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American Politics In a Nutshell. STRUCTURE AGENT INSTITUTIONS ECONOMICSCULTURE.

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Presentation on theme: "American Politics In a Nutshell. STRUCTURE AGENT INSTITUTIONS ECONOMICSCULTURE."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Politics In a Nutshell

2

3 STRUCTURE AGENT INSTITUTIONS ECONOMICSCULTURE

4 STRUCTURE INSTITUTIONS ECONOMICSCULTURE

5 INSTITUTIONS Arend Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, Yale University Press, 1999 Andrew Roberts, What Kind of Democracy Is Emerging in Eastern Europe? Post-Soviet Affairs, 2006, 22(1): 37–64

6 DividedConcentratedinstitutions Concentrate d politics Executive Parties Divided politics Lijphart: Two Dimensions

7 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension How much control can party have over government? http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details HighLo w ConcentratedDivided

8 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details HighLo w ConcentratedDivided Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups

9 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

10 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

11 19461950195419581962196619701974197819821986199019941998 Democrats Republicans Third Parties As compared to the United States, 1946-2001

12 2. Number and size of political parties worldwide

13 3b. Stability of support for political parties worldwide

14 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

15 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

16 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

17 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

18 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

19 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

20 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

21 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups Party Organization http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

22 Multiple Centers of Power Factions One Person Rule KDHSMK HZDS Meciar Smer Fico SDKU Republicans Democrats Perot (1992) Reform (2000) Leadership in political parties: United States and Slovakia SNS Slota None

23 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups Party Organization http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

24 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

25 DividedConcentratedinstitutions Concentrate d politics Divided politics Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension

26 How much can government change policy? Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details Are there mechanisms to preserve the minority's voice/rights? HighLo w

27 Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details HighLo w ConcentratedDivided

28 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

29 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

30 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

31 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

32 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

33 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

34 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

35 Legislative Unity Regional Dependence Bank Dependence Judicial Dependence Constitutional Maleability Lijphart: Unitary-Federal Dimension http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

36 Lijphart: Executive-Parties Dimension Electoral System Party System Cabinets Executive- Legislature Interest Groups http://wikisum.com/w/Lijphart:_Patterns_of_democracy#The_Executive-Parties_Dimension:_Details ConcentratedDivided

37 DividedConcentratedinstitutions Concentrate d politics Divided politics Lijphart: Two Dimensions

38 STRUCTURE INSTITUTIONS ECONOMICS CULTURE

39 Byron E. Shafer and William J.M. Claggett, The Two Majorities, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. Byron E. Shafer and William J.M. Claggett, The American Public Mind: The Issues Structure of Mass Politics in the Postwar United States, Cambridge University Press, 2010. STRUCTURE ECONOMICS CULTURE

40 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

41 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

42 Race/Ethnicity Age Education Class Location Gender Religion

43 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n College Graduates Some College High School Graduates High School Dropouts Rac e African- America n 13% Not African- American 87%

44 Race/Ethnicity Age Education Class Location Gender Religion

45 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n High School Graduates Rac e African- America n 13% Catholic or High Protestant 56% Religion Low Protestan t 21% Not Christian 10%

46 Race/Ethnicity Age Education Class Location Gender Religion

47 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Low Protestan t 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

48 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

49 Against abortion Against defense cuts Against homosexuality For assisting the needy For assisting African-Americans For banning dangerous books Care for others Easy police searches Equal rights not achieved For Affirmative Action Aid To Farmers For National Health Care For prayer in school For retirement programs Limits on free speech For missile defense Peace through strength Provide food/shelter

50 Against abortion Against defense cuts Against homosexuality For assisting the needy For assisting African-Americans For banning dangerous books Care for others Easy police searches Equal rights not achieved For Affirmative Action Aid To Farmers For National Health Care For prayer in school For retirement programs Limits on free speech For missile defense Peace through strength Provide food/shelter

51 Against abortion Against defense cuts Against homosexuality For assisting the needy For assisting African-Americans For banning dangerous books Care for others Easy police searches Equal rights not achieved For Affirmative Action Aid To Farmers For National Health Care For prayer in school For retirement programs Limits on free speech For missile defense Peace through strength Provide food/shelter

52 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African-Americans Equal rights not achieved Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers

53 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African-Americans Equal rights not achieved Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers

54 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African-Americans Equal rights not achieved Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers

55 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African- Americans Equal rights not achieved

56 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African- Americans Equal rights not achieved Cultural Values Behavioral Norms Abortion Homosexuality Womens roles Public Order Crime Death penalty National Integration Immigration Language Social Welfare Behavioral Welfare The Poor Structural Welfare The Young -Education Middle Age -Jobs, Health care The Old -Social Security -Medicare Civil Rights Policy Anti-discrimination Race-conscious Attitudes Foreign Policy National Security Threat assessment Defense spending Foreign engagement

57 Cultural Values Against Abortion Against Homosexuality For Prayer in School Social Welfare Help the needy Provide food/shelter Care for others Civil Liberties Ban dangerous books Limits on Speech Easy police searches Social Insurance For retirement programs For national health care For aid to farmers Foreign Relations Peace through strength Against defense cuts Missile defense Civil Rights For Affirmative Action Assisting African- Americans Equal rights not achieved

58 Cultural Socio-Economic

59 Cultural

60

61 Socio-Economic Cultural

62 Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Socio-Economic Cultural

63 Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

64 SMALL BIG Economic Power 24.9% 26.9% 23.5% 24.7%

65 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

66 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Low Protestan t 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

67 African Americans Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

68 African Americans Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

69 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 4.6% 57.4% 33.3% 4.7% African Americans

70 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Low Protestan t 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

71 Non-Christians Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

72 Non-Christians Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

73 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 9.5% 41.7% 10.9% 38.0% Non-Christians

74 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Low Protestan t 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

75 Low Protestants Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

76 Low Protestants Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power

77 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 48.6% 16.3% 28.1% 8.7% Low Protestants

78 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Low Protestan t 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

79 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Dropouts

80 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL Economic Power High School Dropouts

81 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Dropouts 40.9% 19.3% 29.3% 10.5%

82 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Graduates 25.6% 22.3% 27.9% 24.2%

83 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Some College 25.9% 12.2% 38.0% 23.9%

84 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power College Graduates 46.0% 13.4% 31.4% 9.2%

85 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

86 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Dropouts 40.9% 19.3% 29.3% 10.5%

87 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power High School Graduates 25.6% 22.3% 27.9% 24.2%

88 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Some College 25.9% 12.2% 38.0% 23.9%

89 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power College Graduates 46.0% 13.4% 31.4% 9.2%

90 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Post-College

91 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power - Religion +

92 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power - + Income Education

93 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power - Income + - Education +

94 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

95 2008 Presidential

96 2010 Congressional

97 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

98 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

99 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Low Protestan t 21% Not Christian 10% Religion College Graduate 10% Some College 14% Secondary Grad. 19% Secondary Dropout 12% Educatio n

100 Catholic or High Protestant Low Protestant Not Christian Religio n Rac e African- America n 13% Low Protestan t 21% Religion Overeducated >1% Educatio n College Graduate 10%

101 TRUE IN 2008?

102 African-Americans Hispanics Whites

103

104 Seldom or Never Most Weeks Weekly or More

105 Post-College

106 Women Men

107 Young Old

108

109

110

111

112 Who are you? Demographics What do you think? Attitudes What do you do? Behavior/ Politics

113 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

114 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 31.2% 36.5% 18.9% 13.4% Republicans

115 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power 32.5% 32.6% 19.1% 15.8% Democrats

116 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Democrats Republicans

117 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power Cross Pressured!

118 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

119 Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare & Insurance Security Civil Rights

120 Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare & Insurance Security Civil Rights 2004

121 Cultural Socio- Economic Values Social Welfare & Insurance Security Civil Rights 20042008

122 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power

123 Cultural Power SMALL BIG SMALL BIG Economic Power The Future?

124 Questions ?

125 www.pozorblog.com


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