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The Music Library Copyright law. Copyright law. The Copyright Law, enacted in 1976 and put into effect in 1978, was to encourage creative members of our.

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Presentation on theme: "The Music Library Copyright law. Copyright law. The Copyright Law, enacted in 1976 and put into effect in 1978, was to encourage creative members of our."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Music Library Copyright law. Copyright law. The Copyright Law, enacted in 1976 and put into effect in 1978, was to encourage creative members of our society to produce by assuring them that the results of their creativity would be protected within the legal limits of the law.The Copyright Law, enacted in 1976 and put into effect in 1978, was to encourage creative members of our society to produce by assuring them that the results of their creativity would be protected within the legal limits of the law.

2 Copyright Law Copyright law Cont… Copyright law Cont… The 1976 law was the 1 st attempt in history to reconcile the interests of copyright owners wit the legitimate use of copyrighted material be nonprofit educational institutions and indicated that such use should be considered fair use.The 1976 law was the 1 st attempt in history to reconcile the interests of copyright owners wit the legitimate use of copyrighted material be nonprofit educational institutions and indicated that such use should be considered fair use.

3 Copyright Law Copyright law Cont… Copyright law Cont… In determining Fair Use of materials under copyright, four criteria established by previous court action were included in the 1976 lawIn determining Fair Use of materials under copyright, four criteria established by previous court action were included in the 1976 law

4 Copyright Law Copyright law Cont… Copyright law Cont… 1. The purpose and character of the use, whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit education purposes.1. The purpose and character of the use, whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit education purposes. 2. The nature of the copyrighted work.2. The nature of the copyrighted work. 3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the work as a whole3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the work as a whole 4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

5 Copyright Law Copyright law Cont… Fair Use Examples Copyright law Cont… Fair Use Examples Spontaneity – Distributing a work from their music library and suddenly realizing that one of the 2 nd flute parts is missing.Spontaneity – Distributing a work from their music library and suddenly realizing that one of the 2 nd flute parts is missing. Reproducing a copy of an existing part can be considered fair use providing the director orders a replacement copy from the publisher within a reasonable time period.

6 Copyright Law Copyright law Cont… Fair Use Examples Copyright law Cont… Fair Use Examples Brevity – Congress never intended that it be legal to mass copy complete musical works.Brevity – Congress never intended that it be legal to mass copy complete musical works. Using brief excerpts to establish a point in an educational setting can be considered fair use. Making multiple copies of ten percent of a performable unit is acceptable, while copying the entire movement is prohibited. Making multiple copies of ten percent of a performable unit is acceptable, while copying the entire movement is prohibited.

7 Copyright Law Copyright law Cont… Fair Use Examples Copyright law Cont… Fair Use Examples Cumulative effect – Closely related to brevity. Reproducing several sections of a piece of copyrighted music cannot be considered fair use. Legislative reports clearly state that anthologies are not fair use, and in such cases permission must be secured from the copyright holder.Cumulative effect – Closely related to brevity. Reproducing several sections of a piece of copyrighted music cannot be considered fair use. Legislative reports clearly state that anthologies are not fair use, and in such cases permission must be secured from the copyright holder.

8 The Need for a Music Library Need for a Music Library Need for a Music Library A large percentage of the music educators annual budget is spent on music or some type of instructional aids.A large percentage of the music educators annual budget is spent on music or some type of instructional aids. In situations where music is poorly stored and organized, teacher efficiency is severely reduced and the possibility that music will be lost, damaged, or destroyed is increased.In situations where music is poorly stored and organized, teacher efficiency is severely reduced and the possibility that music will be lost, damaged, or destroyed is increased.

9 Two Music-Library Concepts Central Music Library Central Music Library Large School Districts with multiple high schools and junior highs often combine resources into a single central music- library system.Large School Districts with multiple high schools and junior highs often combine resources into a single central music- library system. This type of system is cost effective for the schoolThis type of system is cost effective for the school Provides a wider diversity of materials available to the music educatorProvides a wider diversity of materials available to the music educator Not time effective for the teachers. They must plan far in advance for the materials and music they may want to use in their classes and rehearsals.Not time effective for the teachers. They must plan far in advance for the materials and music they may want to use in their classes and rehearsals.

10 Two Music-Library Concepts Single Music Library Single Music Library This type of system is nearly always found in small schools and many larger schools as well.This type of system is nearly always found in small schools and many larger schools as well. In a single music library, all the instrumental and choral music and other instructional aids are found within the walls of that particular schools.In a single music library, all the instrumental and choral music and other instructional aids are found within the walls of that particular schools. Materials are divided up into Orchestra, Band Choir, etc (Marching band, Jazz Band, Show Choir)Materials are divided up into Orchestra, Band Choir, etc (Marching band, Jazz Band, Show Choir)

11 Organizing the Music Library Storage of Music Storage of Music File cabinets provide the best protection for the music.File cabinets provide the best protection for the music. Open shelves are less expensive and are more efficient from the standpoint of spaceOpen shelves are less expensive and are more efficient from the standpoint of space

12 Organizing the Music Library Storage of Music Cont… Storage of Music Cont… If instrumental and choral music is stored on shelves, it should be placed in storage boxes.If instrumental and choral music is stored on shelves, it should be placed in storage boxes. Boxes on open shelves protect the music to a higher degree than envelopes Boxes on open shelves protect the music to a higher degree than envelopes Boxes give the music storage area a neat and organized appearance. Boxes give the music storage area a neat and organized appearance. If stored in file cabinets, envelopes or file folders should be used.If stored in file cabinets, envelopes or file folders should be used. Boxes in the file cabinets waste space Boxes in the file cabinets waste space

13 Organizing the Music Library Storage of Music Cont… Storage of Music Cont… If stored in file cabinets, envelopes or file folders should be used.If stored in file cabinets, envelopes or file folders should be used. Boxes in the file cabinets waste space Boxes in the file cabinets waste space Music stored on Shelves should be place in a vertical position rather than being stackedMusic stored on Shelves should be place in a vertical position rather than being stacked Easy Access Easy Access

14 Organizing the Music Library Music Filing System Music Filing System There are four filing systems, plus variations of each, that are being used in public-school and college music libraries today.There are four filing systems, plus variations of each, that are being used in public-school and college music libraries today. Alphabetical by title Alphabetical by title Alphabetical by composer Alphabetical by composer Consecutive-number system Consecutive-number system Letter-number system Letter-number system

15 Organizing the Music Library Music Filing System Cont. Music Filing System Cont. Alphabetical by titleAlphabetical by title Most prevalent method of filing. Most prevalent method of filing. The principal disadvantage of this system is that music must be repeated shifted when new works are added. The principal disadvantage of this system is that music must be repeated shifted when new works are added.

16 Organizing the Music Library Music Filing System Cont. Music Filing System Cont. Alphabetical by ComposerAlphabetical by Composer This is rarely found in public school or college libraries. This is rarely found in public school or college libraries. Was sparked by the desire to have the masterworks of great composers close together. Was sparked by the desire to have the masterworks of great composers close together. Not the most effective way of organizing the library. Not the most effective way of organizing the library.

17 Organizing the Music Library Music Filing System Cont. Music Filing System Cont. Consecutive-number systemConsecutive-number system This is an accrual filing system and is simple to initiate and maintain. This is an accrual filing system and is simple to initiate and maintain. New music is assigned a consecutive number in the order it is purchased. New music is assigned a consecutive number in the order it is purchased. The greatest advantage is that no shifting of music has to occur. The greatest advantage is that no shifting of music has to occur. A disadvantage is that a card file (electronic system) is an absolute must A disadvantage is that a card file (electronic system) is an absolute must

18 Organizing the Music Library Music Filing System Cont. Music Filing System Cont. Letter-Number systemLetter-Number system Perhaps the most successful and popular version of the consecutive number system. Perhaps the most successful and popular version of the consecutive number system. Ex: A3-22b Ex: A3-22b The capital letter indicates the file cabinet, the number is the file cabinet, the number after the hypen is the placement in the drawer, and the small letter denotes classification.The capital letter indicates the file cabinet, the number is the file cabinet, the number after the hypen is the placement in the drawer, and the small letter denotes classification.

19 Organizing the Music Library Music Filing System Cont. Music Filing System Cont. Letter-Number system Cont…Letter-Number system Cont… This system demands a title card file as well as a composer card file. This system demands a title card file as well as a composer card file. This can easily be done in an excel file where you can sort the database by any parameter that you have setup. This can easily be done in an excel file where you can sort the database by any parameter that you have setup.

20 Organizing the Music Library Processing New Music Processing New Music Prior to placing music in the hand, it should be cataloged by the music librarian.Prior to placing music in the hand, it should be cataloged by the music librarian. This process includes stamping each piece of music.This process includes stamping each piece of music. File index cards must be prepared prior to the distribution of new music.File index cards must be prepared prior to the distribution of new music.

21 Organizing the Music Library File index cards File index cards This style is still around in many schools.This style is still around in many schools. Today this information can be collected on these cards, but should be stored online.Today this information can be collected on these cards, but should be stored online. Less storage space for all of the cards and more efficient. Less storage space for all of the cards and more efficient.

22 Music-Library Equipment Sorting Rack Sorting Rack No instrumental music library should be without a sorting rack that allows for orderly dispersion of music from and subsequent return to the music storage area.No instrumental music library should be without a sorting rack that allows for orderly dispersion of music from and subsequent return to the music storage area. This will help to stop wasting time arranging instrumental music into score order.This will help to stop wasting time arranging instrumental music into score order.

23 Music-Library Equipment Folio Cabinets Folio Cabinets Provide the most efficient means available for the daily dispersal and collection of musicProvide the most efficient means available for the daily dispersal and collection of music Commercially manufactured cabinets, finished in bright colors, contribute to the total positive environment of a rehearsal room.Commercially manufactured cabinets, finished in bright colors, contribute to the total positive environment of a rehearsal room.

24 Music-Library Equipment Music Storage Music Storage If the school district has difficulty in getting the director steel filing cabinets, then the construction of shelving combined with cardboard storage boxes is a most viable, if not superior, alternative.If the school district has difficulty in getting the director steel filing cabinets, then the construction of shelving combined with cardboard storage boxes is a most viable, if not superior, alternative.

25 Administration of the music library Music Librarians Music Librarians Duties include –Duties include – Cataloging Cataloging Distributing Distributing Collecting Collecting Filing music Filing music Repairing Music Repairing Music Additional Clerical Work Additional Clerical Work

26 Administration of the music library Music Folders Music Folders Folder should be durable and provide protection for the musicFolder should be durable and provide protection for the music The inside pockets should be expandableThe inside pockets should be expandable Each folder should have a pencil pocketEach folder should have a pencil pocket

27 Administration of the music library Distribution and Collection of Music Distribution and Collection of Music Music Should never be distributed during the rehearsal period.Music Should never be distributed during the rehearsal period. Time in rehearsal is too precious to spend on secretarial duties Time in rehearsal is too precious to spend on secretarial duties Be creative in collecting the musicBe creative in collecting the music Have places for the students to take the music. Have places for the students to take the music. Sections leaders can collect the parts. Sections leaders can collect the parts.

28 Administration of the music library Distribution and Collection of Music Distribution and Collection of Music Filing ScoresFiling Scores All scores from instrumental music should be stored separately in a file in the directors office. All scores from instrumental music should be stored separately in a file in the directors office. Helps to keep all of the scores together and under your protection. Helps to keep all of the scores together and under your protection.

29 Administration of the music library Loaning and Borrowing music. Loaning and Borrowing music. Have a inventory sheet ready to keep track of what is leaving and what is returned.Have a inventory sheet ready to keep track of what is leaving and what is returned. Get people to sign for it as it may be a way for them to pay for it if the piece is lost.Get people to sign for it as it may be a way for them to pay for it if the piece is lost. Have a policy setup with librarian to call people to remind them that they need to get the score and parts back when they said they would.Have a policy setup with librarian to call people to remind them that they need to get the score and parts back when they said they would.


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