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The Government At Work Magruder Chapter 15 The Bureaucracy.

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1 The Government At Work Magruder Chapter 15 The Bureaucracy

2 The Federal Bureaucracy

3 What is a Bureaucracy? Bureaucracy is based on the principles of hierarchical authority, job specialization, and formal rules Bureaucracy is based on the principles of hierarchical authority, job specialization, and formal rules A bureaucracy is a way of organizing people to do work A bureaucracy is a way of organizing people to do work

4 Major Elements Nearly all of the bureaucracy of the federal Government resides in the Executive Branch of government Nearly all of the bureaucracy of the federal Government resides in the Executive Branch of government The Constitution gives little guidance about the structure of the federal bureaucracy The Constitution gives little guidance about the structure of the federal bureaucracy

5 Major Elements The bureaucracy is made up of three major groups of administrative agencies: the Executive Office of the President; the 15 Cabinet Departments; and the Independent Agencies The bureaucracy is made up of three major groups of administrative agencies: the Executive Office of the President; the 15 Cabinet Departments; and the Independent Agencies

6 The Name Game The term department is reserved for agencies of cabinet rank The term department is reserved for agencies of cabinet rank The term agency is used to refer to any governmental body or, more particularly, to a major unit headed by a single administrator of near-cabinet status. The term administration is used in a similar way The term agency is used to refer to any governmental body or, more particularly, to a major unit headed by a single administrator of near-cabinet status. The term administration is used in a similar way

7 The Name Game The term commission is given to agencies charged with the regulation of business activities. Commissions are headed by varying numbers of top-ranking officers, or commissioners. The term commission is given to agencies charged with the regulation of business activities. Commissions are headed by varying numbers of top-ranking officers, or commissioners. The terms corporation and authority are used for agencies that have a board and a manager and that conduct business-like activities. The terms corporation and authority are used for agencies that have a board and a manager and that conduct business-like activities. These terms are not used consistently These terms are not used consistently

8 Staff and Line Staff agencies are those agencies that serve in a support capacity by furnishing advice and assistance in the management of an organization Staff agencies are those agencies that serve in a support capacity by furnishing advice and assistance in the management of an organization Line agencies are those agencies that actually perform the tasks for which the organization exists Line agencies are those agencies that actually perform the tasks for which the organization exists

9 Executive Departments and Independent Agencies

10 The Cabinet The head of each department is known as the Secretary, except for the Justice Department which is headed by the Attorney General The head of each department is known as the Secretary, except for the Justice Department which is headed by the Attorney General Department secretaries are appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate Department secretaries are appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate Together, the department secretaries serve as the cabinet Together, the department secretaries serve as the cabinet

11 What are Independent Agencies? An independent agency operates outside of the 15 executive departments in the cabinet An independent agency operates outside of the 15 executive departments in the cabinet Four major reasons explain why these agencies exist outside of the cabinet department structure: Four major reasons explain why these agencies exist outside of the cabinet department structure: Some agencies are independent because their functions did not fit well into any of the existing departments Some agencies are independent because their functions did not fit well into any of the existing departments

12 What are Independent Agencies? Some are independent to protect their officials from political pressures Some are independent to protect their officials from political pressures Office of Personnel Management Office of Personnel Management Social Security Administration Social Security Administration Federal Election Commission Federal Election Commission

13 What are Independent Agencies? Some are independent to make them more responsive to interest-group pressures Some are independent to make them more responsive to interest-group pressures Some are independent because of their peculiar and sensitive nature of their functions Some are independent because of their peculiar and sensitive nature of their functions

14 What are Independent Agencies? There are three types of independent agencies: independent executive agencies; independent regulatory commissions; and government corporations There are three types of independent agencies: independent executive agencies; independent regulatory commissions; and government corporations

15 Independent Executive Agencies Most of the independent agencies fall into this category Most of the independent agencies fall into this category They are organized under a single administrator and have subunits that operate on a regional basis They are organized under a single administrator and have subunits that operate on a regional basis

16 Independent Executive Agencies Today, there about 150 Independent Regulatory Agencies Today, there about 150 Independent Regulatory Agencies Most are found on the list of agencies on page 383 in the Magruder textbook Most are found on the list of agencies on page 383 in the Magruder textbook

17 Independent Executive Agencies Includes most of the Independent Agencies Includes most of the Independent Agencies Some are large, multi-million or even billion dollar budgets Some are large, multi-million or even billion dollar budgets GSA, NASA, EPA GSA, NASA, EPA Almost the same as the cabinet departments, just do not have cabinet status Almost the same as the cabinet departments, just do not have cabinet status

18 Independent Executive Agencies Others do important work just not as large Others do important work just not as large Civil Rights Commission Civil Rights Commission Peace Corps Peace Corps Federal Election Commission Federal Election Commission

19 Independent Executive Agencies Others act far from the limelight Others act far from the limelight American Battle Monuments Commission American Battle Monuments Commission Citizens Stamp Advisory Committee Citizens Stamp Advisory Committee

20 Independent Regulatory Commissions These commissions are created to regulate important aspects of the nations economy These commissions are created to regulate important aspects of the nations economy The 10 independent regulatory commissions are largely not under the Presidents control The 10 independent regulatory commissions are largely not under the Presidents control The members of the commissions are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate for long, staggered terms The members of the commissions are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate for long, staggered terms

21 Independent Regulatory Commissions These commissions must be made up from both parties, and members cannot be removed for political reasons These commissions must be made up from both parties, and members cannot be removed for political reasons They have quasi-legislative and quasi- judicial powers They have quasi-legislative and quasi- judicial powers Used to clarify the laws they must enforce Used to clarify the laws they must enforce Act as an arbitrator when questions arise Act as an arbitrator when questions arise

22 Independent Regulatory Commissions These regulatory bodies possess all three powers – executive, legislative, and judicial – and are exceptions to the principle of separation of powers These regulatory bodies possess all three powers – executive, legislative, and judicial – and are exceptions to the principle of separation of powers Congress has delegated some of its responsibilities to these agencies to carry out the role congress should have Congress has delegated some of its responsibilities to these agencies to carry out the role congress should have

23 Independent Regulatory Commissions Two major regulatory commissions – the Civil Aeronautics Board and the Interstate Commerce Commission – have disappeared in recent years Two major regulatory commissions – the Civil Aeronautics Board and the Interstate Commerce Commission – have disappeared in recent years

24 Government Corporations These corporations are within the executive branch, and they are under the control of the President These corporations are within the executive branch, and they are under the control of the President Their top officers are appointed by the President with Senate confirmation; all of their employees are public officials Their top officers are appointed by the President with Senate confirmation; all of their employees are public officials

25 Government Corporations Examples would be Examples would be the FDIC – Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation the FDIC – Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Eximbank -- Export/Import Bank of the United States Eximbank -- Export/Import Bank of the United States The US Postal Service The US Postal Service National Railroad Passenger Corporation National Railroad Passenger Corporation

26 Government Corporations Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Tennessee Valley Authority Tennessee Valley Authority

27 Government Corporations Some controversy exists as to whether government corporations are compatible with the democratic governments requirement that all public agencies be accountable to the public Some controversy exists as to whether government corporations are compatible with the democratic governments requirement that all public agencies be accountable to the public

28 The Civil Service

29 Development of the Civil Service The Beginnings – During the early years of the republic, Presidents tried to fill federal jobs with qualified persons who shared their political views The Beginnings – During the early years of the republic, Presidents tried to fill federal jobs with qualified persons who shared their political views The Spoils System – Andrew Jackson began the practice of giving government positions to the Presidents political supporters The Spoils System – Andrew Jackson began the practice of giving government positions to the Presidents political supporters

30 Development of the Civil Service Jackson defended this policy by saying that any intelligent person can fill any public office Jackson defended this policy by saying that any intelligent person can fill any public office Jackson also maintained that there should be rotation in office so that more people can serve in public office Jackson also maintained that there should be rotation in office so that more people can serve in public office Long service in office, Jackson believed, would lead to tyranny and inefficiency Long service in office, Jackson believed, would lead to tyranny and inefficiency

31 Development of the Civil Service Finally, Jackson claimed that the people are entitled to have the party they elected to power in control of all government offices Finally, Jackson claimed that the people are entitled to have the party they elected to power in control of all government offices The Movement to Reform – Widespread corruption and the assassination of James Garfield led to the Civil Service Act, or Pendleton Act, in 1883 The Movement to Reform – Widespread corruption and the assassination of James Garfield led to the Civil Service Act, or Pendleton Act, in 1883

32 Development of the Civil Service The Pendleton Act The Pendleton Act The Pendleton Act made merit the basis for hiring and promotion in federal jobs The Pendleton Act made merit the basis for hiring and promotion in federal jobs The act also required that the federal work force would consist of men and women from every State, with the number from each State bearing a close relationship to that States share of the total population The act also required that the federal work force would consist of men and women from every State, with the number from each State bearing a close relationship to that States share of the total population

33 Development of the Civil Service The Pendleton Act (con) The Pendleton Act (con) Veterans received preferred ranking in federal hiring Veterans received preferred ranking in federal hiring

34 Civil Service Today A second goal of civil service reform has been to ensure that the best available people are included in the federal work force A second goal of civil service reform has been to ensure that the best available people are included in the federal work force Reorganization – President Carter succeeded in implementing reforms in the civil service system that were intended to make the system more efficient and responsive to merit Reorganization – President Carter succeeded in implementing reforms in the civil service system that were intended to make the system more efficient and responsive to merit

35 Federal Employees and Party Activists The political activities of federal employees are subject to several limits The political activities of federal employees are subject to several limits Federal employees may not strike Federal employees may not strike Classified federal employees may not be party activists, run for a partisan office, become officers in a political organization or delegates to a party convention, or raise funds for a political party or any of its candidates Classified federal employees may not be party activists, run for a partisan office, become officers in a political organization or delegates to a party convention, or raise funds for a political party or any of its candidates

36 Federal Employees and Party Activists Pay and Benefits Issues – Minority groups and women are well represented in most federal agencies, but remain at lower-level jobs Pay and Benefits Issues – Minority groups and women are well represented in most federal agencies, but remain at lower-level jobs

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