Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Research Institute Facilities

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Research Institute Facilities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Institute Facilities
By Christine Andrews, Karen Gogala & Marja Simpson

2 Horticulture Centre Equipment
Laboratory facilities with large working space Trial Site Area Plant Growth Cabinets Large Capacity Dehydrating Oven Cool Room Video and scanner based image analysis system Glasshouses with automatic heating and cooling Steam generator Automatic weather stations List of Horticulture Centre facilities

3 Horticulture Centre Laboratory & Trial Site
Slide shows the laboratory with large bench and floor space

4 Plant Growth Cabinets 1 large cabinet, 2 smaller cabinets
Temperature and humidity controlled Lighting intensity variable by switching lamps 24 h timers provide control between instruments Three growth cabinets available, two smaller ones and one large more modern cabinet. All three cabinets are temperature and humidity controlled. Lighting is provided by different types of lamps and intensity can be varied by switching the lamps. All instruments can be controlled be 24h timers

5 Dehydrating Oven & Cool Room
Operating range is +10oC to + 200oC The first photo shows the large capacity dehydrating oven Its operating range is +10 degrees Celsius to 200C. Second picture shows the coolroom.

6 Video and scanner based image analysis system
Captures images with coloured video camera, Delta-T SCAN splash-protected flatbed scanner WinDIAS and Delta-T SCAN image analysis software analyse images Usage: WinDIAS- Measurement of the area of healthy and diseased plant leaves Delta-T SCAN- Leaf measurement, Root length measurement, object size analysis, eg. soil particles, seeds, measurements from photographs or copies, count objects, eg. seeds This video and scanner based image analysis system can captures images with a coloured video camera or with a scanner. There is a splash protected flatbed scanner and a hand held scanner available. There are two software programs that allow images to be analysed. WinDIAS is used for measuring leaf areas, width and lengths of healthy and diseased plants and it can identify the percentage of healthy and diseased area. Delta-T Scan can also be used for measuring leaf areas but is very good for measuring root lengths, thickness, counting seeds or other objects. Samples can be scanned directly or first photographed and then scanned.

7 Glasshouses Glasshouse size 3m x 7.5m x 3m
Automatic cooling and heating system Winter heating capacity 10oC overnight, 20oC day Summer cooling 20-25oC Lighting is provided by incandescent and fluorescent lamps which is 24 h timer controlled The dimensions of the two new glasshouses are 3 high, 7.5 long and 2m wide. Both glasshouses are set up with an automatic cooling and heating system. The capacity of these units are to maintain in winter a minimum of 10 degrees C overnight and 20 degrees during the day. The cooling capacity for summer is to maintain a temperature of degrees. Lighting is provided by incandescent and fluorescent lamps which can be timer controlled.

8 Steam Generator Soil and plastic container treatment to control soil borne fungal diseases, nematodes and weeds The Steam generator is used to recycle used potting mix and plastic pots with the aim to control soil borne fungal diseases, nematodes and weeds.

9 Automatic Weather Station
2 stations Records: Wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, solar radiation, logger calculates evaporation Data available online

10 Soil Shaker The Endecotts EFL 2000 is a vibrating shaker that is used to carry out sieve tests in conjunction with sieve stacks for particle sizing of various material samples. Sizes of sieves available: 1.0mm 2.0mm 500micron 250micron 125micron 63micron

11 Equipment – Research Lab
Atomic Absorption Spectrometer UV/Visible Spectrometer Scanning Electron Microscope Fluorescence Microscope PCR System Automontage Microscope GIS System GC/MS HPLC

12 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS)
Measures the amount of light absorbed by atoms Liquid sample aspirated, aerosolized & mixed with gas Ignited in flame Atoms reduced to free state which absorbs light AAS measures the absorption spectrum of atoms as the name suggests. The instrument is used to identify and quantify the presence of atomic species which have an absorption pattern that is a fingerprint for each element. The fundamentals of operation are a beam of light is passed through a flame containing the atomic element. Certain wavelengths of the beam are absorbed. This is usually done with parallel beams -- one going through the gaseous sample; the other going directly to the spectrometer. The radiation that reaches the measuring part of the instrument passes through a narrow slit and impinges upon a grating (or prism) that separates the radiation spatially according to its wavelength. The separated wavelengths impinge upon a detector which compares the two beams and records the difference in the signal. The technique offers a quick, easy, accurate & highly sensitive means of determining the concentration of elements. Able to detect presence of up to 70 elements at levels ranging from very low (ppm) to the pure metal The lamps we have presently are Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, N, P, K,Na. Combustible gases such as acetylene & air or acetylene & nitrous oxide Flame 2100to 2800C Free atoms absorb light at characteristic wavelengths which are element specific & accurate to nm. To provide element specificity a light beam from a lamp whose cathode is made of the same element being determined is passed through the flame. A device eg photomultiplier detects the reduction of the light intensity due to absorption by the analyte & this can be directly related to the amount of element in the sample. Examples of use: The role of rubidium marked natural enemy refuge in the establishment and movement of Bemisia parasitoids. In this role refuge sites were treated with rubidium – insects were collected and the rubidium conc of insects was determined using flame emission spectroscopy. The aim was to show the movement of the parasitoids – if they came from the overwintering refuges adjacent to the crop or somewhere else. it is used for metals analysis in industrial areas dealing with environmental, chemical manufacturing, clinical, forensic, and food science disciplines.

13 UV/VIS Spectrophotometer
Measures amount of light a sample absorbs A beam of light passes through onto a detector Amount of molecules in a sample can be detected Both UV & visible spectra Measures the amount of ultraviolet & visible light transmitted by a liquid sample. A beam of light is passed through the sample solution & the intensity of light is measured by a detector. By comparing absorbance data to standards of known concentration, the amount of molecules in the solution can be determined. UV/Vis contains a tungsten lamp (white light) & a deuterium light (UV) Used to detect molecules in solutions, presence & concentration, determine the purity of a sample & can look at the changes in a sample over time. Examples of use Mahmuda used this to measure the colour intensity in her flowers. Integrating sphere are a versatile accessory that allows measurements on virtually any solid or liquid. Minimal sample preparation is usually required, with samples often being measured in their original form. Integrating sphere collects light from a wide range of input angles, can correct for inaccuracies due to refraction or light scattering effects. Thick samples also cause problems due to light scatter, refraction and beam distortion. Again, an integrating sphere can compensate for these effects and provide extremely accurate results. An integrating sphere provides an ideal solution for accurate and reproducible measurements on a variety of difficult transmission samples. Even very thick samples and those which scatter and refract the beam can be readily measured in a controlled and precise way.

14 Scanning Electron Microscopy
Creates magnified images by using electrons instead of light waves Shows 3D images at much higher magnification Samples prepared – sputter coater Conventional microscopes use glass lenses to bend light waves & create a magnified image. Images are created without light waves are black & white Samples have to withstand vacuum, be dried & conduct electricity Coated with a thin layer of gold on a sputter coater Put sample in vacuum column, pump out air, electron gun at the top emits a beam of high energy electrons. This travels downward thru a series of magnetic lenses that focus to a very fine spot. Near the bottom a series of coils moves the focussed beam back & forth across the specimen As the electron beam hits the spot, secondary electrons are knocked loose from the surface. A detector counts these electrons & sends the images top an amplifier The final image is built up from the number of electrons emitted from each spot on the sample

15

16 Fluorescence Microscopy
Sample you want to study is the light source Energy absorbed by atom; it gets excited Electron jumps to a higher energy level Drops back to ground state, emits a photon (fluorescing) Technique is based on the phenomenon that certain material emits energy detectable as visible light when irradiated with the light of a specific wavelength. Study specimens which can be made to fluoresce. Sample can be fluorescing in its natural form eg chlorophyll or be treated with fluorescing chemicals The fluorescing areas shine out against a dark background with high contrast. The researchers were able to track the movement of the actinomycete bacteria in the wheat plant by 'tagging' it with a gene for GFP which is picked up by fluorescence microscopy. The green areas show the colonisation of the endosperm of a wheat seed with the bacteria. Example of use Karilyn Gilchrist used this to study the evaluation of pollen tube growth in various hazelnut cultivars 24hrs after pollination in order to assess compatibilty/incompatibility between cultivars. Callose deposits in the pollen tube fluoresce following aniline blue staining of pistil squashes.

17 PCR Room Polymerase Chain Reaction is a molecular biological technique for amplifying DNA without using a living organism. PCR is commonly used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of tasks. Amplifying means creating multiple copies of Tasks such as the detection of hereditary diseases, the identification of genetic fingerprints, the diagnosis of infectious diseases, the cloning of genes, and paternity testing The PCR reaction is carried out in a thermal cycler. This is a machine that heats and cools the reaction tubes within it to the precise temperature required for each step of the reaction Leigh used this technique to determine the presence of phytoplasmas associated with Australian lucerne yellows. Getachew is continuing on with this work

18 Automontage Microscopy
Perfectly focused 3D images Increased depth of field software Allows images of small insects almost as good as the specimen itself Is an image capture system for microscopy using software to produce a high quality 3D image Software that receives a stack of digital images, examines each one for areas that are in focus, then stiches all the in focus bits together to make one image. In effect it allows you to make an image with as much depth of field as you want. Birgit uses this to look at leafhoppers. The scale is 1mm & the picture is clear.

19 GIS System Manages spatial data and associated attributes.
It is a computer system capable of integrating, storing, editing, analysing, and displaying geographically-referenced information. In a more generic sense, GIS is a "smart map" tool that allow users to create interactive queries (user created searches), analyze the spatial information, and edit data. Geographic information systems technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, asset management, development planning, cartography and route planning. For example, a GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times in the event of a natural disaster, or a GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection from pollution. Brian Stone & Cilla Kinross use this equipment in their research.

20 HPLC and GC/MS High Performance Liquid Chromatograph
Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Mass Spectrometer

21 High Performance Liquid Chromatograph
Chromatography—what is it? Liquid Chromatography Basic Operation Equipment used Types of Chromatography Applications for HPLC

22 What is chromatography?
Chromatography –’colour’ and ‘to write” Originally described by Tswett in 1906 who devised a method to separate plant pigments using a tube filled with CaCO3. Basically it is a broad range of physical methods used to separate and /or to analyse complex mixtures Components to be separated are distributed between two phases:a stationary phase bed and a mobile phase which flows through the stationary bed. Individual species are retained by the stationary phase (packing) based on various interactions such as surface adsorption, relative solubility of the sample in the mobile phase and charge.

23 Chromatography LC-mobile phase is a solvent and stationary phase is a packed bed of silica particles.

24 Liquid Chromatography
HPLC is this process conducted at a high velocity and under pressure. Sample can be in an aqueous form or in an organic/aqueous form. Sample is injected onto the column and is pushed through by the mobile phase(eluent) under high pressure. Components are retained and separated on the column.They elute at different times depending on their chemical interaction with the packing in the column. The time at which they elute (retention time) is a characteristic of that compound. After compounds elute,they enter a detector(PDA) which creates an electronic signal. The greater the concentration of the compound, the greater the signal.

25 Liquid Chromatography
Chromatogram

26 Basic Operation

27 Equipment used Shimadzu HPLC

28 Types of chromatography
Adsorption Ion Exchange

29 Carbohydrates in vegetables
Applications Chemical separations Identification Quantification Purification Cosmetics,energy,food,life sciences pharmaceutical, biomedical, drug detection and identification. Carbohydrates in vegetables Herbicides

30 Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS)
Mass Spectrometer

31 Gas Chromatograph Mobile phase is an inert gas such as helium
Sample is injected into a heated injection port, becomes vapourised and travels onto the column by means of the carrier gas. Column is made of fused silica onto which is coated the liquid stationary phase and it is enclosed in a heated zone(oven) Compounds become separated as they interact with the column Variables are temperature,gas flow, and column specifications. Separated compounds identified by specific detector.(FID.NPD,ECD)

32 Gas Chromatography Schematic diagram

33 Mass Spectrometer Creates charged particles (ions) from molecules.
Analyzes those ions to provide information about the MW of the compound and it’s chemical structure Many types of MS which allow wide range of analyses. GC/MS is the coupling of GC with MS

34 GC/MS A. Capillary column interface which connects GC to mass spectrometer B. Sample enters ionization chamber Ionization occurs. A beam of electrons impacts the sample molecules which lose an electron becoming positive (M+) C. A positive potential is applied to repel the + ions out of the ionization chamber and into the mass analyser.(filter)

35 GC/MS Mass analyser separates the positively charged particles under vacuum according to their mass. Particles then enter a detector which sends information to the computer and resulting chromatograms give a mass spectrum of the sample components. Identification of the compound relies on the fact that every compound has a unique fragmentation pattern.

36 GC/MS Mass Spectrum Jamaican coffee

37 Shimadzu GC/MS


Download ppt "Research Institute Facilities"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google