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Chapter 13 Powers of the President Electing a President

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1 Chapter 13 Powers of the President Electing a President
The Power of the American Presidency Roles of the President Powers of the President Electing a President

2 Describe the following political cartoon.
Jumpstart Assignment Describe the following political cartoon.

3 Today’s Agenda Jumpstart Notes: Ch. 13, Sec. 1 and 2
Presidential Roles Hats The Heartbeat Job

4 Jumpstart Assignment Of the 8 “roles” of the President of the United States, which one do you think President Bush was most successful at? Which one was he least successful at? The roles are listed on pages 354 and 355 of your textbook.

5 Demographic Characteristics of U.S. Presidents
69% politicians 62% lawyers >50% from the top 3% wealth and social class 0.5% born into poverty 69% elected from large states 100% male 100% Caucasian 97% Protestant 82% of British ancestry 77% college educated

6 Fortunate Son Recorded by Creedence Clearwater Revival (1969)
Some folks are born made to wave the flag, Ooh, they’re red, white and blue. And when the band plays, “Hail to the Chief,” Ooh, they point the cannon at you, lord, It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no senator’s son, son. It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no fortunate one, no. Some folks are born silver spoon in hand, Lord, don’t they help themselves, oh. But when the taxman comes to the door, Lord, the house looks like a rummage sale, yes, It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no millionaire’s son, son. It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no fortunate one, no.

7 Fortunate Son Recorded by Creedence Clearwater Revival (1969)
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no military son, son. It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no fortunate one, one. It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no fortunate son, son. It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t no fortunate son, no, no, no. Some folks inherit star spangled eyes, Ooh, they send you down to war, lord, And when you ask them, “How much should we give?” Ooh, they only answer more! more! more! yo,

8 Constitutional Qualifications
Must be at least 35 years old Must have lived in the United States for 14 years Must be a natural born citizen

9 Presidential Benefits
$400,000 tax-free salary $50,000/year expense account $100,000/year travel expenses The White House Secret Service protection Camp David country estate Air Force One personal airplane Staff of Christmas at the White House, 2004

10 Presidential Roles

11 Head of State The President is chief of state. This means he is the ceremonial head of the government of the United States, the symbol of all the people of the nation. Queen Elizabeth and President Reagan, 1983 President Kennedy speaks at Berlin Wall, 1963

12 Chief Executive The Constitution vests the President with the executive power of the United States, making him or her the nation’s chief executive. President Clinton with Janet Reno, the first female Attorney General, February, 1993 President Bush holds cabinet meeting in October, 2005

13 Commander-in-Chief The Constitution makes the President the commander in chief, giving him or her complete control of the nation’s armed forces. President Johnson decorates a soldier in Vietnam, October, 1966 President Bush aboard U.S.S. Lincoln, May, 2003

14 Chief Legislator The President is the chief legislator, the main architect of the nation’s public policies. President Clinton delivers the State of the Union Address, 1997 President Roosevelt signs into law the Social Security Act, 1935

15 Political Party Leader
The President acts as the chief of party, the acknowledged leader of the political party that controls the executive branch. President Reagan & Vice-President Bush accepting their party’s nomination in 1980

16 Chief Administrator The President is the chief administrator, or director, of the United States government. President Bush at Ground Zero after 9-11 Vice-President Johnson sworn in aboard Air Force One after President Kennedy’s assassination, 1963

17 Chief Diplomat As the nation’s chief diplomat, the President is the main architect of American foreign policy and chief spokesperson to the rest of the world. President Lincoln during the Civil War, 1862 President Roosevelt and the “Bully Pulpit,” 1910

18 Chief Citizen The President is expected to be “the representative of all the people.”

19 Presidential Succession
Presidential succession is the plan by which a presidential vacancy is filled. 1) Vice President 2) Speaker of the House 3) President Pro Tempore

20 Role of the Vice President

21 Role of the Vice President
____ 1. The vice president is also the president of the Senate. _____2. The vice president is also head of the judicial branch and presides over the Supreme Court. ____ 3. The vice president and cabinet are part of the legislative branch. ____ 4. The vice president is first in the line of succession to the presidency. ____ 5. The Constitution notes only one official role for the vice president. ____ 6. The qualifications for the vice presidency are not the same as those for the presidency. ____ 7. The vice president administers the oath of office to the president.

22 Jumpstart Assignment Describe the following political cartoon. How does it relate to the power of the President and Vice President?

23 Today’s Agenda Notes: Presidential Powers (Formal/Informal)
Jumpstart Assignment Notes: Presidential Powers (Formal/Informal) Presidential Powers Scenarios

24 Powers of the President

25 Formal Powers of the President
Constitutional or expressed powers of the presidency Found primarily in Article II of the Constitution (the Executive Article)

26 Formal Powers: Commander-in-Chief
Commander in Chief of the Army & Navy Making undeclared war Limited by War Powers Act 1973 President can commit troops for 90 days

27 Formal Powers: Chief Executive
“Faithfully execute” the laws Grant pardons for federal offenses except for cases of impeachment Nominate judges of the Supreme Court and all other officers of the U.S. with consent of the Senate Fill vacancies that may happen during recess of the Senate (recess appointments)

28 Formal Powers: Foreign Affairs
Appoint ambassadors, ministers and consuls Make treaties subject to Senate confirmation Receive ambassadors Diplomatic Recognition – acknowledging the legal existence of a country/state

29 Formal Powers: Chief Legislator
Give State of the Union address to Congress Recommend “measures” to the Congress Upon “extraordinary occasions” convene both houses of Congress

30 Formal Powers: Chief Legislator (cont.)
Presidential Veto Veto Message within 10 days of passing the House of origin Pocket Veto - President does not sign within 10 days Congress can override with 2/3 majority from both Houses Veto Politics Congressional override is difficult (only 4%) Threat of veto can cause Congress to make changes in legislation


32 Informal Powers Those powers not explicitly written in the Constitution Similar to “necessary and proper” powers of Congress In the modern era (since 1933), the President’s informal powers may be significantly more powerful than his formal powers


34 Executive Orders Orders issued by the President that carry the force of law Clinton’s “Don’t ask don’t tell” gays in the military policy FDR’s internment of Japanese Americans GWB trying suspected terrorists in military tribunals Notice for Japanese “relocation,” 1942


36 Executive Agreements International agreements, usually related to trade, made by a president that has the force of a treaty; does NOT need Senate approval Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana in 1803 GWB announced cuts in the nuclear arsenal, but not in a treaty; usually trade agreements between US and other nations

37 Executive Privilege Claim by a president that he has the right to decide that the national interest will be better served if certain information is withheld from the public, including the Courts and Congress United States v. Nixon (1973) – presidents do NOT have unqualified executive privilege (Nixon Watergate tapes)


39 Jumpstart Assignment Describe the following political cartoon.

40 Today’s Plan Jumpstart Presidential Review Questions
Notes: Presidential Elections Jeopardy Review Test Next Class

41 Electing a President Step 1:
Primaries and Caucuses – determine who the Presidential candidates will be for each political party Caucuses -

42 Electing a President Step 2:
Convention – political parties formally nominate candidates - Party platform is established – basic principles and beliefs of the party

43 Electing a President Step 3:
Electoral College – group of people from each state chosen to formally select the president and vice president

44 Alternatives to Electoral College
District Plan – each Congressional receives 1 electoral vote Proportional Plan – candidates receive electoral votes in proportion to the percentage of popular vote received Direct Popular Election – based strictly on popular vote (would require a Constitutional Amendment) National Popular Vote – states agree to give all electoral votes to popular winner

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