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Chapter 14 The Presidency
Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHO GOVERNS? WHO GOVERNS? 1.Did the Founders expect the presidency to be the most important political institution? 2.How important is the presidents character in determining how he governs? TO WHAT ENDS? TO WHAT ENDS? 1.Should we abolish the electoral college? 2.Is it harder to govern when the presidency and the Congress are controlled by different political parties?
Presidents and Prime Ministers Presidents are Often Outsiders Presidents are Often Outsiders Presidents Choose Cabinet Members from Outside Congress Presidents Choose Cabinet Members from Outside Congress Presidents Have No Guaranteed Majority in Congress Presidents Have No Guaranteed Majority in Congress Presidents and Prime Ministers at War Presidents and Prime Ministers at War Copyright © 2011 Cengage
The first cabinet: left to right, Secretary of War Henry Knox, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Attorney General Edmund Randolph, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, and President George Washington. p. 360 Copyright © 2011 Cengage Bettmann/Corbis
Divided Government Divided government – One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress Divided government – One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress Unified government – The same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress Unified government – The same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress Does gridlock matter? Does gridlock matter? Is policy gridlock bad? Is policy gridlock bad? Copyright © 2011 Cengage
The Evolution of the Presidency Concerns of the Founders Concerns of the Founders The Electoral College The Electoral College The Presidents Term of Office The Presidents Term of Office The First Presidents The First Presidents The Jacksonians The Jacksonians The Re-emergence of Congress The Re-emergence of Congress Copyright © 2011 Cengage
America witnessed peaceful transfers of power not only between leaders of different parties (such as Woodrow Wilson and William Howard Taft in 1913), but also after a popular leader was assassinated (Lyndon Johnson is sworn in after John F. Kennedys death). p. 366 Copyright © 2011 Cengage Library of Congress Cecil Stoughton/White House/AP Photo
The Powers of the President Powers of the President Alone Powers of the President Alone Powers the President Shares with the Senate Powers the President Shares with the Senate Powers the President Shares with Congress as a Whole Powers the President Shares with Congress as a Whole Copyright © 2011 Cengage A military officer carrying the football – the briefcase containing the secret codes the president can use to launch a nuclear attack. p. 370 Mark Wilson/Getty Images News/Getty Images
The Office of the President The White House Office The White House Office Pyramid structurePyramid structure Circular structureCircular structure Ad hoc structureAd hoc structure The Executive Office of the President The Executive Office of the President The Cabinet The Cabinet Independent Agencies, Commissions, and Judgeships Independent Agencies, Commissions, and Judgeships Copyright © 2011 Cengage
Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2009, table 481.
Who Gets Appointed Prior federal experience Prior federal experience In-and-outers In-and-outers Political following Political following Expertise/ administrative experience Expertise/ administrative experience Copyright © 2011 Cengage
Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins (left), appointed by President Franklin Roosevelt, was the first woman cabinet member. Copyright © 2011 Cengage When Condoleezza Rice was selected by President George W. Bush to be National Security Advisor, she became the first woman to hold that position (and later the first African American woman to be Secretary of State). p. 378 Bettmann/CORBIS Bob Daemmrich/PhotoEdit
Presidential Character Dwight Eisenhower Dwight Eisenhower John Kennedy John Kennedy Lyndon Johnson Lyndon Johnson Richard Nixon Richard Nixon Gerald Ford Gerald Ford Jimmy Carter Jimmy Carter Ronald Reagan Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush George H. W. Bush Bill Clinton Bill Clinton George W. Bush George W. Bush Barack Obama Barack Obama Copyright © 2011 Cengage
The Power to Persuade The Three Audiences The Three Audiences Fellow politicians and leadersFellow politicians and leaders Partisan grassrootsPartisan grassroots The publicThe public Popularity and Influence Popularity and Influence The Decline in Popularity The Decline in Popularity Copyright © 2011 Cengage President Bush shakes hands with Speaker Nancy Pelosi after his State of the Union address. p. 380 Alex Wong/Getty Images
Sources: Updated from Congressional Quarterly, Guide to U.S. Elections, 928; and Congress and the Nation, vol. 4 (1973– 1976), 28. Copyright © 2011 Cengage
Figure 14.2 Presidential Victories on Votes in Congress, 1953–2006 Copyright © 2011 Cengage Note: Percentages indicate number of congressional votes supporting the president divided by the total number of votes on which the president has taken a position. Sources: Congressional Quarterly Almanac (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, various years); Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report (CQ Weekly) (1992), 3894; (1993), 3473; (1994), 3620; (1996), 3428; (1998), 14; (1999), 76, 2972; (2001) 54; (2002), 142, 3237; (2004), 54–55, 2947–2948; (2006), 87; (2007), 50.
The Power to Say No Veto Veto Veto messageVeto message Pocket vetoPocket veto Line-item vetoLine-item veto Executive Privilege Executive Privilege Impoundment of Funds Impoundment of Funds Signing Statements Signing Statements Copyright © 2011 Cengage
Source: Norman J. Ornstein, Thomas E. Mann, and Michael J. Malbin, Vital Statistics on Congress, 2001– 2002 (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2001), 207 (updated).
Copyright © 2011 Cengage Source: Norman J. Ornstein, Thomas E. Mann, and Michael J. Malbin, Vital Statistics on Congress, 2002–2003 (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2003), 207 (updated).
Copyright © 2011 Cengage
The Presidents Program Putting Together a Program Putting Together a Program Interest groupsInterest groups Aides and campaign advisersAides and campaign advisers Federal bureaus and agenciesFederal bureaus and agencies Outside, academic, other specialists and expertsOutside, academic, other specialists and experts Attempts to Reorganize Attempts to Reorganize Copyright © 2011 Cengage
A group of Civilian Conservation Corps workers hired by the government during the Great Depression. p. 390 Copyright © 2011 Cengage Scherl/SV-Bilderdeinst/The image Works
Presidential Transition The Vice President The Vice President Problems of Succession Problems of Succession Impeachment Impeachment Lame duck Lame duck Copyright © 2011 Cengage President Reagan, moments before he was shot on March 30, 1981, by a would-be assassin. The Twenty-fifth Amendment solves the problem of presidential disability by providing for an orderly transfer of power to the vice president. p. 392 Michael Evans/The White House
M E M O R A N D U M To: Delegate James Nagle From: Amy Wilson, legal staff Subject: Six-year presidential term The proposal to give the president a single six-year term is perhaps the most popular amendment now before the convention. Polls suggest that it is supported by a sizable percentage of the American people. Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
Arguments for: 1. Today, a president no sooner learns the ropes after being elected for the first time than he or she has to start preparing for the next election. A six-year term will give the president a chance to govern for several years after learning how to be president. This will lessen the extent to which political pressures dictate what the president does. 2. Limited to a single term, the president need not cater to special-interest groups or the media in deciding on policy. He or she can concentrate on what is good for the country. 3. Many states have limited their governors to a single term. Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
Arguments against: 1. It is the need to win reelection that keeps the president (like any politician) attentive to what the people want. A president unable to succeed himself or herself will be tempted to ignore public opinion. 2. Limiting a president to a single term will not free him or her from the need to play to the media or special-interest groups, since the formal powers of the presidency are too weak to permit the incumbent to govern without the aid of Congress and the press. 3. There is no evidence that presidents (such as Dwight Eisenhower) who served a second term knowing that they could not run for reelection did a better or less political job in the second term than in the first. Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
Your decision: Favor amendment? Oppose amendment? Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
How Powerful is the President? Presidential rules of thumb for dealing with political problems: Move it or lose it.Move it or lose it. Avoid details.Avoid details. Cabinets dont get much accomplished; people do.Cabinets dont get much accomplished; people do. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Barack Obama is sworn in as the 44th president. p. 396 Susan Walsh/AP Photo
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