2Research Context: Chilling and Freezing Design Theme: Fish Based Food Products
3Research – ChillingCook-chill products are thought to be of a better quality than frozen products. They have a much shorter shelf-life (usually a few days) but do not need to be defrosted first.Cook-chill products are prepared, cooked and chilled rapidly. They are stored at a temperature just above 0°C.Refrigerators are used for the short-term storage of perishable foods and ready meals that have been prepared by the cook-chill process.
4Research – Chilling cont’d Chilling slows down:The rate at which micro-organisms multiplyThe rate of any chemical reactions which could affect the quality of foodThey need to stay at or below this temperature until they are used. For this reason they are always sold from the chiller cabinets in shops.
5Advantages of Chilling There is very little change in flavour, colour, texture or shapeFresh foods can be kept at maximum quality for a longer timeThe consumer can be offered a much larger range of fresh and convenience foodsNutrients are not destroyed
6Exam QuestionSeafood sandwich fillings are popular with many consumers.(a) Why is seafood a high risk food?(2 marks)(b) At what temperature should high risk foods be stored in a refrigerator?(1 mark)(c) How do retailers ensure that chilled foods do not fall below the correct temperature?(4 marks)
7Answer from mark scheme (a) Why is seafood a high risk food?• Moist• Protein• Easily contaminated by bacteria• Short shelf lifeQualified answer or two simplistic answers ( 2 marks )Simplistic answer ( 1 mark )( 2 marks )(b) At what temperature should high risk foods be stored in arefrigerator?0 . 5 C°( 1 mark )(c) How do retailers ensure that chilled foods do not fall below thecorrect temperature?• Regular checks• Monitoring by staff• Train staff in food hygiene• Alarms if electric supply cut or temperature lowered• Checking doors are shut correctly• Checking fill levels are correct• Checking equipment / chillers are defrosted regularly• Temperature logging• Correct use of food probesQualified answers well explained or number of simplistic answers( 4 marks )Qualified answer or two simplistic answers ( marks )
8FreezingWhen the temperature of a food is reduced, the activities of most micro-organisms are slowed down, until they become dormant (inactive), and growth and multiplication cease.Most foods can be frozen successfully and contain relatively large amounts of water. When a food is frozen, ice crystals are formed in it. Foods such as fruit and vegetables, which are made up of many cells, can be damaged by the ice crystals if they are too large. This is because the cells rupture if the ice crystal exceeds the size of the cell. Once the food is thawed, its structure will collapse, releasing most of the liquid in it, because the cells no longer form the framework of the food
9Effect of Freezing on Food Low temperatures do not significantly affect the nutritional value of food, but thiamin and vitamin C may be destroyed when vegetables are blanched (briefly immersed in boiling water) before freezing.If fish is frozen too slowly, some of its cells may rupture and release nutrients into the liquid that drips from the fish when it thaws.Some flavours become weaker and some become stronger when food is frozen.
10Standard Components used in Fish Products Standard components are pre-prepared items used in food production.They are made at a different time, and often at a different place by another company. Common examples are:Pre-prepared mashed potatoesReady made batterReady made saucesBreadcrumbsAdvantages DisadvantagesSaves timeTime must be allowed for ordering and supplyQuality is guaranteedCan be more expensiveA wider range of products can be produced e.g. breadcrumbs can be used for a variety of fish products.The manufacturer is relying on another company that could let them down
11Exam QuestionManufacturers of food products often use standard components.(a) Name two different ways flaky pastry is sold as a standard component.(2 marks)(b) What is the correct storage temperature for the following standard components?(3 marks)(i)a packet of frozen vol au vents(ii)a tin of pie filling(iii)a bag of grated cheese(c) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using standard components?AdvantagesDisadvantages(6 marks)
12Answer from mark scheme Manufacturers of food products often use standard components.(a) Name two different ways flaky pastry is sold as a standardcomponent.• Frozen• Packet ready made dried• Block ready made• Vol au vents / pastry cases ready prepared• Chilled• Ready rolled• Do not accept .fresh.2 x 1 mark (2 marks)(b) What is the correct storage temperature for the following standardcomponents?• frozen vol au vents -18C domestic freezer or -28C if industrial• tin of fruit pie filling 20-25C / ambient temp (accept any temp inthis range)• cheese 0-8C refrigerator (accept any temp in this range)Do not accept refrigerator, freezer or room temperature.3 x 1 mark (3 marks)(c) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using standardAdvantages:• save time• save on costs of workers• saves on buying / storing raw ingredients• saves on buying specialist equipment• consistency.same sensory attributes each time.• Fewer cookery skills needed.Disadvantages:• cannot guarantee quality unless reliable supplier• storage space special conditions may be needed• expensive• supplier may let down• allow time for ordering• may not be same nutritive value as freshly made products.• difficult to change specification• may contain additives / preservativesAnswers cover both advantages and disadvantages 5-6marksDetailed answers or mixture of detailed / simplistic answers 3-4marksSimplistic answers or one detailed 1-2 marks(6 marks)
13Sensory Testing of Food Products Sensory testing involves the scientificmeasurement of the qualities of a foodproduct. There are a variety of tests whichcan be done depending on what youwant to find out. It is important to select thecorrect one for the purpose:Difference tests – these are used to find out if there are any noticeable differences between 2 or more products. E.g. coca cola and diet coca colaRanking tests – a set of coded samples are given to the tester in a random order. The tester ranks the samples in order of a specific quality e.g. sweetness. This test is often used to screen one or two of the best samples in a group.Descriptive tests or profiling – a set of sensory descriptors is given for the testers to use e.g. colourful, glossy, dry etc. and the tester gives a score for each descriptor
14Exam Question Explain why manufacturers use sensory testing. (4 marks)5 (b) (ii) What are the advantages of using a computer to record the results of sensory testing?(2 marks)
15Answer from mark scheme Explain why manufacturers use sensory testing.• To inform decisions on future product• Identify what needs improving• To gather information about the product• To gain information on consumer preferences• To compare product against other existing products• To decide the sensory characteristics of a product• To evaluate the product against sensory characteristicsof specification• To ensure a successful product in terms of sales/meetsconsumer appealSome detailed or several simplistic answers 3-4 marksOne detailed answer or two simplistic answers 1-2 marks(4 marks)AQA GCSE Mark Scheme, 2008 June series – Food Technology Full Course Higher15(ii) What are the advantages of using a computer to record theresults of sensory testing?• Fewer human errors/ efficient/accuracy.• can share / show results more quickly and with morepeople,• range of graphics and methods of presentation,• neater – easier to see, organise etc• can be reproduced in the future/saved for use later/copiesmade• can be changed easily• easy to make comparisonsOne detailed or two simplistic responses (2 marks)Total for question 16 marks
16Packaging Why are foods packaged? To protect the product – against physical damage, chemical contamination or micro-organisms, insects or rodentsTo contain the product e.g. eggs, fruit and vegetablesTo preserve the product e.g. tin cans and modified atmosphere packaging (where foods in a package are flushed with a mixture of gases to prolong their shelf life)To identify and provide information on the productTo prevent tampering – tamperproof packaging techniques now make it easy to detect if a package has been opened, examples include plastic collars on bottle tops, paper strips across jar lids and aluminium foil seals on fruit juice cartons
17LabellingThe 1996 Food Labelling regulations state that a food label must include the following information:Name of the product clearly displayedThe name and address of the manufacturerA list of all ingredients in descending order of weight (largest to smallest)Storage instructions, giving specific details of the best conditions and temperatures for safe storageShelf-life of the product must be shownCooking instructions (if appropriate)The country for where the product originatedThe net weight of the product
18Exam QuestionExplain why the following materials are often used to package food products.(i) Paperboard(2 marks)(ii) Polystyrene
19Answer from mark Scheme Explain why the following materials are often used to package foodproducts.(i) Paperboard• Flexible . can be folded• Cheap• Can be waxed to make water resistant• Easy to print on• Lightweight• Environmental friendly(ii) Polystyrene• moulded to shape• can be used for hot / cold food / insulation• Sturdy- protects productDetailed answers . different for each material 2 marksSimplistic answers 1 mark2 x 2 marks (4 marks)
20Preparation and cooking of Fish – Fish can be used in many dishes but is most popular in the UK fried in batter and served with chipsType of FishUsesWhiteSteamed, poached, grilled, fried, baked. Serve in a roux sauce or in pastry, curry, with sweet and sour sauce etcOilyBake, fry, grill, poach. Serve with a sharp sauce, e.g. tartare, fry in oatmeal; stuff with breadcrumbs/herbs and bakeShellServe as a starter, e.g. prawn cocktail, or in soups, salads, fried in batter, with rice etc.
21Examples of the different types of fish: Type of FishExamplesWhitePlaice, halibut, sole, cod, coley, haddock, sea bass, whiting, monkfish, hake, hoki, red snapperOilyAnchovy, eel, kipper, mackerel, pilchard, salmon, sardine, tuna, troutShellCockles, winkles, mussels, scallops, oysters, lobster, prawns, crabs, crayfish
22Exam questionControl checks are made on different batches of salmon and prawn filo parcels.Problems found during the checks are listed below.(i) Give one cause of each problem. (5 marks)(ii) Explain how the problem may be prevented. (5 marks)Filo pastry is dry and breaks up when handled.The filling leaks out of the parcel during cooking.Pieces of fish shell are found in the filling.Creamy sauce is thin and runny.The final product is pale and lacks colour.
23Answer from Mark scheme ProblemCause(5 x 1 mark)PreventionPastry is dry andbreaks• Incorrectproportions ofingredients• Over handling• Overcooking /time / temp• Not used in time• Weigh accurately• Monitor workingtemp / keep cool /moist• Training staff• Quality controlchecks• Cover before useFilling leaks out• Incorrect sealNot used water to seal edgesToo much filling/insufficient pastryPastry too thin/tornSteam vent neededAccurate weighing of fillingQuality control checksTraining of staffSealing of edges
24Answer cont’d Shell in the filling Lack of visual checks Poor supplier Quality control checks not completedPoor quality shellfishCheck on suppliersClear specificationQuality control checksVisual checksRegular monitoringSauce is thin andrunnyInsufficient cooking time/tempinaccurate proportionsToo much liquidNot enough sauce to thickenWeigh accuratelyMonitor working tempTraining staffPale productIncorrect choice of fat in pastryNot finished with egg/milk glazeNot cooked long enough/hot enoughCook for longer/higher tempAdd finishing techniqueChange to butter/margarine instead of white fats
25A mass production line in a milk-bottling plant Manufacturing methods and equipmentThere are different types of manufacturing system, each one suitable for different scales of production:One-off production is when a single product is made to the individual needs of a customer, for example a designer wedding cake. This is classed as a luxury food item.Batch production involves the making of a set number of identical products (large or small). Typically batch production is used in a bakery, where a certain number of several different types of bun, loaf, cake etc, will be made every morning.Mass production is used to make foods on a large scale, either wholly or partially using machines. The production line involves individual tasks that will be carried out repetitively. This is time-efficient and helps to keep the costing of the product low.Continuous-flow production is a method of high-volume production, used in foods such as milk and packet pizzas. Production lines run 24 hours a day. Where production line machines are controlled by computers this is called Computer-Aided Manufacture (CAM).A mass production line in a milk-bottling plant
26Quality Assurance of Food Products .Factory equipmentThere are different types of specialised machinery used in food manufacture.Computerised scales weigh food more accurately.Centrifuge machines separate liquids from solids.Date-stamping machines will label many packaged foods with a date stamp on the production line.Depositors add an exact amount of food into a number of containers at the same time.Mandolins slice or cut food products so portions are consistently the same size.Bench or floor-standing mixers are used in bakeries to add and mix exact quantities of ingredients to the food, maintaining consistency.Boiling vats are huge drums used for cooking foods, such as soups.Deck ovens are computer-controlled ovens that cook a batch of several products at the same time.
27Special Dietary needs of Consumers Coeliacs Disease – allergic to gluten therefore cannot eat anything made from wheat e.g. flourLactose intolerant – allergic to lactose (found in milk) therefore cannot eat any dairy produceVegans – vegetarians who do not eat any foods associated with animalsOvo-lacto vegetarian – vegetarians who do not eat meat but will eat eggs and milkAllergies – the most common food allergy is a nut allergyPregnant women – needs lots of protein rich foods, vitamins and minerals. She should avoid soft cheeses and pate due to bacteria that might be present.Children – needs plenty of protein and calcium. Reduce the amount of sugar and fat.
28Control Checks During Food Manfacture Visual checks to cartons to see if they have been tampered with/damaged. Ones damaged should be removed.Visual check date rotation first in first used.Weighing and measuring use digital scales for accuracy.Automatic mixing for computer controlled amount of time.Fixed cooking period using timerVisual check – are they the correct colour?Correct amount in each packetDetector for foreign objects e.g. metal, jewelleryWeight checkTemperature of sealingTemperature of storage/distribution area
29Exam QuestionUsing notes, sketches or flowcharts describe the processes and control checks needed to make your chosen design idea in a test kitchen. (10 marks)
30Answer from Mark Scheme Using notes, sketches or flowcharts describe the processes needed to make your chosen idea in a test kitchen.Marks awarded for prototype made in test kitchen not large scale production. N.B. answers do not need to cover all aspects in order to gain full marks.Look for candidate showing awareness of different aspects e.g. at least one reference to time/temperatures, named process, control checks…• Logical sequence shown through the main stages of the flow chart/notes/stages/stepsPreparationsKitchen hygienePersonal hygieneWeighing ingredientsEquipment e.g. pre heating ovenProductionPreparing productPreparing filling/ topping/coating/decorations as relevantDovetailing of tasksNamed processes e.g. baking, rubbing in, creaming, melting, grating, piping etcFinishing techniquesControl checks:timingstemperaturesfood safetyportion control/ use of cutters/templatessafety precautions e.g. use of oven gloveschecks on size, shape etcFeedbackDetailed answer showing logical plans 8-10 marksDetailed answer showing logical plans but with minor omissions 5-7 marksSome parts of the answer may not be logical or be omitted 3-4 marksSimplistic answer giving some relevant planning 1-2 marks(10 marks)
31Decorations and Finishes A decoration is something you apply to a product AFTER it has been made e.g. melted chocolate, icing, piped creamA finish is something that you do to the actual product to change its appearance during the making of the product e.g. glaze with egg, glaze with sugar and water, flute pastry edges, put nuts on top
32Safe Storage of FoodLow risk foods: this means foods with high acid or sugar content, raw vegetables, edible oils and fatsMedium risk foods: this means dried or frozen products, freshly processed products and those with a high fat contentHigh risk foods: this means unprocessed meat, fish, eggs and dairy products
33How hazards are controlled during food production HACCP:HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis andCritical Control point. It involves:Identifying possible risks before, during and after production of a productThe risks are analysed in terms of how likely they are to happen and how serious they areFor each hazard preventative measures and testing/checking is planned in to ensure that the hazard (Critical control point) is reduced.
34How do manufacturers obtain consistent products? Consistency means:Same quantities of ingredients usedSame amount of filling, coating, casingSame colourSame shapeSame textureSame strength of flavourSame sizeSame nutritional contentHuman error means that hand produced food products are not as accurate and consistent as those made by machinery. Automated equipment can repeat tasks many times without getting tired or risking workers’ health and safety
35CAD (Computer Aided Design) Designing a new food product with the aid ofa computer is known as computer aidedDesign. CAD can be used to:Calculate the nutritional value of the food productWork out the sizes and costs of different batch production runsWork out the shelf life of a productPresent the product’s sensory profilePredict what will happen if ingredients or methods are changedPlan how a product will be manufacturedPresent ideas for the packaging
36CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture) CAM is using computers to control pre-programmed equipment to make products.CAM has many uses in food productionincluding:Automated production processesData logging e.g. recording pH values, temperaturesResponding to monitoring feedback e.g. reducing or increasing temperature of environment as neededControl of designated tolerances e.g. weight, dimensions, moisture content, flavour colour, shape
37Exam Question Food manufacturers often use CAD and CAM. (a) (i) What is meant by the term CAD?(1 mark)(ii) What is meant by the term CAM?(b) Give examples of how CAD and CAM may be used in bread production.(4 marks)
38Answer from Mark Scheme (a) (i) What is meant by the term CAD?CAD means computer aided design ( 1 mark )(ii) What is meant by the term CAM?CAM means computer aided manufacture ( 1 mark )(b) Give examples of how CAD and CAM may be used in bread production.CAD Examples may give one detailed answer or two simplistic examples.• Designing the appearance of product, calculating nutrient content, model portion sizes, cost / profit, calculating shelf life, analysis of sensory data, presenting information for labelling, showing assembly procedures, packaging design.CAM Examples may give one detailed answer or several simplistic answers.• Monitoring production process, e.g. temperature changes, controlling changes, feedback from monitoring, use of computer controlled equipment, e.g. breadmaker, microwave oven, electronic scales• Must give example of CAD and CAM for full marks ( 4 marks )Total for question 6 marks
39Sketching in your exam – examples of good practice: Draw in pencilColour in if possibleLabel all parts of your design
40Choosing your final design: You will have to give detailed reasons foryour choice of final design. Remember lookat the specification they gave you and relateback to that e.g. if the specification asks forthe product to be colourful and you have puta range of different coloured vegetables inthen use that as a reason for choice
41Explain Expand upon (knowledge) Show you understand (apply to case) Give an example
42Recommend Make a choice Give reasons for choice and Make relevant to your design
43Discuss Put forward both sides of the case then, Reach a conclusion. Give reasons for the conclusion.
44And finally………Good luck to you all, don’tpanic and do your verybest!!