Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Chapter 10: Federal Bureaucracy"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 7 Chapter 10: Federal Bureaucracy Section 1Bureaucratic OrganizationMr. Young
2Essential QuestionsWhat is the major importance of the Federal Bureaucracy?
3I CAN:Define the concept of Bureaucracy and describe its characteristicsExplain the concept of a Bureaucrat and their function within the governmentIdentify and Describe the structure and function of the Federal Bureaucracy
4Definitions of Bureaucracy Group #1Definitions of Bureaucracy
5Bureaucracy -A professional corps of unelected officials organized in a pyramid hierarchy, functioning under impersonal uniform rules and procedures.
6BureaucracyA hierarchical organization in which offices have specified missions and employees are assigned responsibility based on merit, knowledge, and experience.
7bureaucracyDefinition: an administrative system, especially in a government, that divides work into specific categories carried out by special departments of nonelected officials
8bureaucracyliterally means “rule by desks”government by clerks
9Duty of Bureaucracy Cabinet Departments Most Important duty: Carry out the Day-to-Day business of the government15 cabinet departments
10What and Whom are “Bureaucrats?” Group #2What and Whom are “Bureaucrats?”
11BureaucratsA Civil servantPermanent employee of the government
12Who are the “Bureaucrats?” 97% are career government employeesOnly 10% live in the D.C. area30% work for the D.O.D.Less than 15% work for social welfare agenciesMost are white collar workers: secretaries, clerks, lawyers, inspectors & engineersCivil employees more diverse demographically than Congress
13The Federal Bureaucracy is: 4 million employees; 2.8 million are civilians or “civil servants”President only appoints 3% (patronage or political appointments)15 cabinet level departments200+ independent agencies with 2,000+ bureaus, divisions, branches, etc.Biggest - Dept. of Defense, U.S. Postal Service, Veterans Administration
14Bureaucratic Statistics 2.9 million civilians1.4 million military4.2 million state11.4 million localTotal: 19.8 million people work for government
15Where do Federal Employees Work? Source: Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/
16What Jobs Do Bureaucrats Do? Source: Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/
20Functions and Structures of the Federal Bureaucracy Group #3Functions and Structures of the Federal Bureaucracy
21Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy Implementation - carry out laws of Congress, executive orders of the PresidentAdministration - routine administrative work; provide services (ex: SSA sends social security checks to beneficiaries)Regulation - issue rules and regulations that impact the public (ex: EPA sets clean air standards)Source:
22OrganizationDepartments, agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and advisory committeesArticle 2- President appoints heads of departments
23The Cabinet Departments The 15 cabinet departments headed by a cabinet secretary appointed by the president and approved by the SenateEach department “expert” in specific policy areaEach department has its own budgetDepartment of Homeland Security, created in 2002, is newest department
25Department of Homeland Security Executive SecretaryCommandant ofCoast Guard (1)Legislative AffairsSecretaryDeputy SecretaryInspector GeneralPublic AffairsGeneral CounselState and Local CoordinationCivil Rights andCivil LibertiesCitizenship & Immigration ServiceOmbudsman (1)Director, Bureau of Citizenship & Immigration Services (1)Special Assistant to the Secretary(private sector)Director of theSecret Service (1)National Capital Region CoordinationSmall & DisadvantagedBusinessPrivacy OfficerChief of StaffInternational AffairsShared ServicesCounter NarcoticsUnder SecretaryManagementUnder SecretaryScience and TechnologyUnder Secretary Information Analysis and Infrastructure ProtectionUnder SecretaryBorder & Transportation SecurityUnder Secretary Emergency Preparedness and ResponseNote (1): Effective March 1st, 2003
26Independent Executive Agencies Established by Congress with separate status outside the executive branchGiven a specific mandate and generally perform a service function, not a regulatory one.Some examples include: Social Security Administration, CIA, NASA, EPA.
27Independent AgenciesSimilar to cabinet departments but usually have a narrower area of responsibilityEx: NASA, CIAPerform services for the executive branch
28Independent Regulatory Commissions IRCs exist to regulate a specific economic activity or interest such as the Federal Communications Commission (public air waves) or Federal Reserve Board (banking system, money supply)IRCs operate independently from Congress and the PresidentOnce appointed and seated, members cannot be removed without cause
29Regulatory Commissions Administrative units that have responsibility for the monitoring and regulation of ongoing economic activitiesCreated to make rules for large industries and businesses that affect public interestUnder intense pressure from lobbyistsEx: EPA (environment), SEC (stocks and bonds)
30Government Corporations Government owned businesses created by CongressMay or may not be profitable, but serve a public needEx: U.S. Postal Service, Amtrak, Tennessee Valley Authority, Corporation for Public Broadcasting
31Government Corporations Independent agencies, are similar to private organizations in that they can charge for their services but differ in that they receive federal fundingEx:TVA, USPS, Amtrak
32Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy Source: Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/
33Characteristics and Criticisms Group #4Characteristics and Criticisms
34Characteristics of a Bureaucracy administration of government through departmentsconsists of unelected often highly trained professionalstask specializationhierarchical authority
35Public Perceptions of Bureaucracies impersonalinclined to follow rigid or complex proceduresmay stifle effectiveness and innovation“red tape”
36Criticism of Bureaucracy I. RED TAPEtoo many rigid procedures >>> ex: all hiring must be done through OPMtoo many policies with no flexibility for special circumstancestoo many forms to fill out, lines to waitII. INEFFICIENCYlack of incentive to be productive - no profit motiveIII. DUPLICATION OF SERVICESbureaucracy is so complicatedagencies are performing similar and sometimes the same functionsDept. of Commerce overlaps with Dept. of Agriculture, GSA overlaps with Dept. of Interior, etc.federalism makes this more complicated, many services are provided at the state and national level both
37Criticisms Continued IV. BUREAUCRACY IS LAW MAKER regulations end up having the effect of law.V. BUREAUCRACY IS TOO BIGprivatization would be more effectiveVI. BUREAUCRACY IS CORRUPTiron triangle - reveals the relationship between the Executive branch, Congress and private interest groups that can lead to decisions which benefit the private sector at the expense of the government.
38Oversight of the Federal Bureaucracy Group #5Oversight of the Federal Bureaucracy
39The President Supervises the Bureaucracy The President can:appoint & remove agency headsreorganize the bureaucracyissue executive ordersreduce an agency's budgetPresident Bush speaks about his budget priorities for FY 2007
40Congress Oversees the Bureaucracy Congress can:create or abolish agencies & departmentscut or reduce fundinginvestigate agency activitieshold committee hearingspass legislation that alters an agency's functionsinfluence or even fail to confirm presidential appointmentsFormer FEMA Chief Michael Brown testifies beforeHouse committee investigating Hurricane Katrina
41Federal Courts Check the Bureaucracy Federal courts can:through judicial review rule on whether the bureaucracy has acted within the law and the U.S. Constitutionprovide due process for individuals affected by a bureaucratic actionSupreme Court of the United States
42QuestionWhy do you think that the organization of Bureaucracies are so confusing?
43QuestionWhat do the 15 departments help to make up, guaranteed by the 25th amendment, that we talked about in the last unit.
52Department of Agriculture Founded: 1862Help farmers improve their income and expand their marketsEx: Food Safety and Inspection ServiceCurrent Secretary: Tom Vilsack
53Department of Justice Founded: 1870 Attorney General (1789) Oversee the nation’s legal affairsEx: FBI, DEA, US MarshalsCurrent Secretary: Attorney General Eric Holder
54Department of Commerce Founded: 1903Promote and protect the industrial and commercial segments of the American economyEx: Bureau of Census, Patent and Trademark Office, National Institute of Standards and TechnologyCurrent Secretary: John Bryson
55Department of Labor Founded: 1913 Protects American workers; safe working conditions, safeguards a minimum wage, and protects pension rightsEx: Office of American WorkplaceCurrent Secretary: Hilda Solis
56Housing and Urban Development Founded: 1965Preserve the nation’s communities and ensure equal housing opportunitiesEx: Government National Mortgage AssociationCurrent Secretary: Shaun Donovan
57Transportation Department Founded: 1966Regulate all aspects of transportation needs, policy development, and planningFederal Aviation, Railroad, Highway, and TransitSecretary: Ray Lahood
58Energy Department Founded: 1977 Plans energy policy and researches and develops energy technologySecretary: Stephen Chu
59QuestionWhat are some new research methods that the Energy Department is trying to work on to help the world with their environment problem?
60Answer: Clean Energy, such as Wind, Solar, Clean Coal, Electric Cars
61Health and Human Services Department Founded: 1979Health and social services needs of peopleMedicare, Medicaid, Social Security, FDASecretary: Kathleen Sebeliu
62Education Department Founded: 1979 Coordinate federal assistance programs for public and private schoolsEducation is an essential feature of democracySecretary: Arne Duncan
63Veterans Affairs Department Founded: 1989Administers several hospitals, educational, and other programs designed to benefit veterans and familiesSecretary: Eric Shinseki
64Homeland Security Department Founded: 2002Created after September 11th to help protect our nation, analyzes information from FBI and CIASecretary: Janet Napiltano