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Unit 7 Chapter 10: Federal Bureaucracy

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1 Unit 7 Chapter 10: Federal Bureaucracy
Section 1 Bureaucratic Organization Mr. Young

2 Essential Questions What is the major importance of the Federal Bureaucracy?

3 I CAN: Define the concept of Bureaucracy and describe its characteristics Explain the concept of a Bureaucrat and their function within the government Identify and Describe the structure and function of the Federal Bureaucracy

4 Definitions of Bureaucracy
Group #1 Definitions of Bureaucracy

5 Bureaucracy - A professional corps of unelected officials organized in a pyramid hierarchy, functioning under impersonal uniform rules and procedures.

6 Bureaucracy A hierarchical organization in which offices have specified missions and employees are assigned responsibility based on merit, knowledge, and experience.

7 bureaucracy Definition: an administrative system, especially in a government, that divides work into specific categories carried out by special departments of nonelected officials

8 bureaucracy literally means “rule by desks” government by clerks

9 Duty of Bureaucracy Cabinet Departments
Most Important duty: Carry out the Day-to-Day business of the government 15 cabinet departments

10 What and Whom are “Bureaucrats?”
Group #2 What and Whom are “Bureaucrats?”

11 Bureaucrats A Civil servant Permanent employee of the government

12 Who are the “Bureaucrats?”
97% are career government employees Only 10% live in the D.C. area 30% work for the D.O.D. Less than 15% work for social welfare agencies Most are white collar workers: secretaries, clerks, lawyers, inspectors & engineers Civil employees more diverse demographically than Congress

13 The Federal Bureaucracy is:
4 million employees; 2.8 million are civilians or “civil servants” President only appoints 3% (patronage or political appointments) 15 cabinet level departments 200+ independent agencies with 2,000+ bureaus, divisions, branches, etc. Biggest - Dept. of Defense, U.S. Postal Service, Veterans Administration

14 Bureaucratic Statistics
2.9 million civilians 1.4 million military 4.2 million state 11.4 million local Total: 19.8 million people work for government

15 Where do Federal Employees Work?
Source: Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/

16 What Jobs Do Bureaucrats Do?
Source: Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/


18 Demographics of Federal Employees


20 Functions and Structures of the Federal Bureaucracy
Group #3 Functions and Structures of the Federal Bureaucracy

21 Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy
Implementation - carry out laws of Congress, executive orders of the President Administration - routine administrative work; provide services (ex: SSA sends social security checks to beneficiaries) Regulation - issue rules and regulations that impact the public (ex: EPA sets clean air standards) Source:

22 Organization Departments, agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and advisory committees Article 2- President appoints heads of departments

23 The Cabinet Departments
The 15 cabinet departments headed by a cabinet secretary appointed by the president and approved by the Senate Each department “expert” in specific policy area Each department has its own budget Department of Homeland Security, created in 2002, is newest department


25 Department of Homeland Security
Executive Secretary Commandant of Coast Guard (1) Legislative Affairs Secretary Deputy Secretary Inspector General Public Affairs General Counsel State and Local Coordination Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Citizenship & Immigration Service Ombudsman (1) Director, Bureau of Citizenship & Immigration Services (1) Special Assistant to the Secretary (private sector) Director of the Secret Service (1) National Capital Region Coordination Small & Disadvantaged Business Privacy Officer Chief of Staff International Affairs Shared Services Counter Narcotics Under Secretary Management Under Secretary Science and Technology Under Secretary Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Under Secretary Border & Transportation Security Under Secretary Emergency Preparedness and Response Note (1): Effective March 1st, 2003

26 Independent Executive Agencies
Established by Congress with separate status outside the executive branch Given a specific mandate and generally perform a service function, not a regulatory one. Some examples include: Social Security Administration, CIA, NASA, EPA.

27 Independent Agencies Similar to cabinet departments but usually have a narrower area of responsibility Ex: NASA, CIA Perform services for the executive branch

28 Independent Regulatory Commissions
IRCs exist to regulate a specific economic activity or interest such as the Federal Communications Commission (public air waves) or Federal Reserve Board (banking system, money supply) IRCs operate independently from Congress and the President Once appointed and seated, members cannot be removed without cause

29 Regulatory Commissions
Administrative units that have responsibility for the monitoring and regulation of ongoing economic activities Created to make rules for large industries and businesses that affect public interest Under intense pressure from lobbyists Ex: EPA (environment), SEC (stocks and bonds)

30 Government Corporations
Government owned businesses created by Congress May or may not be profitable, but serve a public need Ex: U.S. Postal Service, Amtrak, Tennessee Valley Authority, Corporation for Public Broadcasting

31 Government Corporations
Independent agencies, are similar to private organizations in that they can charge for their services but differ in that they receive federal funding Ex:TVA, USPS, Amtrak

32 Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy
Source: Brzovic/policeymakersChapters12-16/

33 Characteristics and Criticisms
Group #4 Characteristics and Criticisms

34 Characteristics of a Bureaucracy
administration of government through departments consists of unelected often highly trained professionals task specialization hierarchical authority

35 Public Perceptions of Bureaucracies
impersonal inclined to follow rigid or complex procedures may stifle effectiveness and innovation “red tape”

36 Criticism of Bureaucracy
I. RED TAPE too many rigid procedures >>> ex: all hiring must be done through OPM too many policies with no flexibility for special circumstances too many forms to fill out, lines to wait II. INEFFICIENCY lack of incentive to be productive - no profit motive III. DUPLICATION OF SERVICES bureaucracy is so complicated agencies are performing similar and sometimes the same functions Dept. of Commerce overlaps with Dept. of Agriculture, GSA overlaps with Dept. of Interior, etc. federalism makes this more complicated, many services are provided at the state and national level both

37 Criticisms Continued IV. BUREAUCRACY IS LAW MAKER
regulations end up having the effect of law. V. BUREAUCRACY IS TOO BIG privatization would be more effective VI. BUREAUCRACY IS CORRUPT iron triangle - reveals the relationship between the Executive branch, Congress and private interest groups that can lead to decisions which benefit the private sector at the expense of the government.

38 Oversight of the Federal Bureaucracy
Group #5 Oversight of the Federal Bureaucracy

39 The President Supervises the Bureaucracy
The President can: appoint & remove agency heads reorganize the bureaucracy issue executive orders reduce an agency's budget President Bush speaks about his budget priorities for FY 2007

40 Congress Oversees the Bureaucracy
Congress can: create or abolish agencies & departments cut or reduce funding investigate agency activities hold committee hearings pass legislation that alters an agency's functions influence or even fail to confirm presidential appointments Former FEMA Chief Michael Brown testifies before House committee investigating Hurricane Katrina

41 Federal Courts Check the Bureaucracy
Federal courts can: through judicial review rule on whether the bureaucracy has acted within the law and the U.S. Constitution provide due process for individuals affected by a bureaucratic action Supreme Court of the United States

42 Question Why do you think that the organization of Bureaucracies are so confusing?

43 Question What do the 15 departments help to make up, guaranteed by the 25th amendment, that we talked about in the last unit.

44 Answer: Presidential Succession

45 Cabinet Departments Serve as the major service organization for the federal government Has broad powers and responsibility 15 different cabinets with different agendas and duties

46 Department of State Founded: 1789
Overall foreign policy of the United States Embassies- office of ambassadors in foreign countries Current Secretary: Hillary Clinton

47 Department of Defense Founded: 1789 (Department of War)
Changed name in 1949 Protects the nation’s security Joint Chiefs of Staff (Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force) Current Secretary: Leon Panetta

48 Department of Treasury
Founded: 1789 Managing the money of the US Ex: IRS, Bureau of Mint, Bureau of Public Debt Current Secretary: Timothy Geithner

49 Department of Interior
Founded: 1849 Protect public lands and natural resources throughout the nation Ex: Bureau of Mines Current Secretary: Ken Salazar

50 Question What Service, created by Teddy Roosevelt, would be found in the Department of Interior? (hint, think of Old Faithful)


52 Department of Agriculture
Founded: 1862 Help farmers improve their income and expand their markets Ex: Food Safety and Inspection Service Current Secretary: Tom Vilsack

53 Department of Justice Founded: 1870 Attorney General (1789)
Oversee the nation’s legal affairs Ex: FBI, DEA, US Marshals Current Secretary: Attorney General Eric Holder

54 Department of Commerce
Founded: 1903 Promote and protect the industrial and commercial segments of the American economy Ex: Bureau of Census, Patent and Trademark Office, National Institute of Standards and Technology Current Secretary: John Bryson

55 Department of Labor Founded: 1913
Protects American workers; safe working conditions, safeguards a minimum wage, and protects pension rights Ex: Office of American Workplace Current Secretary: Hilda Solis

56 Housing and Urban Development
Founded: 1965 Preserve the nation’s communities and ensure equal housing opportunities Ex: Government National Mortgage Association Current Secretary: Shaun Donovan

57 Transportation Department
Founded: 1966 Regulate all aspects of transportation needs, policy development, and planning Federal Aviation, Railroad, Highway, and Transit Secretary: Ray Lahood

58 Energy Department Founded: 1977
Plans energy policy and researches and develops energy technology Secretary: Stephen Chu

59 Question What are some new research methods that the Energy Department is trying to work on to help the world with their environment problem?

60 Answer: Clean Energy, such as Wind, Solar, Clean Coal, Electric Cars

61 Health and Human Services Department
Founded: 1979 Health and social services needs of people Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, FDA Secretary: Kathleen Sebeliu

62 Education Department Founded: 1979
Coordinate federal assistance programs for public and private schools Education is an essential feature of democracy Secretary: Arne Duncan

63 Veterans Affairs Department
Founded: 1989 Administers several hospitals, educational, and other programs designed to benefit veterans and families Secretary: Eric Shinseki

64 Homeland Security Department
Founded: 2002 Created after September 11th to help protect our nation, analyzes information from FBI and CIA Secretary: Janet Napiltano

65 Organization Cont.

66 Title: The Damages of the Bureaucracy
Artist: unknown, La Presna, Panama Date: May, 2006 Source:

67 Title: Federal Employees Self Esteem Class
Artist: Chip Bok Date: unknown Source:

68 Title: Another Layer of Bureaucracy
Artist: Bob Englehart, The Hartford Courant Date: February, 2006 Source: :

69 Title: FEMA’s Follies Artist: Mike Keefe, The Denver Post
Date: April, 2006 Source:

70 Essential Questions What is the major importance of the Federal Bureaucracy?

71 Works Cited Page
The Federal Bureaucracy: Examining the Fourth Branch

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