Presentation on theme: "GCSE Food Technology Superlearning. Research Context: Chilling and Freezing Design Theme: Fish Based Food Products."— Presentation transcript:
GCSE Food Technology Superlearning
Research Context: Chilling and Freezing Design Theme: Fish Based Food Products
Research – Chilling Cook-chill products are thought to be of a better quality than frozen products. They have a much shorter shelf-life (usually a few days) but do not need to be defrosted first. Cook-chill products are prepared, cooked and chilled rapidly. They are stored at a temperature just above 0°C. Refrigerators are used for the short-term storage of perishable foods and ready meals that have been prepared by the cook-chill process.
Research – Chilling contd Chilling slows down: The rate at which micro-organisms multiply The rate of any chemical reactions which could affect the quality of food They need to stay at or below this temperature until they are used. For this reason they are always sold from the chiller cabinets in shops.
Advantages of Chilling There is very little change in flavour, colour, texture or shape Fresh foods can be kept at maximum quality for a longer time The consumer can be offered a much larger range of fresh and convenience foods Nutrients are not destroyed
Seafood sandwich fillings are popular with many consumers. (a) Why is seafood a high risk food? (2 marks) (b) At what temperature should high risk foods be stored in a refrigerator? (1 mark) (c) How do retailers ensure that chilled foods do not fall below the correct temperature? (4 marks) Exam Question
Answer from mark scheme (a) Why is seafood a high risk food? Moist Protein Easily contaminated by bacteria Short shelf life Qualified answer or two simplistic answers ( 2 marks ) Simplistic answer ( 1 mark ) ( 2 marks ) (b) At what temperature should high risk foods be stored in a refrigerator? 0. 5 C° ( 1 mark ) (c) How do retailers ensure that chilled foods do not fall below the correct temperature? Regular checks Monitoring by staff Train staff in food hygiene Alarms if electric supply cut or temperature lowered Checking doors are shut correctly Checking fill levels are correct Checking equipment / chillers are defrosted regularly Temperature logging Correct use of food probes Qualified answers well explained or number of simplistic answers ( 4 marks ) Qualified answer or two simplistic answers ( 2. 3 marks ) Simplistic answer ( 1 mark ) ( 4 marks )
Freezing When the temperature of a food is reduced, the activities of most micro-organisms are slowed down, until they become dormant (inactive), and growth and multiplication cease. Most foods can be frozen successfully and contain relatively large amounts of water. When a food is frozen, ice crystals are formed in it. Foods such as fruit and vegetables, which are made up of many cells, can be damaged by the ice crystals if they are too large. This is because the cells rupture if the ice crystal exceeds the size of the cell. Once the food is thawed, its structure will collapse, releasing most of the liquid in it, because the cells no longer form the framework of the food
Effect of Freezing on Food Low temperatures do not significantly affect the nutritional value of food, but thiamin and vitamin C may be destroyed when vegetables are blanched (briefly immersed in boiling water) before freezing. If fish is frozen too slowly, some of its cells may rupture and release nutrients into the liquid that drips from the fish when it thaws. Some flavours become weaker and some become stronger when food is frozen.
Standard Components used in Fish Products Standard components are pre-prepared items used in food production.They are made at a different time, and often at a different place by another company. Common examples are: Pre-prepared mashed potatoes Ready made batter Ready made sauces Breadcrumbs Saves timeTime must be allowed for ordering and supply Quality is guaranteed Can be more expensive A wider range of products can be produced e.g. breadcrumbs can be used for a variety of fish products. The manufacturer is relying on another company that could let them down Advantages Disadvantages
Exam Question Manufacturers of food products often use standard components. (a) Name two different ways flaky pastry is sold as a standard component (2 marks) (b) What is the correct storage temperature for the following standard components? (3 marks) (i)a packet of frozen vol au vents (ii)a tin of pie filling (iii)a bag of grated cheese (c) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using standard components? Advantages Disadvantages (6 marks)
Answer from mark scheme Manufacturers of food products often use standard components. (a) Name two different ways flaky pastry is sold as a standard component. Frozen Packet ready made dried Block ready made Vol au vents / pastry cases ready prepared Chilled Ready rolled Do not accept.fresh. 2 x 1 mark (2 marks) (b) What is the correct storage temperature for the following standard components? frozen vol au vents -18C domestic freezer or -28C if industrial tin of fruit pie filling 20-25C / ambient temp (accept any temp in this range) cheese 0-8C refrigerator (accept any temp in this range) Do not accept refrigerator, freezer or room temperature. 3 x 1 mark (3 marks) (c) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using standard components? Advantages: save time save on costs of workers saves on buying / storing raw ingredients saves on buying specialist equipment consistency.same sensory attributes each time. Fewer cookery skills needed. Disadvantages: cannot guarantee quality unless reliable supplier storage space special conditions may be needed expensive supplier may let down allow time for ordering may not be same nutritive value as freshly made products. difficult to change specification may contain additives / preservatives Answers cover both advantages and disadvantages 5-6marks Detailed answers or mixture of detailed / simplistic answers 3-4marks Simplistic answers or one detailed 1-2 marks (6 marks)
Sensory Testing of Food Products Sensory testing involves the scientific measurement of the qualities of a food product. There are a variety of tests which can be done depending on what you want to find out. It is important to select the correct one for the purpose: Difference tests – these are used to find out if there are any noticeable differences between 2 or more products. E.g. coca cola and diet coca cola Ranking tests – a set of coded samples are given to the tester in a random order. The tester ranks the samples in order of a specific quality e.g. sweetness. This test is often used to screen one or two of the best samples in a group. Descriptive tests or profiling – a set of sensory descriptors is given for the testers to use e.g. colourful, glossy, dry etc. and the tester gives a score for each descriptor
Exam Question Explain why manufacturers use sensory testing (4 marks) 5 (b) (ii) What are the advantages of using a computer to record the results of sensory testing? (2 marks)
Answer from mark scheme Explain why manufacturers use sensory testing. To inform decisions on future product Identify what needs improving To gather information about the product To gain information on consumer preferences To compare product against other existing products To decide the sensory characteristics of a product To evaluate the product against sensory characteristics of specification To ensure a successful product in terms of sales/meets consumer appeal Some detailed or several simplistic answers 3-4 marks One detailed answer or two simplistic answers 1-2 marks (4 marks) AQA GCSE Mark Scheme, 2008 June series – Food Technology Full Course Higher 15 (ii) What are the advantages of using a computer to record the results of sensory testing? Fewer human errors/ efficient/accuracy. can share / show results more quickly and with more people, range of graphics and methods of presentation, neater – easier to see, organise etc can be reproduced in the future/saved for use later/copies made can be changed easily easy to make comparisons One detailed or two simplistic responses (2 marks) Total for question 16 marks
Packaging Why are foods packaged? To protect the product – against physical damage, chemical contamination or micro-organisms, insects or rodents To contain the product e.g. eggs, fruit and vegetables To preserve the product e.g. tin cans and modified atmosphere packaging (where foods in a package are flushed with a mixture of gases to prolong their shelf life) To identify and provide information on the product To prevent tampering – tamperproof packaging techniques now make it easy to detect if a package has been opened, examples include plastic collars on bottle tops, paper strips across jar lids and aluminium foil seals on fruit juice cartons
Labelling The 1996 Food Labelling regulations state that a food label must include the following information: Name of the product clearly displayed The name and address of the manufacturer A list of all ingredients in descending order of weight (largest to smallest) Storage instructions, giving specific details of the best conditions and temperatures for safe storage Shelf-life of the product must be shown Cooking instructions (if appropriate) The country for where the product originated The net weight of the product
Exam Question Explain why the following materials are often used to package food products. (i) Paperboard (2 marks) (ii) Polystyrene (2 marks)
Answer from mark Scheme Explain why the following materials are often used to package food products. (i) Paperboard Flexible. can be folded Cheap Can be waxed to make water resistant Easy to print on Lightweight Environmental friendly (ii) Polystyrene Cheap moulded to shape can be used for hot / cold food / insulation Lightweight Sturdy- protects product Detailed answers. different for each material 2 marks Simplistic answers 1 mark 2 x 2 marks (4 marks)
Preparation and cooking of Fish Preparation and cooking of Fish – Fish can be used in many dishes but is most popular in the UK fried in batter and served with chips Type of Fish Uses WhiteSteamed, poached, grilled, fried, baked. Serve in a roux sauce or in pastry, curry, with sweet and sour sauce etc OilyBake, fry, grill, poach. Serve with a sharp sauce, e.g. tartare, fry in oatmeal; stuff with breadcrumbs/herbs and bake ShellServe as a starter, e.g. prawn cocktail, or in soups, salads, fried in batter, with rice etc.
Examples of the different types of fish: Type of Fish Examples WhitePlaice, halibut, sole, cod, coley, haddock, sea bass, whiting, monkfish, hake, hoki, red snapper OilyAnchovy, eel, kipper, mackerel, pilchard, salmon, sardine, tuna, trout ShellCockles, winkles, mussels, scallops, oysters, lobster, prawns, crabs, crayfish
Exam question Control checks are made on different batches of salmon and prawn filo parcels. Problems found during the checks are listed below. (i) Give one cause of each problem. (5 marks) (ii) Explain how the problem may be prevented. (5 marks) Filo pastry is dry and breaks up when handled. The filling leaks out of the parcel during cooking. Pieces of fish shell are found in the filling. Creamy sauce is thin and runny. The final product is pale and lacks colour.
Answer from Mark scheme ProblemCause (5 x 1 mark) Prevention (5 x 1 mark) Pastry is dry and breaks Incorrect proportions of ingredients Over handling Overcooking / time / temp Not used in time Weigh accurately Monitor working temp / keep cool / moist Training staff Quality control checks Cover before use Filling leaks out Incorrect seal Not used water to seal edges Too much filling/insufficient pastry Pastry too thin/torn Steam vent needed Accurate weighing of filling Quality control checks Training of staff Sealing of edges
Answer contd Shell in the filling Lack of visual checks Poor supplier Quality control checks not completed Poor quality shellfish Check on suppliers Clear specification Quality control checks Visual checks Regular monitoring Sauce is thin and runny Insufficient cooking time/temp inaccurate proportions Too much liquid Not enough sauce to thicken Weigh accurately Monitor working temp Training staff Quality control checks Pale product Incorrect choice of fat in pastry Not finished with egg/milk glaze Not cooked long enough/hot enough Cook for longer/higher temp Add finishing technique Change to butter/margarine instead of white fats
Manufacturing methods and equipment There are different types of manufacturing system, each one suitable for different scales of production: One-off production is when a single product is made to the individual needs of a customer, for example a designer wedding cake. This is classed as a luxury food item. Batch production involves the making of a set number of identical products (large or small). Typically batch production is used in a bakery, where a certain number of several different types of bun, loaf, cake etc, will be made every morning. Mass production is used to make foods on a large scale, either wholly or partially using machines. The production line involves individual tasks that will be carried out repetitively. This is time-efficient and helps to keep the costing of the product low. Continuous-flow production is a method of high-volume production, used in foods such as milk and packet pizzas. Production lines run 24 hours a day. Where production line machines are controlled by computers this is called Computer-Aided Manufacture (CAM). A mass production line in a milk-bottling plant
Quality Assurance of Food Products. Factory equipment There are different types of specialised machinery used in food manufacture. Computerised scales weigh food more accurately. Centrifuge machines separate liquids from solids. Date-stamping machines will label many packaged foods with a date stamp on the production line. Depositors add an exact amount of food into a number of containers at the same time. Mandolins slice or cut food products so portions are consistently the same size. Bench or floor-standing mixers are used in bakeries to add and mix exact quantities of ingredients to the food, maintaining consistency. Boiling vats are huge drums used for cooking foods, such as soups. Deck ovens are computer-controlled ovens that cook a batch of several products at the same time.
Special Dietary needs of Consumers Coeliacs Disease – allergic to gluten therefore cannot eat anything made from wheat e.g. flour Lactose intolerant – allergic to lactose (found in milk) therefore cannot eat any dairy produce Vegans – vegetarians who do not eat any foods associated with animals Ovo-lacto vegetarian – vegetarians who do not eat meat but will eat eggs and milk Allergies – the most common food allergy is a nut allergy Pregnant women – needs lots of protein rich foods, vitamins and minerals. She should avoid soft cheeses and pate due to bacteria that might be present. Children – needs plenty of protein and calcium. Reduce the amount of sugar and fat.
Control Checks During Food Manfacture Visual checks to cartons to see if they have been tampered with/damaged. Ones damaged should be removed. Visual check date rotation first in first used. Weighing and measuring use digital scales for accuracy. Automatic mixing for computer controlled amount of time. Fixed cooking period using timer Visual check – are they the correct colour? Correct amount in each packet Detector for foreign objects e.g. metal, jewellery Weight check Temperature of sealing Temperature of storage/distribution area
Exam Question Using notes, sketches or flowcharts describe the processes and control checks needed to make your chosen design idea in a test kitchen. (10 marks)
Answer from Mark Scheme Using notes, sketches or flowcharts describe the processes needed to make your chosen idea in a test kitchen. Marks awarded for prototype made in test kitchen not large scale production. N.B. answers do not need to cover all aspects in order to gain full marks. Look for candidate showing awareness of different aspects e.g. at least one reference to time/temperatures, named process, control checks… Logical sequence shown through the main stages of the flow chart/notes/stages/steps Preparations Kitchen hygiene Personal hygiene Weighing ingredients Equipment e.g. pre heating oven Production Preparing product Preparing filling/ topping/coating/decorations as relevant Dovetailing of tasks Named processes e.g. baking, rubbing in, creaming, melting, grating, piping etc Finishing techniques Control checks: timings temperatures food safety portion control/ use of cutters/templates safety precautions e.g. use of oven gloves checks on size, shape etc Feedback Detailed answer showing logical plans 8-10 marks Detailed answer showing logical plans but with minor omissions 5-7 marks Some parts of the answer may not be logical or be omitted 3-4 marks Simplistic answer giving some relevant planning 1-2 marks (10 marks)
Decorations and Finishes A decoration is something you apply to a product AFTER it has been made e.g. melted chocolate, icing, piped cream A finish is something that you do to the actual product to change its appearance during the making of the product e.g. glaze with egg, glaze with sugar and water, flute pastry edges, put nuts on top
Safe Storage of Food Low risk foods: this means foods with high acid or sugar content, raw vegetables, edible oils and fats Medium risk foods: this means dried or frozen products, freshly processed products and those with a high fat content High risk foods: this means unprocessed meat, fish, eggs and dairy products
How hazards are controlled during food production HACCP: HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control point. It involves: Identifying possible risks before, during and after production of a product The risks are analysed in terms of how likely they are to happen and how serious they are For each hazard preventative measures and testing/checking is planned in to ensure that the hazard (Critical control point) is reduced.
How do manufacturers obtain consistent products? Consistency means: Same quantities of ingredients used Same amount of filling, coating, casing Same colour Same shape Same texture Same strength of flavour Same size Same nutritional content Human error means that hand produced food products are not as accurate and consistent as those made by machinery. Automated equipment can repeat tasks many times without getting tired or risking workers health and safety
CAD (Computer Aided Design) Designing a new food product with the aid of a computer is known as computer aided Design. CAD can be used to: Calculate the nutritional value of the food product Work out the sizes and costs of different batch production runs Work out the shelf life of a product Present the products sensory profile Predict what will happen if ingredients or methods are changed Plan how a product will be manufactured Present ideas for the packaging
CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture) CAM is using computers to control pre- programmed equipment to make products. CAM has many uses in food production including: Automated production processes Data logging e.g. recording pH values, temperatures Responding to monitoring feedback e.g. reducing or increasing temperature of environment as needed Control of designated tolerances e.g. weight, dimensions, moisture content, flavour colour, shape
Exam Question Food manufacturers often use CAD and CAM. (a) (i) What is meant by the term CAD? (1 mark) (ii) What is meant by the term CAM? (1 mark) (b) Give examples of how CAD and CAM may be used in bread production (4 marks)
Answer from Mark Scheme (a) (i) What is meant by the term CAD? CAD means computer aided design ( 1 mark ) (ii) What is meant by the term CAM? CAM means computer aided manufacture ( 1 mark ) (b) Give examples of how CAD and CAM may be used in bread production. CAD Examples may give one detailed answer or two simplistic examples. Designing the appearance of product, calculating nutrient content, model portion sizes, cost / profit, calculating shelf life, analysis of sensory data, presenting information for labelling, showing assembly procedures, packaging design. CAM Examples may give one detailed answer or several simplistic answers. Monitoring production process, e.g. temperature changes, controlling changes, feedback from monitoring, use of computer controlled equipment, e.g. breadmaker, microwave oven, electronic scales Must give example of CAD and CAM for full marks ( 4 marks ) Total for question 6 marks
Sketching in your exam – examples of good practice: Draw in pencil Colour in if possible Label all parts of your design
Choosing your final design: You will have to give detailed reasons for your choice of final design. Remember look at the specification they gave you and relate back to that e.g. if the specification asks for the product to be colourful and you have put a range of different coloured vegetables in then use that as a reason for choice
Explain 1.Expand upon (knowledge) 2.Show you understand (apply to case) 3.Give an example
Recommend 1.Make a choice 2.Give reasons for choice and 3.Make relevant to your design
Discuss 1.Put forward both sides of the case then, 2.Reach a conclusion. 3.Give reasons for the conclusion.
And finally……… Good luck to you all, dont panic and do your very best!!