTURE

39 Byron E. Shafer and William J.M. Claggett, The Two Majorities, Johns Hopkins University Press, Byron E. Shafer and William J.M. Claggett, The American Public Mind: The Issues Structure of Mass Politics in the Postwar United States, Cambridge University Press, STRUCTURE ECONOMICS CULTURE

40 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

41 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

42 Race/Ethnicity Age Education Class Location Gender Religion

43 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n College Graduates Some College High School Graduates High School Dropouts Rac e African- America n 13% Not African- American 87%

44 Race/Ethnicit y Age Education Class Location Gender Religion

45 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n High School Graduates Rac e African- America n 13% Catholic or High Protestant 56% Religion Funda- mentalist 21% Not Christian 10%

46 Race/Ethnicit y Age Education Class Location Gender Religion

47 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Funda- mentalist 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

48 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

49 Against abortion Against defense cuts Against homosexuality For assisting the needy For assisting African-Americans For banning dangerous books Care for others Easy police searches Equal rights not achieved For Affirmative Action Aid To Farmers For National Health Care For prayer in school For retirement programs Limits on free speech For missile defense Peace through strength Provide food/shelter

50 Against abortion Against defense cuts Against homosexuality For assisting the needy For assisting African-Americans For banning dangerous books Care for others Easy police searches Equal rights not achieved For Affirmative Action Aid To Farmers For National Health Care For prayer in school For retirement programs Limits on free speech For missile defense Peace through strength Provide food/shelter

51 Against abortion Against defense cuts Against homosexuality For assisting the needy For assisting African-Americans For banning dangerous books Care for others Easy police searches Equal rights not achieved For Affirmative Action Aid To Farmers For National Health Care For prayer in school For retirement programs Limits on free speech For missile defense Peace through strength Provide food/shelter

52 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African- Americans Equal rights not achieved Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers

53 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African- Americans Equal rights not achieved Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers

54 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African- Americans Equal rights not achieved Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers

55 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African- Americans Equal rights not achieved

56 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African- Americans Equal rights not achieved Cultural Values Behavioral Norms Abortion Homosexuality Womens roles Public Order Crime Death penalty National Integration Immigration Language Social Welfare Behavioral Welfare The Poor Structural Welfare The Young -Education Middle Age -Jobs, Health care The Old -Social Security -Medicare Civil Rights Policy Anti-discrimination Race-conscious Attitudes Foreign Policy National Security Threat assessment Defense spending Foreign engagement

57 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African- Americans Equal rights not achieved

58 Cultural Socio-Economic

59 Cultural

60

61 Socio-Economic Cultural

62 Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Socio-Economic Cultural

63 Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

64 SMALL BIG Economic Power 24.9% 26.9% 23.5% 24.7%

65 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

66 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

67 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Funda- mentalist 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

68 African Americans Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

69 African Americans Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

70 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 4.6% 57.4% 33.3% 4.7% African Americans

71 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Funda- mentalist 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

72 Non-Christians Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

73 Non-Christians Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

74 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 9.5% 41.7% 10.9% 38.0% Non-Christians

75 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Funda- mentalist 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

76 Funda-mentalists Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

77 Funda-mentalists Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

78 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 48.6% 16.3% 28.1% 8.7% Funda-mentalists

79 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Funda- mentalist 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

80 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Dropouts

81 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Dropouts

82 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Dropouts 40.9% 19.3% 29.3% 10.5%

83 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Graduates 25.6% 22.3% 27.9% 24.2%

84 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Some College 25.9% 12.2% 38.0% 23.9%

85 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power College Graduates 46.0% 13.4% 31.4% 9.2%

86 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

87 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Dropouts 40.9% 19.3% 29.3% 10.5%

88 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Graduates 25.6% 22.3% 27.9% 24.2%

89 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Some College 25.9% 12.2% 38.0% 23.9%

90 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power College Graduates 46.0% 13.4% 31.4% 9.2%

91 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Post-College

92 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power - Religion +

93 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power - + Income Education

94 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power - Income + - Education +

95 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

96 2008 Presidential

97 2010 Congressional

98 2012 Presidential

99 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

100 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Funda- mentalist 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

101 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Funda- mentalist 21% Religion Overeducated >5% Educatio n College Graduate 10%

102 TRUE IN 2012?

103 White Black Hispanic Asian Other Ethnicity

104

105 Protestant Jewish None Other Catholic Mormon Religion White Fundamentalist

106 1x month Never 1x year 2x week Religious services 1x week

107 Mid-sized cities Big-cities Rural Religious services Towns Suburbs

108 H.S. Diploma College Diploma No H.S. Diploma Educatio n Some College Post-Graduate

109 H.S. Diploma College Diploma No H.S. Diploma Educatio n Some College Post-Graduate Under $30k $50k-$100k Over $100k Income Under $50k

110 Age

111 Married Women Gender Women Married Men Men Unmarried Women Unmarried Men

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

120 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

121 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 31.2% 36.5% 18.9% 13.4% Republicans

122 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 32.5% 32.6% 19.1% 15.8% Democrats

123 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Democrats Republicans

124 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Cross Pressured!

125 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

126 Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare & Insurance Security Civil Rights 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s 00s

127 Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare & Insurance Security Civil Rights 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s 00s

128 Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare & Insurance Security Civil Rights 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s 00s

129 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

130 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power The Future?

131 Questions ?

132


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