Presentation on theme: "Research Institute Facilities By Christine Andrews, Karen Gogala & Marja Simpson."— Presentation transcript:
Research Institute Facilities By Christine Andrews, Karen Gogala & Marja Simpson
Horticulture Centre Equipment Laboratory facilities with large working space Trial Site Area Plant Growth Cabinets Large Capacity Dehydrating Oven Cool Room Video and scanner based image analysis system Glasshouses with automatic heating and cooling Steam generator Automatic weather stations
Horticulture Centre Laboratory & Trial Site
Plant Growth Cabinets 1 large cabinet, 2 smaller cabinets Temperature and humidity controlled Lighting intensity variable by switching lamps 24 h timers provide control between instruments
Dehydrating Oven & Cool Room Operating range is +10 o C to o C
Video and scanner based image analysis system Captures images with coloured video camera, Delta-T SCAN splash- protected flatbed scanner WinDIAS and Delta-T SCAN image analysis software analyse images Usage: WinDIAS- Measurement of the area of healthy and diseased plant leaves Delta-T SCAN- Leaf measurement, Root length measurement, object size analysis, eg. soil particles, seeds, measurements from photographs or copies, count objects, eg. seeds
Glasshouses Glasshouse size 3m x 7.5m x 3m Automatic cooling and heating system Winter heating capacity 10 o C overnight, 20 o C day Summer cooling o C Lighting is provided by incandescent and fluorescent lamps which is 24 h timer controlled
Steam Generator Soil and plastic container treatment to control soil borne fungal diseases, nematodes and weeds
Automatic Weather Station 2 stations Records: Wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, solar radiation, logger calculates evaporation Data available online
Soil Shaker The Endecotts EFL 2000 is a vibrating shaker that is used to carry out sieve tests in conjunction with sieve stacks for particle sizing of various material samples. Sizes of sieves available:1.0mm 2.0mm 500micron 250micron 125micron 63micron
Equipment – Research Lab Atomic Absorption Spectrometer UV/Visible Spectrometer Scanning Electron Microscope Fluorescence Microscope PCR System Automontage Microscope GIS System GC/MS HPLC
Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) Measures the amount of light absorbed by atoms Liquid sample aspirated, aerosolized & mixed with gas Ignited in flame Atoms reduced to free state which absorbs light
UV/VIS Spectrophotometer Measures amount of light a sample absorbs A beam of light passes through onto a detector Amount of molecules in a sample can be detected Both UV & visible spectra
Scanning Electron Microscopy Creates magnified images by using electrons instead of light waves Shows 3D images at much higher magnification Samples prepared – sputter coater
Fluorescence Microscopy Sample you want to study is the light source Energy absorbed by atom; it gets excited Electron jumps to a higher energy level Drops back to ground state, emits a photon (fluorescing)
PCR Room Polymerase Chain Reaction is a molecular biological technique for amplifying DNA without using a living organism. PCR is commonly used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of tasks.
Automontage Microscopy Perfectly focused 3D images Increased depth of field software Allows images of small insects almost as good as the specimen itself
GIS System Manages spatial data and associated attributes. It is a computer system capable of integrating, storing, editing, analysing, and displaying geographically- referenced information.
HPLC and GC/MS High Performance Liquid Chromatograph Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Mass Spectrometer
High Performance Liquid Chromatograph Chromatographywhat is it? Liquid Chromatography Basic Operation Equipment used Types of Chromatography Applications for HPLC
What is chromatography? Chromatography –colour and to write Originally described by Tswett in 1906 who devised a method to separate plant pigments using a tube filled with CaCO3. Basically it is a broad range of physical methods used to separate and /or to analyse complex mixtures Components to be separated are distributed between two phases:a stationary phase bed and a mobile phase which flows through the stationary bed. Individual species are retained by the stationary phase (packing) based on various interactions such as surface adsorption, relative solubility of the sample in the mobile phase and charge.
Chromatography LC-mobile phase is a solvent and stationary phase is a packed bed of silica particles.
Liquid Chromatography HPLC is this process conducted at a high velocity and under pressure. Sample can be in an aqueous form or in an organic/aqueous form. Sample is injected onto the column and is pushed through by the mobile phase(eluent) under high pressure. Components are retained and separated on the column.They elute at different times depending on their chemical interaction with the packing in the column. The time at which they elute (retention time) is a characteristic of that compound. After compounds elute,they enter a detector(PDA) which creates an electronic signal. The greater the concentration of the compound, the greater the signal.
Liquid Chromatography Chromatogram
Equipment used Shimadzu HPLC
Types of chromatography Adsorption Ion Exchange
Applications Chemical separations Identification Quantification Purification Cosmetics,energy,food,life sciences pharmaceutical, biomedical, drug detection and identification. Herbicides Carbohydrates in vegetables
Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer
Gas Chromatograph Mobile phase is an inert gas such as helium Sample is injected into a heated injection port, becomes vapourised and travels onto the column by means of the carrier gas. Column is made of fused silica onto which is coated the liquid stationary phase and it is enclosed in a heated zone(oven) Compounds become separated as they interact with the column Variables are temperature,gas flow, and column specifications. Separated compounds identified by specific detector.(FID.NPD,ECD)
Gas Chromatography Schematic diagram
Mass Spectrometer Creates charged particles (ions) from molecules. Analyzes those ions to provide information about the MW of the compound and its chemical structure Many types of MS which allow wide range of analyses. GC/MS is the coupling of GC with MS
GC/MS A. Capillary column interface which connects GC to mass spectrometer B. Sample enters ionization chamber Ionization occurs. A beam of electrons impacts the sample molecules which lose an electron becoming positive (M+) C. A positive potential is applied to repel the + ions out of the ionization chamber and into the mass analyser.(filter)
GC/MS Mass analyser separates the positively charged particles under vacuum according to their mass. Particles then enter a detector which sends information to the computer and resulting chromatograms give a mass spectrum of the sample components. Identification of the compound relies on the fact that every compound has a unique fragmentation pattern.