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Unit 7 Chapter 10: Federal Bureaucracy Section 1 Bureaucratic Organization Mr. Young.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Chapter 10: Federal Bureaucracy Section 1 Bureaucratic Organization Mr. Young."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 7 Chapter 10: Federal Bureaucracy Section 1 Bureaucratic Organization Mr. Young

2 Essential Questions What is the major importance of the Federal Bureaucracy? What is the major importance of the Federal Bureaucracy?

3 I CAN: 1.Define the concept of Bureaucracy and describe its characteristics 2.Explain the concept of a Bureaucrat and their function within the government 3.Identify and Describe the structure and function of the Federal Bureaucracy

4 Group #1 Definitions of Bureaucracy

5 Bureaucracy - A professional corps of unelected officials organized in a pyramid hierarchy, functioning under impersonal uniform rules and procedures.

6 Bureaucracy A hierarchical organization in which offices have specified missions and employees are assigned responsibility based on merit, knowledge, and experience. A hierarchical organization in which offices have specified missions and employees are assigned responsibility based on merit, knowledge, and experience.

7 bureaucracy Definition: an administrative system, especially in a government, that divides work into specific categories carried out by special departments of nonelected officials

8 bureaucracy literally means rule by desks government by clerks

9 Duty of Bureaucracy Cabinet Departments Most Important duty: Carry out the Day-to-Day business of the government Most Important duty: Carry out the Day-to-Day business of the government 15 cabinet departments 15 cabinet departments

10 Group #2 What and Whom are Bureaucrats?

11 Bureaucrats A Civil servant A Civil servant Permanent employee of the government Permanent employee of the government

12 Who are the Bureaucrats? 97% are career government employees 97% are career government employees Only 10% live in the D.C. area Only 10% live in the D.C. area 30% work for the D.O.D. 30% work for the D.O.D. Less than 15% work for social welfare agencies Less than 15% work for social welfare agencies Most are white collar workers: secretaries, clerks, lawyers, inspectors & engineers Most are white collar workers: secretaries, clerks, lawyers, inspectors & engineers Civil employees more diverse demographically than Congress Civil employees more diverse demographically than Congress

13 The Federal Bureaucracy is: 4 million employees; 2.8 million are civilians or civil servants 4 million employees; 2.8 million are civilians or civil servants President only appoints 3% (patronage or political appointments) President only appoints 3% (patronage or political appointments) 15 cabinet level departments 15 cabinet level departments 200+ independent agencies with 2,000+ bureaus, divisions, branches, etc independent agencies with 2,000+ bureaus, divisions, branches, etc. Biggest - Dept. of Defense, U.S. Postal Service, Veterans Administration Biggest - Dept. of Defense, U.S. Postal Service, Veterans Administration

14 Bureaucratic Statistics 2.9 million civilians 2.9 million civilians 1.4 million military 1.4 million military 4.2 million state 4.2 million state 11.4 million local 11.4 million local Total: 19.8 million people work for government Total: 19.8 million people work for government

15 Where do Federal Employees Work? Source: Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/

16 What Jobs Do Bureaucrats Do? Source: Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/

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18 Demographics of Federal Employees

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20 Group #3 Functions and Structures of the Federal Bureaucracy

21 Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy 1. Implementation 1. Implementation - carry out laws of Congress, executive orders of the President 2. Administration 2. Administration - routine administrative work; provide services (ex: SSA sends social security checks to beneficiaries) 3. Regulation 3. Regulation - issue rules and regulations that impact the public (ex: EPA sets clean air standards) Source: 1. Implementation 1. Implementation - carry out laws of Congress, executive orders of the President 2. Administration 2. Administration - routine administrative work; provide services (ex: SSA sends social security checks to beneficiaries) 3. Regulation 3. Regulation - issue rules and regulations that impact the public (ex: EPA sets clean air standards) Source:

22 OrganizationOrganization Departments, agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and advisory committees Article 2- President appoints heads of departments Departments, agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and advisory committees Article 2- President appoints heads of departments

23 The Cabinet Departments The 15 cabinet departments headed by a cabinet secretary appointed by the president and approved by the Senate Each department expert in specific policy area Each department has its own budget Department of Homeland Security, created in 2002, is newest department

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25 Secretary Deputy Secretary Under Secretary Science and Technology Under Secretary Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Under Secretary Border & Transportation Security Under Secretary Emergency Preparedness and Response Under Secretary Management Inspector General Director of the Secret Service (1) Commandant of Coast Guard (1) Director, Bureau of Citizenship & Immigration Services (1) General Counsel State and Local Coordination Special Assistant to the Secretary (private sector) National Capital Region Coordination Shared Services Citizenship & Immigration Service Ombudsman (1) Legislative Affairs Public Affairs Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Department of Homeland Security Chief of Staff Privacy Officer Executive Secretary International Affairs Counter Narcotics Small & Disadvantaged Business Note (1): Effective March 1 st, 2003

26 Independent Executive Agencies Established by Congress with separate status outside the executive branch Established by Congress with separate status outside the executive branch Given a specific mandate and generally perform a service function, not a regulatory one. Given a specific mandate and generally perform a service function, not a regulatory one. Some examples include: Social Security Administration, CIA, NASA, EPA. Some examples include: Social Security Administration, CIA, NASA, EPA.

27 Independent Agencies Similar to cabinet departments but usually have a narrower area of responsibility Similar to cabinet departments but usually have a narrower area of responsibility Ex: NASA, CIA Ex: NASA, CIA Perform services for the executive branch Perform services for the executive branch

28 Independent Regulatory Commissions IRCs exist to regulate a specific economic activity or interest such as the Federal Communications Commission (public air waves) or Federal Reserve Board (banking system, money supply) IRCs exist to regulate a specific economic activity or interest such as the Federal Communications Commission (public air waves) or Federal Reserve Board (banking system, money supply) IRCs operate independently from Congress and the President IRCs operate independently from Congress and the President Once appointed and seated, members cannot be removed without cause Once appointed and seated, members cannot be removed without cause

29 Regulatory Commissions Administrative units that have responsibility for the monitoring and regulation of ongoing economic activities Administrative units that have responsibility for the monitoring and regulation of ongoing economic activities Created to make rules for large industries and businesses that affect public interest Created to make rules for large industries and businesses that affect public interest Under intense pressure from lobbyists Under intense pressure from lobbyists Ex: EPA (environment), SEC (stocks and bonds) Ex: EPA (environment), SEC (stocks and bonds)

30 Government Corporations Government owned businesses created by Congress Government owned businesses created by Congress May or may not be profitable, but serve a public need May or may not be profitable, but serve a public need Ex: U.S. Postal Service, Amtrak, Tennessee Valley Authority, Corporation for Public Broadcasting Ex: U.S. Postal Service, Amtrak, Tennessee Valley Authority, Corporation for Public Broadcasting

31 Government Corporations Independent agencies, are similar to private organizations in that they can charge for their services but differ in that they receive federal funding Independent agencies, are similar to private organizations in that they can charge for their services but differ in that they receive federal funding Ex:TVA, USPS, Amtrak Ex:TVA, USPS, Amtrak

32 Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy Source: Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/

33 Group #4 Characteristics and Criticisms

34 Characteristics of a Bureaucracy administration of government through departments consists of unelected often highly trained professionals task specialization hierarchical authority

35 Public Perceptions of Bureaucracies impersonal inclined to follow rigid or complex procedures may stifle effectiveness and innovation red tape

36 Criticism of Bureaucracy I. RED TAPE too many rigid procedures >>> ex: all hiring must be done through OPM too many policies with no flexibility for special circumstances too many forms to fill out, lines to wait II. INEFFICIENCY lack of incentive to be productive - no profit motive III. DUPLICATION OF SERVICES bureaucracy is so complicated agencies are performing similar and sometimes the same functions Dept. of Commerce overlaps with Dept. of Agriculture, GSA overlaps with Dept. of Interior, etc. federalism makes this more complicated, many services are provided at the state and national level both

37 Criticisms Continued IV. BUREAUCRACY IS LAW MAKER regulations end up having the effect of law. V. BUREAUCRACY IS TOO BIG privatization would be more effective VI. BUREAUCRACY IS CORRUPT iron triangle - reveals the relationship between the Executive branch, Congress and private interest groups that can lead to decisions which benefit the private sector at the expense of the government.

38 Group #5 Oversight of the Federal Bureaucracy

39 The President Supervises the Bureaucracy The President can: appoint & remove agency heads appoint & remove agency heads reorganize the bureaucracy reorganize the bureaucracy issue executive orders issue executive orders reduce an agency's budget reduce an agency's budget President Bush speaks about his budget priorities for FY 2007

40 Congress Oversees the Bureaucracy Congress can: create or abolish agencies & departments create or abolish agencies & departments cut or reduce funding cut or reduce funding investigate agency activities investigate agency activities hold committee hearings hold committee hearings pass legislation that alters an agency's functions pass legislation that alters an agency's functions influence or even fail to confirm presidential appointments influence or even fail to confirm presidential appointments Former FEMA Chief Michael Brown testifies before House committee investigating Hurricane Katrina

41 Federal Courts Check the Bureaucracy Federal courts can: through judicial review rule on whether the bureaucracy has acted within the law and the U.S. Constitution through judicial review rule on whether the bureaucracy has acted within the law and the U.S. Constitution provide due process for individuals affected by a bureaucratic action provide due process for individuals affected by a bureaucratic action Supreme Court of the United States

42 Question Why do you think that the organization of Bureaucracies are so confusing? Why do you think that the organization of Bureaucracies are so confusing?

43 Question What do the 15 departments help to make up, guaranteed by the 25 th amendment, that we talked about in the last unit. What do the 15 departments help to make up, guaranteed by the 25 th amendment, that we talked about in the last unit.

44 Answer: Presidential Succession

45 Cabinet Departments Serve as the major service organization for the federal government Serve as the major service organization for the federal government Has broad powers and responsibility Has broad powers and responsibility 15 different cabinets with different agendas and duties 15 different cabinets with different agendas and duties

46 Department of State Founded: 1789 Founded: 1789 Overall foreign policy of the United States Overall foreign policy of the United States Embassies- office of ambassadors in foreign countries Embassies- office of ambassadors in foreign countries Current Secretary: Hillary Clinton Current Secretary: Hillary Clinton

47 Department of Defense Founded: 1789 (Department of War) Founded: 1789 (Department of War) Changed name in 1949 Changed name in 1949 Protects the nations security Protects the nations security Joint Chiefs of Staff (Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force) Joint Chiefs of Staff (Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force) Current Secretary: Leon Panetta Current Secretary: Leon Panetta

48 Department of Treasury Founded: 1789 Founded: 1789 Managing the money of the US Managing the money of the US Ex: IRS, Bureau of Mint, Bureau of Public Debt Ex: IRS, Bureau of Mint, Bureau of Public Debt Current Secretary: Timothy Geithner Current Secretary: Timothy Geithner

49 Department of Interior Founded: 1849 Founded: 1849 Protect public lands and natural resources throughout the nation Protect public lands and natural resources throughout the nation Ex: Bureau of Mines Ex: Bureau of Mines Current Secretary: Ken Salazar Current Secretary: Ken Salazar

50 Question What Service, created by Teddy Roosevelt, would be found in the Department of Interior? (hint, think of Old Faithful) What Service, created by Teddy Roosevelt, would be found in the Department of Interior? (hint, think of Old Faithful)

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52 Department of Agriculture Founded: 1862 Founded: 1862 Help farmers improve their income and expand their markets Help farmers improve their income and expand their markets Ex: Food Safety and Inspection Service Ex: Food Safety and Inspection Service Current Secretary: Tom Vilsack Current Secretary: Tom Vilsack

53 Department of Justice Founded: 1870 Founded: 1870 Attorney General (1789) Attorney General (1789) Oversee the nations legal affairs Oversee the nations legal affairs Ex: FBI, DEA, US Marshals Ex: FBI, DEA, US Marshals Current Secretary: Attorney General Eric Holder Current Secretary: Attorney General Eric Holder

54 Department of Commerce Founded: 1903 Founded: 1903 Promote and protect the industrial and commercial segments of the American economy Promote and protect the industrial and commercial segments of the American economy Ex: Bureau of Census, Patent and Trademark Office, National Institute of Standards and Technology Ex: Bureau of Census, Patent and Trademark Office, National Institute of Standards and Technology Current Secretary: John Bryson Current Secretary: John Bryson

55 Department of Labor Founded: 1913 Founded: 1913 Protects American workers; safe working conditions, safeguards a minimum wage, and protects pension rights Protects American workers; safe working conditions, safeguards a minimum wage, and protects pension rights Ex: Office of American Workplace Ex: Office of American Workplace Current Secretary: Hilda Solis Current Secretary: Hilda Solis

56 Housing and Urban Development Founded: 1965 Founded: 1965 Preserve the nations communities and ensure equal housing opportunities Preserve the nations communities and ensure equal housing opportunities Ex: Government National Mortgage Association Ex: Government National Mortgage Association Current Secretary: Shaun Donovan Current Secretary: Shaun Donovan

57 Transportation Department Founded: 1966 Founded: 1966 Regulate all aspects of transportation needs, policy development, and planning Regulate all aspects of transportation needs, policy development, and planning Federal Aviation, Railroad, Highway, and Transit Federal Aviation, Railroad, Highway, and Transit Secretary: Ray Lahood Secretary: Ray Lahood

58 Energy Department Founded: 1977 Founded: 1977 Plans energy policy and researches and develops energy technology Plans energy policy and researches and develops energy technology Secretary: Stephen Chu Secretary: Stephen Chu

59 Question What are some new research methods that the Energy Department is trying to work on to help the world with their environment problem? What are some new research methods that the Energy Department is trying to work on to help the world with their environment problem?

60 Answer: Clean Energy, such as Wind, Solar, Clean Coal, Electric Cars

61 Health and Human Services Department Founded: 1979 Founded: 1979 Health and social services needs of people Health and social services needs of people Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, FDA Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, FDA Secretary: Kathleen Sebeliu Secretary: Kathleen Sebeliu

62 Education Department Founded: 1979 Founded: 1979 Coordinate federal assistance programs for public and private schools Coordinate federal assistance programs for public and private schools Education is an essential feature of democracy Education is an essential feature of democracy Secretary: Arne Duncan Secretary: Arne Duncan

63 Veterans Affairs Department Founded: 1989 Founded: 1989 Administers several hospitals, educational, and other programs designed to benefit veterans and families Administers several hospitals, educational, and other programs designed to benefit veterans and families Secretary: Eric Shinseki Secretary: Eric Shinseki

64 Homeland Security Department Founded: 2002 Founded: 2002 Created after September 11 th to help protect our nation, analyzes information from FBI and CIA Created after September 11 th to help protect our nation, analyzes information from FBI and CIA Secretary: Janet Napiltano Secretary: Janet Napiltano

65 Organization Cont.

66 Title: The Damages of the Bureaucracy Artist: unknown, La Presna, Panama Date: May, 2006 Source:

67 Title: Federal Employees Self Esteem Class Artist: Chip Bok Date: unknown Source:

68 Title: Another Layer of Bureaucracy Artist: Bob Englehart, The Hartford Courant Date: February, 2006 Source: :

69 Title: FEMAs Follies Artist: Mike Keefe, The Denver Post Date: April, 2006 Source:

70 Essential Questions What is the major importance of the Federal Bureaucracy? What is the major importance of the Federal Bureaucracy?

71 Works Cited Page The Federal Bureaucracy: Examining the Fourth Branch The Federal Bureaucracy: Examining the Fourth Branch


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