Usage of wood Types of wood construction Log construction Skeletal system Wood architecture through history Asia Africa Europe Contemporary wood architecture
concept & advantages /disadvantages WOOD is a hard, fibrous, lignified structural tissue produced as secondary xylem in the stems of woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. There is a strong relationship between the properties of wood and the properties of the particular tree that yielded it. For every tree species there is a range of density for the wood it yields. There is a rough correlation between density of a wood and its strength. The advantages of the wood are that is easier to acquire, transport, and work than other natural materials. All parts of a building can be efficiently constructed of wood except foundations; its disadvantages are is susceptibility to fire, mold, and termites.
properties Physical properties: - Anisotropy - Moisture - Dimensional stability - Density - Resistance to weathering - Durability - Action of other organisms - Electrical properties - Thermal properties Mechanical properties: - Elastic properties - Strength properties
types of wood WOOD is commonly classified as either softwood or hardwood but hardwoods are not necessarily hard, and softwoods are not necessarily soft. Some softwoods are harder than most hardwoods SOFTWOODS Pine Hemlock Fir Redwood Spruce Cedar HARDWOODS Mahogany Walnut Oak Maple Cherry Rosewood Teak
hardwoods MAHOGANY. Used for quality furniture such as cabinets; boat construction; wood facings and veneers. WALNUT. Best used for gunstocks, solid and veneered furniture, novelties, cabinetry and wall paneling. OAK. Used for furniture, trimming, boat framing, desks and flooring. MAPLE. Best used in flooring, fine furniture and woodenware such as bowling alleys. CHERRY. Used in cabinet making, boat trim, novelties, solid furniture handles and turned projects. ROSEWOOD. Used in musical instruments, piano cases, tool handles, art projects, veneers and furniture. TEAK. Best used in fine furniture, paneling, shipbuilding, doors, window framing, flooring and general construction.
softwoods PINE. Used in house construction, paneling and trim. Also used for furniture, molding and boxes. HEMLOCK. Used for construction lumber, planks, doors, boards, paneling, sub flooring and crates. FIR. Used in furniture, doors, frames, windows, plywood, veneer, general millwork and interior trim. REDWOOD. Used in outdoor furniture, fencing, house siding, interior finishing, veneering and paneling. SPRUCE. Used for masts and spars for ships, aircraft, crates, boxes, general millwork and ladders. CEDAR. Used in chest making, closet lining, shingles, posts, dock planks, novelties and Venetian blinds.
plywood & wood veneer PLYWOOD is a type of engineered wood made from thin sheets of wood veneer, called plies or veneers. The plies are bonded under heat and pressure with strong adhesives usually phenol formaldehyde resin, making plywood a type of composite material. A common reason for using plywood instead of plain wood is its resistance to cracking, shrinkage, twisting/warping, and its general high degree of strength. It has replaced many dimensional lumbers on construction applications for these reasons. WOOD VENEER, refers to thin slices of wood, usually thinner than 3 mm (1/8 inch), that are typically glued onto core panels (typically, wood, particle board or medium density fiberboard) to produce flat panels such as doors, tops and panels for cabinets, parquet floors and parts of furniture. They are also used in marquetry
usage of wood Other than construction, some ways that wood have been used over the centuries: For weapons. Nearly all boats were made out of wood till the late 1800s. Wood fibers are an important component of most paper. Cellulose is used as a component of some synthetic materials. Is used for cutlery and other utensils. In furniture making. As a veneer. For sculpting. It is also used for jewelry making. And so on…
log construction Is a structure made from logs that have not been milled into conventional lumber. The four walls must be built up together in horizontal layers of single hewn or uncut logs and jointed at the corners. The stability of the log building depends entirely on the mutual support of the walls, because of this, it is only used for relatively small housing. This technique was developed in central Europe (specially the alpine region), and introduced in America later on.
skeletal system The skeletal system or timber framing, provides a rigid framework of jointed or nailed members independent of the walls, which are attached to the exterior and interior surfaces after completion. The techniques used in timber framing date back thousands of years, and have been used in many parts of the world during various periods such as ancient Japan, and medieval Europe. Nowadays, almost any structural form can be made with out of wood thanks to this technique.
asia Five-storied pagoda in the temple complex of Daigoji Kyoto, Japan (951 AD) Everything, except the walls and roof cover is made out of wood. The joints of the main parts of the structure are connected just like pieces of a three dimensional puzzle, so it has no nails. Engaku-ji Temple Kamakura, Japan (aprox AD) Like a portal, this temple building has a structure naked first floor. Particularly, the walls of the upper floor are also of wood.
africa Great mosque of Djenné Djenné, Mali (13th century) African architecture used wood in an auxiliary way. The great mosque has logs of deleb palm wood embedded in the walls to reduce stress from extreme variations in climate. Church of Abune Aregawi Debre Damo, Ethiopia (6th century) Apparently made of stone, the real structure is actually made of wood. Its probably the best remaining example of Aksumite architecture.
europe Borgund stave church Borgund, Norway (12th century) Is the best preserved of Norway's 28 extant stave churches. It is made completely out of wood, and has a construction method that can be related to timber framing. The wall frames are filled with vertical planks. Transfiguration Cathedral Kizhi Island, Russia (1714 AD) Thirty thousand shingles, made of aspen wood, on twenty-two separate cupolas on five tents compose the ascending nest. The aspen wood reflects a myriad of hues changing the color of the cupolas depending on the light.
contemporary architecture in wood Laajasalo Church Helsinki, Finland (2003) Kari Järvinen and Merja Nieminen Lookout Tower on Korkeasaari Island Helsinki, Finland (2002) Vile Hara
contemporary architecture in wood House Into Espoo, Finland (1998) Jyrki Tasa The Finnish Forest Research Institute Joensuu, Finland (2004) Antti-Matti Siikala